Thursday 15 September
08:00 ESOPRS PRE-MEETING DAY

"Thursday 15 September"

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A10
08:00 - 08:30

Welcome Address

08:00 - 08:06 Introduction. Jacques LAGIER (local organiser ESOPRS 2022) (Pre-Course Speaker, NICE, France)
08:06 - 08:30 New developments in oculoplastic surgery in 2022. Jonathan ROOS (Surgeon) (Pre-Course Speaker, London, United Kingdom), Rachna MURTHY (Oculoplastic & Aesthetic Surgeon) (Pre-Course Speaker, London, United Kingdom), Dyonne HARTONG (oculoplastic and orbital specialist) (Pre-Course Speaker, Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
Room 1
08:30

"Thursday 15 September"

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A11
08:30 - 10:00

Eyelid Malposition Ptosis

Moderators: Dion PARIDAENS (Orbital Surgeon, Head of Department) (Rotterdam, The Netherlands), Francesco QUARANTA-LEONI (Rome, Italy)
08:30 - 08:45 Lower eyelid - Entropion and ectropion: The same entity? Philippe IMBERT (Oculoplastic Surgeon) (Pre-Course Speaker, TOULOUSE, France)
08:45 - 09:00 Lower eyelid - What is the ideal spacer for managing a lower eyelid retraction? Miguel GONZALEZ-CANDIAL (Chief) (Pre-Course Speaker, BARCELONA, Spain)
09:00 - 09:15 Upper eyelid - Ptosis surgery: do not forget the aesthetics. Isabelle LARRE (PH) (Pre-Course Speaker, Reims, France)
09:15 - 09:30 How performing a regional anesthesia in oculoplastics. Stéphane GINDRE (Pre-Course Speaker, Nice, France)
09:30 - 09:45 Inner canthus - Medial canthoplasty: a surgical challenge. Pierre-Vincent JACOMET (Deputy Head of Department) (Pre-Course Speaker, PARIS, France)
09:45 - 10:00 Discussion.
Room 1
10:00 COFFEE BREAK & EXHIBITION AREA - VISIT OF THE EPOSTERS
10:30

"Thursday 15 September"

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A13
10:30 - 12:30

Eyelid and Conjunctival Malignancies

Moderators: Eva DAFGARD KOPP (Associate Professor, Karolinska Institutet , Consultant Oculoplastic and Orbital Surgeon) (Stockholm, Sweden), Jacques LASUDRY (Chef de clinique) (Brussels, Belgium), David H. VERITY (London, United Kingdom)
10:30 - 10:45 Conjunctival malignancies: what all oculoplastic surgeons should know ? Jean-Pierre CAUJOLLE (PH) (Pre-Course Speaker, NICE, France)
10:45 - 11:00 Locally advanced conjunctival malignancies: when the oculoplastic surgeon plays a role. Arnaud MARTEL (doctor) (Pre-Course Speaker, Nice, France)
11:00 - 11:15 Why should I manage benign eyelid tumors with Argon/532nm laser? Jean-Marc RUBAN (Pre-Course Speaker, Agon Coutainville, France)
11:15 - 11:30 Intraoperative surgical margins assessment in eyelid malignancies. Ioannis LIOLIOS (Pre-Course Speaker, NICE, France)
11:30 - 11:45 Controversies in eyelid malignancies with anterior orbital involvement: Conservative surgery first. Eva DAFGARD KOPP (Associate Professor, Karolinska Institutet , Consultant Oculoplastic and Orbital Surgeon) (Pre-Course Speaker, Stockholm, Sweden)
11:45 - 12:00 Controversies in eyelid malignancies with anterior orbital involvement: Exenteration first. David H. VERITY (Pre-Course Speaker, London, United Kingdom)
12:00 - 12:15 Controversies in eyelid malignancies with anterior orbital involvement: New targeted therapies / immunotherapy first. Jacques LASUDRY (Chef de clinique) (Pre-Course Speaker, Brussels, Belgium)
12:15 - 12:30 Controversies in eyelid malignancies with anterior orbital involvement: Clinical case challenge. Arnaud MARTEL (doctor) (Pre-Course Speaker, Nice, France), Eva DAFGARD KOPP (Associate Professor, Karolinska Institutet , Consultant Oculoplastic and Orbital Surgeon) (Pre-Course Speaker, Stockholm, Sweden), Jacques LASUDRY (Chef de clinique) (Pre-Course Speaker, Brussels, Belgium)
Room 1
12:30 LUNCH IN THE EXHIBITION AREA
14:00

"Thursday 15 September"

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A15
14:00 - 15:15

Sockets and Orbit

Moderators: George CHARONIS (OCULOPLASTICS SURGEON) (KALLITHEA, Greece), Miguel GONZALEZ-CANDIAL (Chief) (BARCELONA, Spain)
14:00 - 14:15 Socket - Eye evisceration: personalized surgical technique. Dion PARIDAENS (Orbital Surgeon, Head of Department) (Pre-Course Speaker, Rotterdam, The Netherlands)
14:15 - 14:30 Socket - Orbital lipofilling: surgical technique and results. Olivier GALATOIRE (Pre-Course Speaker, PARIS, France)
14:30 - 14:45 Socket - Current management of orbital implant exposure. Eric LONGUEVILLE (Ophthalmologist/Plastic and reconstructive Surgeon) (Pre-Course Speaker, BORDEAUX, France)
14:45 - 15:00 Orbit - Management of tumors located at the orbital apex. Jacques LAGIER (local organiser ESOPRS 2022) (Pre-Course Speaker, NICE, France)
15:00 - 15:15 Orbit - Place of the optic nerve sheath fenestration in 2022. Diego STRIANESE (Pre-Course Speaker, Naples, Italy)
Room 1
15:15

"Thursday 15 September"

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A16
15:15 - 16:00

Lacrimal

Moderators: Daniel EZRA (United Kingdom), Ulrich SCHAUDIG (Chief) (HAMBURG, Germany)
15:15 - 15:25 Endonasal DCR: always first. Daniel EZRA (Pre-Course Speaker, United Kingdom)
15:25 - 15:35 External DCR: always first. Jacques LAGIER (local organiser ESOPRS 2022) (Pre-Course Speaker, NICE, France), Edouard FEVRIER (Interne) (Pre-Course Speaker, Nice, France)
15:35 - 15:45 Current indications of lacrimal stents. Jean-Marc RUBAN (Pre-Course Speaker, Agon Coutainville, France)
15:45 - 15:55 Management of canalicular obstructions. Francesco QUARANTA-LEONI (Pre-Course Speaker, Rome, Italy)
15:55 - 16:00 Discussion.
Room 1
16:00 COFFEE BREAK & EXHIBITION AREA - VISIT OF THE EPOSTERS
16:30

"Thursday 15 September"

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A18
16:30 - 17:55

Aesthetic, Hyaluronic Acid And Toxin

Moderators: Thierry MALET (oculoplastic surgeon) (MARSEILLE, France), Eric SARFATI (Ophtalmologue) (TOULON, France)
16:30 - 16:45 Toxin in the periorbital area. Dan GEORGESCU (Pre-Course Speaker, Romania)
16:45 - 17:00 Upper blepharoplasty. Olivier GALATOIRE (Pre-Course Speaker, PARIS, France)
17:00 - 17:15 Lower blepharoplasty. Jérôme DELAS (Pre-Course Speaker, NICE, France)
17:15 - 17:30 Lipostructure of the periorbital area. Thierry MALET (oculoplastic surgeon) (Pre-Course Speaker, MARSEILLE, France)
17:30 - 17:45 Hyaluronic acid in the periorbital area. Frederic BRACCINI (Director) (Pre-Course Speaker, NICE, France)
17:45 - 17:55 Use of Botulinum Toxin for the Correction of Mild Ptosis. Eric SARFATI (Ophtalmologue) (Pre-Course Speaker, TOULON, France)
Room 1
18:30 WELCOME COCKTAIL IN THE EXHIBITION AREA Room 1
Friday 16 September
08:00 ESOPRS MAIN MEETING - DAY 1
08:15

"Friday 16 September"

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A20
08:15 - 08:30

Welcome Address and Opening

08:15 - 08:30 Welcome Address and Opening. Jacques LAGIER (local organiser ESOPRS 2022) (Congress Speaker, NICE, France), Eva DAFGARD KOPP (Associate Professor, Karolinska Institutet , Consultant Oculoplastic and Orbital Surgeon) (Congress Speaker, Stockholm, Sweden)
Mr Chemla (Nice, France)
Room 1
08:30

"Friday 16 September"

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A21
08:30 - 10:00

Oral Communications
Eyelid

Moderators: Eva DAFGARD KOPP (Associate Professor, Karolinska Institutet , Consultant Oculoplastic and Orbital Surgeon) (Stockholm, Sweden), Miguel GONZALEZ-CANDIAL (Chief) (BARCELONA, Spain)
08:30 - 10:00 #32098 - OP01 Quantitative volumetric study of different periocular tumor models.
OP01 Quantitative volumetric study of different periocular tumor models.

Background: Three-dimensional (3D) imaging is increasingly popular in surgical planning and postoperative evaluation. However, the volumetric changes in the periorbital region were rarely assessed, especially for tumors. Therefore, we measured the volume of customized tumor models using 3D stereophotogrammetry and evaluated their validity and reproducibility.

Methods: Sixty-eight healthy adult volunteers were enrolled, and five tumor models with different colors and sizes were chosen to be placed in the periocular area. Furthermore, 3D facial images were taken by a 3D imaging system. Lastly, we measured the tumor models' volume and assessed the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability.

 

Results: Highly reliable outcomes were demonstrated in both Caucasians and Asians for the gray model with a volume of 55.00 mm3. In Caucasians, the intra- and inter-rater intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were 0.981 and 0.899, mean absolute difference (MAD) 1.446 mm3 and 3.327 mm3, relative error measurement (REM) 3.497% and 8.120%, technical error of measurement (TEM) 1.450 mm3 and 3.105 mm3, and relative technical error of measurement (rTEM) 3.506% and 7.580%. In Asians, the intra- and inter-rater ICC, MAD, REM, TEM, and rTEM were respectively 0.968 and 0.844, 1.974 and 4.067 mm3, 4.772% and 9.526%, 2.100 and 4.302 mm3, as well as 5.076% and 10.076%. Besides, Caucasians have the highest reliability in the inner canthus with opening eyes, while Asians show the same trend with the eyes closed.

 

Conclusions: This is the first study to validate the reproducibility of three-dimensional volumetric measurements for periocular tumor models. Three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry might be more suitable to measure gray-pigmented masses' volume with a sizeable dimension, especially at the inner canthus.


Wanlin FAN (Cologne, Germany), Ludwig M. HEINDL
08:30 - 10:00 #30792 - OP02 Primary cemiplimab treatment for orbital squamous cell carcinoma is effective and may alleviate the need for orbital exenteration.
OP02 Primary cemiplimab treatment for orbital squamous cell carcinoma is effective and may alleviate the need for orbital exenteration.

   Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of cemiplimab, a Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) protein inhibitor, for the treatment of periocular locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma (POLA-SCC) with orbital invasion.

   Design: Multicenter real-world retrospective study.

   Participants: Patients with biopsy-proven POLA-SCC (AJCC T4) with orbital invasion who were treated with cemiplimab at one of four tertiary medical centers in Israel in 2019-2022.

   Methods: Demographic, clinical, and outcome data were collected and analyzed from the patients’ electronic medical records.

   Main Outcome Measures: Rate and degree of patient response to treatment and rate of organ preservation.

   Results: The cohort included 13 patients, 8 males and 5 females, of median age 76 years (IQR 65-86). The median duration of treatment was 5.0 months (IQR 3.5-10.5) and the median follow-up time, 15.0 months (IQR 10.5-30). The overall response rate was 69.2%. Complete response was documented in seven patients (53.8%), partial response in two (15.4%), stable disease in one (7.7%), and progressive disease in two (15.4%); in one patient (7.7%), response was not evaluable. Six complete responders (46.1% of the cohort) received no further treatment and did not have a recurrence during an average follow-up of 6.14 (±6.9) months from treatment cessation. None of the patients underwent orbital exenteration. The majority of adverse events were mild (grade 1), except for a moderate increase in creatinine level (grade 2), severe bullous dermatitis (grade 3), and myocarditis (grade 5) in one patient each. Four patients (30.7%) died during the follow-up period, all of whom had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score of 4 at presentation.

   Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date on cemiplimab therapy for POLA-SCC with orbital invasion. Treatment was shown to be effective, with an overall response rate of 69.2%. Cemiplimab holds promise for the treatment of patients with tumors invading the orbit as it may alleviate the need for orbital exenteration


Alon TIOSANO, Meydan BEN ISHAI (Tel Aviv, Israel), Yaccov CNAANY, Gal MARKEL, Noga KURMAN, Aron POPOVTZER, Gil BAR SELA, Guy BEN SIMON, Assaf GERSHONI, Iftach YASSUR
08:30 - 10:00 #32183 - OP03 Lower eyelid margin reconstruction: results of 5 different techniques.
OP03 Lower eyelid margin reconstruction: results of 5 different techniques.

Purpose:  While there are many reports describing eyelid reconstructive procedures, outcome measures are often inconsistent between studies. The literature contains little information regarding comparative results of different operations. In this project we used standardized criteria to evaluate five methods for repairing the lower eyelid margin.

 

Methods: The retrospective study included 178 patients undergoing surgery between 2005–2020. Outcomes were evaluated (photographic review) by 3 oculoplastic observers masked to procedure type, with and without knowledge of the eyelid defect.

 

Results:  All patients achieved a good-excellent functional result and 90.4% were asymptomatic after surgery. Tarsoconjunctival flaps were associated with greater a need for subsequent interventions (p<0.001) and anterior lamellar irregularity (p<0.001). Semicircular flaps had a higher incidence of lateral canthal deformity (p<0.001), but less eyelash disruption than other flap/graft techniques (p<0.001). Mean cosmetic scores were similar for dermal matrix grafts, semicircular, and sliding tarsal flaps; each rating higher than tarsoconjunctival flaps (p≤0.05). Comparing results for similarly sized defects (9-15mm), semicircular and sliding tarsal flaps graded better than dermal matrix grafts (p≤0.005) and tarsoconjunctival flaps (p≤0.02).  

 

Conclusions: Among all procedures, good-excellent functional (100%) and cosmetic (87.1%) outcomes were achieved in most patients. Semicircular flaps were effective for medium sized defects that could not be closed primarily, creating a continuous lash line, although with a higher incidence of canthal deformities. Sliding tarsal flaps were useful for shallow wounds of varying widths. Single-staged dermal matrix grafts provided similar results as tarsoconjunctival flaps. Subsequent interventions were more frequent after tarsoconjunctival flaps than other methods.


Philip CUSTER (St Louis, USA), Robi MAAMARI, Tiffany HO, Steven COUCH
08:30 - 10:00 #32331 - OP04 Periorbital reconstruction method by tunneled unipedicular orbicular flap, or "paddle flap”.
OP04 Periorbital reconstruction method by tunneled unipedicular orbicular flap, or "paddle flap”.

Background

Carcinological surgery of small palpebral tumors is most often performed using a myocutaneous flap composed of the orbicularis muscle and the overlying skin. This flap respects the nature of the tissues and has an excellent vascularization. It is most often uni or bi-pediculated and harvested from a dermatochalasis. 

The authors describe here a method of unipediculated and tunneled myocutaneous orbicularis flap, or "paddle flap”, allowing reconstruction of the tissues at a distance. 

 

Methods 

This is a pedicled flap, the proximal part of which (composed only of the orbicularis thanks to a shaving) is tunneled under the skin to reconstruct the defect at its distal end (composed of the orbicularis and the overlying skin). 

The analysis includes 40 patients over a period of 5 years, with various carcinological and post-traumatic periorbital reconstructions.

 

Results

During the entire follow-up period, the aesthetic and functional criteria were met. 

Only 2 complications were described: a necrosis of the flap due to its tension, and an edema of the flap by strangulation in its tunnel. 

 

Conclusion

This is the first time in the literature that this type of flap has been described. 

The myocutaneous orbicular “paddle flap” can be used in many palpebral and periorbital areas, and gives good results. 

The two key points to remember to avoid complications are its length and the diameter of the tunnel. 


Victor DESFEUX, Eric SARFATI, Victor DESFEUX (Marseille)
08:30 - 10:00 #31292 - OP05 Is there a metrical correspondence between surgical margins and histopathology clear peripheral margins on direct wide local excision (WLE) of periocular BCC?
OP05 Is there a metrical correspondence between surgical margins and histopathology clear peripheral margins on direct wide local excision (WLE) of periocular BCC?

Purpose: To assess the metrical correspondence between surgical margins in WLE on periocular BCC and metrical histopathology minimal clear peripheral margins.

Methods: 46 surgeries in 41 patients with periocular BCC treated with WLE during 5 months had histologically-metrical measured tumour clear margins compared with surgical margins.

Results: Mean patient’s age was 75, nearly equal gender representation. All patients were White British, skin Fitzpatrick type 1-2. Nodular subtype represented 67.4% of BCCs. All but one case reached peripheral clear margins greater than 1.2mm (mean 3.5mm). 

50% BCC located at lower eyelid, 15.2% at medial canthus and 8.7% at lateral canthus. Tumour sizes varied from 1-24mm (mean 9.24mm).

Mean surgical margins, histological peripheral margins, histological clear margins were (3.24mm, 3.5mm, 3.24mm)

Although the mean histological minimal clear margins and mean surgical margin were closer in metrical values (3.24mm, 3.5mm respectively) their correlation was no statistically significant (p=0.79) when analysed by Pearson correlation coefficient, “r” near to zero (r= 0.039).

A sample of 12 cases with tumour at the eyelid margin with tarsal plate involvement had a positive correlation with wider histological clear margins than surgical margins, proven to be statically significance (p=0.024), Pearson “r” of 0.64.

No correlation between the two variables was found when looking into subgroups: tumour macroscopic size, patient’s age, different pathologists reporting, tumour clinical edges demarcation or tumour subtype.

Conclusions: 

No metrical correlation between the two variables was found: surgical margins and histological minimal clear peripheral margins. 

Tumours at the lid margin involving the tarsal plate has a positive Pearson correlation, statistically significant, higher clear histological margins than the surgical margins, proven unnecessary excision of healthy tissue. 

WLE is safe and efficient in obtaining clear margins ( 93.47%). However 41.3% of cases had clear histological margins far wider than the surgical margins, proven to be a no spare healthy tissue procedure .

Tumour involving the lid margin/tarsal plate and cases with associated ectropion may benefit to have MMS as first surgical option as spare tissue technique.


Victor PAIUSCO (London, United Kingdom), Murta FABIOLA
08:30 - 10:00 #32403 - OP06 Sebaceous carcinoma treated with mohs micrographic surgery.
OP06 Sebaceous carcinoma treated with mohs micrographic surgery.

Sebaceous Carcinoma (SC) is a rare malignant tumor frequently affecting the head and neck region,  representing only 0.7% of skin cancers. It is the third most common eyelid malignancy and periorbital cases have a greater likelihood of regional metastasis. Surgical extirpation is the treatment of choice and may be achieved through conventional excision or Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). 

This study aimed to characterize tumor characteristics and outcomes in SC patients treated with MMS at a single institution.Patients with biopsy-proven SC treated with MMS from January 1, 2005 through August 17, 2020 were identified. Clinical records were reviewed and data pertaining to demographics, tumor characteristics and treatment was collected. The primary outcomes were tumor recurrence and metastasis.  Secondary outcomes included tumor location, subclinical spread, number of stages required for clear margins and reconstruction techniques. 

Fourty-nine patients with a mean age of 67 years met the inclusion criteria. All had sebaceous carcinoma of the face and scalp. The majority (94%) identified as Caucasian, more than half  (59%) were male and tumor location varied with most common being the periorbital region, cheek, and nasal ala. 

The majority of the patients (68%) were classified as stage 1 and 94% were Breslow stage 2. No patients had metastatic recurrence and only one patient, with genetic predisposition for sebaceous lesions, experienced local recurrence. All tumors involving the eyelids required coordinated reconstruction by an oculoplastic surgeon. 

Our cohort of SC patients treated with MMS is one of the largest with longest follow-up that has been described from a single institution with only one episode of recurrence. The tissue-sparing approach of MMS may be especially beneficial for SC cases involving the face. Overall, our findings demonstrate that MMS is an effective treatment option for SC, with a lower risk of recurrence. 


Elana MEER, Gabriela LAHAIE LUNA (Philadelphia, USA), Jeremy ETZKORN, Christopher MILLER, Cesar BRICENO
08:30 - 10:00 #32508 - OP07 Periocular management and reconstruction of medial canthal chemical burns following assault.
OP07 Periocular management and reconstruction of medial canthal chemical burns following assault.

Methods: 

Retrospective chart review of all patients requiring medial canthal eyelid reconstruction following chemical burns at the largest specialist London burns unit, 2019-2022. 

 

Clinical record review, photograph analysis, managementprinciples, surgical technique, are presented with relevant illustrative clinical images and decision making flow charts

 

Results

Chemical burns represent 2.1%-6.5% of burn centre admissions.

Superficial second-degree eyelid burns were managed conservatively with lubricants and antibiotics.

Five medial canthal-eyelids of four patients, over a three year period required surgical intervention for deep secondary and third degree burns.

Interventions included debridement in 4/5 eyelids. Time to debridement was 10-22 days (mean 13 days). Split thickness grafts were used initially in three eyelids due to poor vascular donor bed. Mean number of surgical interventions was 2.5 (range 1-5). All patients had good functional eyelid opening/closure, healthy ocular surfaces and excellent visual acuity at most recent follow-up. 

 

 

Conclusions:

Medial canthal burns represent a specific challenge due to the dynamic eyelid function and junction of eyelid nasal and brow tissues. 

Early debridement and reconstruction is indicated in cases of deep second degree or third degree burns, to preserve anatomy and function of the eyelids and prevent severe cicatrising sequelae.

Concurrent corneal injury frequently co-exits requiring amniotic membrane grafting. Optimal outcomes can be achieved with effective multi-disciplinary management involving oculoplastic surgeons, corneal surgeons and burns plastic surgeons.


Aoife NAUGHTON (London, United Kingdom), Manvi SOBTI, Richard SCAWN
08:30 - 10:00 #32268 - OP08 Evaluating patient satisfaction of an oculoplastic nurse practitioner led minor surgery service.
OP08 Evaluating patient satisfaction of an oculoplastic nurse practitioner led minor surgery service.

Objective

To assess patient satisfaction of a nurse led minor surgery service.

Method

Retrospective audit of patient satisfaction with an oculoplastic nurse led minor surgery service over two-year period. 92 patients treated by a single oculoplastic nurse practitioner were sent a questionnaire to assess their level of satisfaction with having an ophthalmic operation performed by a nurse, and with their overall experience of the service.

Patients requiring minor surgery were all assessed and listed by a doctor. Procedures were all performed by the oculoplastic nurse practitioner in an outpatient setting. Procedures performed include incisional and excisional biopsies, incision and curettage of meibomian cysts, and insertion of Mini-Monoka® stents.

Results

Of 92 patients retrospectively sent a questionnaire to assess their level of satisfaction, there were 42 respondents.

The audit results show that 21% of these patients were satisfied and 79% were very satisfied with having received treatment by a nurse, and 100% would be happy to be treated by the oculoplastic nurse again. 21% were satisfied with their overall experience and the service they received, and 88% were very satisfied.

Discussion

Ophthalmology is significantly affected by rising demand due to demographic changes and this has been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, with a need for service transformation to address the lack of capacity and reduce patient waiting times. UK national recommendations underpin the importance of evolution in the role of non-medical health professionals such as nurses, orthoptists and optometrists, expanding to perform advanced roles.

We report high rates of patient satisfaction and acceptance of an oculoplastic nurse led minor surgery service. The introduction of this service has increased the capacity and reduced the waiting times for procedures undertaken in the oculoplastic service at Buckinghamshire NHS Trust. This audit shows evidence in support of nurse practitioners performing minor ophthalmic procedures.


Alice CRANSTON (Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom), Hazel NYACK-KASEKE, Fiona JAZAYERI
08:30 - 10:00 #32470 - OP09 Autologous Dermal Grafts in oculoplastic surgery.
Autologous Dermal Grafts in oculoplastic surgery.

Background: One of the greatest challenges in plastic and reconstructive surgery of the orbit and the periorbital region lies in the insufficiency of the orbital and/or periocular soft tissues, frequently requiring the use of a variety of grafts. Autologous dermal graft has been used in eyelid retraction, orbital implant expositions and paralytic eyelids. Only few series have been reported in literature.

Purpose: To report our experience in the use of autologous dermal graft in a variety of oculoplastic indications.

Methods: Retrospective cases serie.

The dermis graft was obtained from the para umbilical or the buttock region. We reviewed the indications and the surgical results of the use of dermis graft in oculoplastic surgery.

Results: Thirty-seven (37) patients were included. Dermis graft was used to treat thyroid-associated eyelid retraction in 5 cases, paralytic eyelid in 8 cases and as a spacer in retracted eyelid with orbital prostheses in 10 cases. In orbital indications, dermis graft was used to treat recent and  mild orbital implants expositions without infection in 12 cases. Finally, we also used the dermis as filler tissue for the treatment of dark circles in cosmetic surgery (2 cases). The cosmetics and functional results were good in all patients. In paralytic lagophthalmos, the occlusion was sufficient to protect the cornea in all cases. No donor site complications were encountered.

Conclusions: Autologous Dermis graft seems to be a safe, a good and a cheap option in a variety of oculoplastic applications. It may be useful in orbital and eyelid surgery. It provides an adequate rigidity with an excellent pliability to be a used as a spacing material in surgical correction of eyelid retraction. In orbital surgery, it effectively and definitively solves the exposure of non-infected balls and the retraction of dead ends. Finally, in aesthetics applications, the dermal graft seems to be a promising material for treating dark circles. Long term evaluation is required in this latter indication.


Narjess BEN RAYANA (Sousse - TUNISIA, Tunisia), Leila KNANI
08:30 - 10:00 #31618 - OP10 Triamcinolone Acetate injections for upper eyelid retraction in active Graves Orbitopathy.
OP10 Triamcinolone Acetate injections for upper eyelid retraction in active Graves Orbitopathy.

Triamcinolone acetate (TCA) injections have been described as an effective treatment for upper eyelid retraction in active Graves Orbitopathy (GO).

 

Methods

We performed a retrospective cohort study of consecutive GO patients undergoing upper eyelid TCA injection. Baseline information including patient demographics and thyroid diagnosis was ascertained. The change in eyelid position following TCA injection using Marginal Reflex Distance 1/Palpebral aperture (MRD1/PA ratio) was measured and the Clinical Activity Score (CAS), Gorman score and intra-operative and post-operative complications were recorded.

 

Results

16 patients (24 eyes) with a median age 44.5 years (range 26-68 years) were included. 82% (13/16) had Graves Hyperthyroidism. 47% (7/15) were either current or ex-smokers. 83% (14/16) had received selenium supplementation and 38% (6/16) had previous systemic immunosuppression. The mean CAS score reduced from 1.45 pre-treatment to 0.45 post-treatment.  The mean Gorman score remained unchanged at 0.4. The mean MRD1/PA ratio reduced from 0.45 pre-treatment to 0.43 post-treatment. There was no increase in IOP of more than 3mmHg post-treatment. 67% (10/15) reported improvement in appearance and ocular comfort post-treatment. There was 1 case (6.3%) of transient skin depigmentation.

 

Conclusion

Upper eyelid TCA injections for upper eyelid retraction appears to improve symptoms with minimal side effects in patients who have unstable GO and thyroid status when other rehabilitative surgical options are limited. The exact therapeutic effect is difficult to quantify in a real world setting of other concomitant therapy.


Simrun VIRDEE (London, United Kingdom), Arun KIRUPAKARAN, Ahmad AZIZ, Vickie LEE
08:30 - 10:00 #32158 - OP11 Lipostructure after orbital decompression in thyroid associated orbitopathy: Case series.
OP11 Lipostructure after orbital decompression in thyroid associated orbitopathy: Case series.

OBJECTIVE: 

The purpose of this study is to report our experience with the use of autologous fat grafting in aesthetic rehabilitation after orbital decompression for thyroid associated orbitopathy.   

 

MATERIAL AND METHOD: 

A retrospective study was conducted in our specialist centre in patients with thyroid associated orbitopathy (TAO)undergoing lipostructure following orbital decompression. The data collected included: the number of orbital walls previously decompressed, the volume and the site injected, the donor area, the operative protocol, the number of procedures required, any associated palpebral surgery, and postoperative complications. The aesthetic result before and after the operation was studied on photographs by an external consultant. 

RESULTS:

10 patients were selected, i.e. 17 orbital decompressions, 11 of which concerned the 3 orbital walls. The average age was 52 years. The surgical technique was identical for all patients. 6 patients required a single operation to obtain a satisfactory postoperative volume. 4 patients required further lipostructures. The average follow-up ranged from 2 to 5 years. The volumes injected varied from 1 to 4 cc depending on the area (supra tarsal crease, lower eyelid, and malar). The donor sites were mainly the posterior external aspect of the thigh (9 patients) or abdominal fat (1 patient).  No patient had a postoperative complication. Pre- and postoperative photos were taken for each patient. Aesthetic improvement was satisfactory in 80% of cases.  

DISCUSSION:

Orbito-palpebral lipostructure is a treatment of choice in the aesthetic rehabilitation of patients undergoing orbital decompression surgery. It can be associated with the correction of upper or lower palpebral retraction, and allows the treatment of the palpebral hollow frequently associated with fatty hypertrophy of the palpebral pockets in dysthyroid orbitopathy. In our experience, this autologous tissue graft is preferred to the injection of hyaluronic acid because of its longer lasting effects and better tolerance. 

 CONCLUSION:

Orbito-palpebral lipostructure is a tool of choice in the therapeutic arsenal of aesthetic rehabilitation of Thyroid associated orbitopathy after orbital decompression

 


Barbara MONJANEL (PARIS)
Dr Olivier Galatoire, Dr Pierre-Vincent Jacomet, Dr Mathieu Zmuda. Fondation Adolphe de Rothschild. Paris.
08:30 - 10:00 #32296 - OP12 To develop a protocol for the medical management of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis.
OP12 To develop a protocol for the medical management of superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study conducted at a tertiary ophthalmic center in Kochi, from 2011 to June 2022, identified patients with dysthyroid ophthalmopathy who had superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis (SLK). Patients were divided into 3 treatment groups – 1st episode cases, recurrent cases, and relapsed cases. Patients from all groups were started on topical steroids and lubricants. Bandage contact lenses were given to severe 1st episode cases and recurrent SLK cases. N-acetyl cysteine drops and Cyclosporine drops were added to the recurrent group. Patients were followed up for 1 month in first-episode cases and up to 1 year in recurrent/relapsed cases.  

Results: Of the 232 cases of dysthyroid ophthalmopathy identified, 7 (3.01%) were noted to have SLK. All 7 patients (100 %) showed complete remission. 3 (42.8 %) of 7 patients showed remission with the use of topical steroids and lubricants. 3 patients (42.8 %) showed recurrent SLK in whom treatment was reinitiated with additional cyclosporine drops, and N-acetyl cysteine drops. 1 patient (14.28 %) had relapsed SLK in whom topical steroids and lubricants were tapered off gradually. 

Discussion: Gradual tapering of steroids is the key to the complete remission of SLK. Bandage contact lenses are the second line of treatment as they reduce friction between the upper lid and superior limbus, and maintain a stable precorneal tear film. N-acetyl cysteine is an antioxidant and scavenger of free radicals. Topical Cyclosporine A is an immunomodulatory agent that acts as an adjuvant to steroids in controlling surface inflammation.

Conclusion: The mainstay of treatment is the gradual tapering off of topical steroids. The second line of treatment involves the insertion of a bandage contact lens in the affected eye. N-acetyl cysteine drops and Cyclosporine A drops comprise the final line of treatment.


Sarah GEORGE (Kochi, India), Marian PAULY
08:30 - 10:00 #32185 - OP13 Patient Satisfaction of Teleoculoplastics: a survey of 1215 patients over 2 years.
OP13 Patient Satisfaction of Teleoculoplastics: a survey of 1215 patients over 2 years.

Introduction

Teleoculoplastics has undergone rapid acceleration over the past year, archetyping the new normal of healthcare consultations. However, engagement and uptake are heavily reliant on patient experiences, which may inevitably be the limiting factor to achieving widespread adoption. We describe an analysis of a satisfaction survey assessing patients’ experience of teleoculoplastics in our ophthalmic tertiary centre. 

 

Methods

Video consultation was set up for follow-up and newly referred general adnexal patients using ‘Attend Anywhere’(Attend Anywhere Pty Ltd, Victoria, Australia). This platform was accessed via URL in a web browser on a device. After the consultation, patients were sent an online survey to complete. The survey was carried out over 2 years between 1st June 2020 and 10th June 2022.  

 

Results

1215 patients were included in the survey. Of these 61%(n=739) were female and 39%(n=476) were male. The mean age was 49.8 years (range1 month-101 years). 40%(n=494) were in current employment. Laptop device(43%) and Google Chrome browser(56%) were most commonly used followed by mobile phone(31%). 

 

The majority rated the video(86%) and sound quality(81%) positively as excellent or good with only 5%(n=56) rating the quality as poor. Patients reported high ease of accessibility with 88%(n=1170) agreeing they were able to access the consultation easily and 84%(n=1017) were satisfied with waiting times. 33%(n=396) preferred video to face-to-face consultations, 43%(n=524) were equivocal and only 24% preferred in-person. 72%(n=869) preferred video to telephone consultations. 

 

63% agreed that video consultations should continue even after social distancing measures ended and 72% would recommend video consultations to others.

 

Conclusion 

We have demonstrated that our video-based telemedicine consultations have a high satisfaction rate being easily accessible, for a wide-ranging age group with acceptable waiting times. Interestingly, there was preference for video over telephone consultations demonstrating that patients continue to value the personal aspect of seeing a clinician’s face during a consultation. 

 


Radhika Pooja PATEL (London, United Kingdom), Laura AH-KYE, Peter B. M. THOMAS, Swan KANG
08:30 - 10:00 Time for questions and discussion.
Room 1
10:00

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A22
10:00 - 10:20

Keynote Lecture I

10:00 - 10:20 Lower eyelid retractors: entropion ectropion. Hirohiko KAKIZAKI (Keynote Speaker, Aichi, Japan)
Dr. Hirohiko Kakizaki, MD, PhD, is a professor at Aichi Medical University (Japan), organizing the department of Oculoplastic, Orbital & Lacrimal Surgery.
He graduated from Osaka City University Medical School in 1996.
Prof. Kakizaki completed his fellowships in Eyelid, Orbital and Lacrimal Surgeries under Mr. Raman Malhotra at the Queen Victoria Hospital (UK, 2007 & 2008) and Prof. Dinesh Selva at the University of Adelaide (Australia, 2008).
He is a past president of the Asia-Pacific & Japanese Societies of Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, editorial board members of “OPRS (Journal of American Society of OPRS)”, and “Orbit (Journal of European society of OPRS)”.
He is enthusiastic in education, in which he has trained more than 10 domestic and 40 overseas fellows.
He has published more than 300 English peer reviewed articles, more than 150 Japanese articles and 7 Japanese textbooks.
Mainly its recent anatomical confirmation of two layers of lower eyelid retractors make it possible to conceive of the role of each of these layers in the stability of the two palpebral lamellae and their involvement in the pathogenesis of the age-related lower eyelid malpositions.
10:00 - 10:20 Introduced by:. Philippe IMBERT (Oculoplastic Surgeon) (Chairperson, TOULOUSE, France)
Room 1
10:20 COFFEE BREAK & EXHIBITION AREA - VISIT OF THE EPOSTERS
10:40

"Friday 16 September"

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A24
10:40 - 12:40

Oral Communications
Eyelid & Aesthetics

Moderators: Dion PARIDAENS (Orbital Surgeon, Head of Department) (Rotterdam, The Netherlands), Gustavo SAVINO (ophthalmology surgeon) (Rome, Italy)
10:40 - 12:40 #32438 - OP14 The posterior approach brow suspension in the treatment of congenital ptosis.
OP14 The posterior approach brow suspension in the treatment of congenital ptosis.

Introduction/purpose: Brow suspension typically takes an anterior approach to the eyelid with either stab incisions to the pre-tarsal skin or a skin crease incision. Here we present a novel approach to brow suspicion avoiding such incisions.

Methods: Over 60 paediatric patients with up to 17 years follow up have undertaken a posterior approach brow suspension technique with stab incisions to the conjunctiva, the use of the brow sling securing the tarsus to the brow with one skin incision to the brow. We present the results of numerous cases to show the efficacy and longevity of the procedure.

Results: The posterior approach brow suspension has been shown to be an effective technique in the treatment of congenital ptosis with excellent long term follow up results.

Conclusion: Posterior approach brow suspension negates the need for any pre-tarsal or skin crease incision and forms an excellent natural skin crease in most patients. It is a method that can be considered in the treatment of paediatric ptosis with only one small stage scar to the brow skin overall.


Hesham FOUAD (Cairo, Egypt), Ahmad AZIZ
10:40 - 12:40 #32173 - OP15 Frontal Eyelid Transmission: a new parameter in frontal suspension.
OP15 Frontal Eyelid Transmission: a new parameter in frontal suspension.

Frontal Eyelid Transmission:  a new parameter in frontal suspension.

OBJECTIVE: To define a new parameter in patients with severe ptosis treated with frontalis suspension.

MATERIAL AND METHOD: Retrospective analysis of medical records of patients with severe palpebral  ptosis and poor levator function operated with frontal is flap at IMO (Barcelona) between 2003 and 2019, with a minimum of 1 year follow-up. Preoperative baseline reflex distance to the margin (MRD1) without frontalis muscle action and maximal voluntary capacity of frontalis muscle function were measured. The patients were organized in grops: <1 year (Group 1), 1-2 years (Group 2), 3-5 years (Group 3), 6-10 years (Group 4), 11-18 years (Group 5) and > or = 20 years (Group 6).

Patients with previous indirect frontalis suspension, blepharophimosis syndrome and Marcus Gunn syndrome without levator muscle resection were excluded.

RESULTS: A total of 70 eyes, 55 patients, 41 male and 29 female, were analyzed. The most common etiology was levator muscle dysgenesis, followed by congenital or acquired paralysis. The global preoperative frontal function (FF) was 8 mm. The mean preoperative MRD1 was -0.35 mm (-0.73 – 0.03 mm). Six months postoperative baseline MRD1 was 3.1 mm (2.7-3.5mm), FF 8.1 mm (7.6-8.7mm) and FET (frontalis eyelid transmission) 32% (26-38%).  One year postoperative baseline MRD1 was 2.7mm (2.4-3.1mm), FF 8.4mm (8-9mm), and FET 35% (30%-40%). The FET showed a small reduction at 6 months, with an increase one year after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS: A high FET can be used as a new parameter to assess surgical effectiveness, as well as to avoid complications in both myogenic and neurogenic pathologies and allows us to obtain long-term follow-up and thus be able to assess the stability of surgery.


Medel RAMON, Vásquez LUZ MARÍA, Paños MARÍA INMACULADA, Cordero López CLAUDIA (Barcelona, Spain)
10:40 - 12:40 #32467 - OP16 Outcomes of single suture mueller’s muscle conjunctival resection: ethnic considerations.
OP16 Outcomes of single suture mueller’s muscle conjunctival resection: ethnic considerations.

Purpose

To compare outcomes of Mueller’s Muscle Conjunctival Resection (MMCR) between two groups of patients with different anatomy due to ethnic heritage.

Methods

The medical records of patients who underwent MMCR between 2013 and 2018 under local anesthesia were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who underwent additional procedures, such as upper blepharoplasty and browplasty were excluded from the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on self-identified ethnic groups (Asian and Caucasian). Image J software was used to calculate MRD1 from digital images. The improvement of MRD1 (net MRD1) after surgery was evaluated and compared between 2 groups.

Results

Eighty-three eyes of 68 patients were included in this study. The Asian group consisted of 41 eyelids from 28 patients. The Caucasian group consisted of 42 eyelids from 40 patients. The average age was 52.18 (SD 20.176) in the Asian group compared to the 66.45 years (SD 9.22, p<0.005) in the Caucasian group. The mean improvement of MRD1 was 1.96± 0.75 mm in Asian group and 2.05 ± 0.72 mm in Caucasian group which was not statistically significant (p=0.62). The incidence of ptosis over-correction and under-correction between the groups was also not statistically significant. 

Conclusions There was no statistically significant difference in the surgical outcomes among the two study groups. Despite differences in the anatomy of Caucasian and Asian eyelids, MMCR is a successful procedure in patients self-identified from both ethnic groups.

 


Zvi GUR (Jerusalem, Israel), Chang MINWOOK, Liu CATHERINE, Bobby KORN, Don KIKKAWA
10:40 - 12:40 #32412 - OP18 Clinical Value of Phenylephrine Testing in the Upper and Lower Eyelids of Patients with Aponeurotic and Congenital Eyelid Ptosis.
OP18 Clinical Value of Phenylephrine Testing in the Upper and Lower Eyelids of Patients with Aponeurotic and Congenital Eyelid Ptosis.

Aim: To characterize the phenylephrine test in aponeurotic and congenital eyelid ptosis, to determine the appropriate timing of the phenylephrine test, and to assess the responses of the upper and lower eyelids.

Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 140 eyes of 87 patients (mean age 52.29±16.45 years; 22 males, 65 females) with upper eyelid ptosis. 88.6% had aponeurotic and 11.4% had congenital ptosis. For the evaluation of the responses of the upper and lower eyelids to topical 2.5% phenylephrine, the scleral show height, the marginal reflex distance between the inferior margin of the upper eyelid and pupillary light reflex (MRD1), and between the central portion of the lower eyelid and pupillary light reflex (MRD2) were measured at the 2nd, 5th, and 15th minutes (min). The changes of MRD1 and MRD2 with time (ΔMRD1 and ΔMRD2) were evaluated.

Results: The mean MRD1, MRD2, and scleral show heights increased within 5 min after testing, remaining largely stable between the 5th-15th min. The percentage of eyes with a greater response in MRD1 increased with increased severity of ptosis (p<0.05). Eyes with aponeurotic ptosis were more responsive to phenylephrine testing than congenital ptosis. The mild ptosis group had lower scleral show measurements and higher ΔMRD2 values. The ΔMRD1 and ΔMRD2 values were poorly correlated in all measurement times.

Conclusion: Performing the phenylephrine test 5 min after instilling the reagent is adequate to assess the maximum response of the upper and lower eyelids. The upper and lower eyelid responses in phenylephrine testing were poorly correlated. However, the ΔMRD2 was related with baseline scleral show degree that may be a postoperative predictive factor. Further studies are necessary to determine the relationship between the responses of the lower eyelids to phenylephrine testing.


Özgün Melike GEDAR (Istanbul, Turkey), Meltem Guzin ALTINEL, Ayse Yagmur KANRA, Umit AYKAN
10:40 - 12:40 #32284 - OP19 Evaluating Quality of Patient Generated Photographs in the Virtual Oculoplastics Clinic.
OP19 Evaluating Quality of Patient Generated Photographs in the Virtual Oculoplastics Clinic.

Introduction

To assess quality of patient generated photographs of presumed benign eyelid pathology in the oculoplastics clinic. Whilst oculoplastics is particularly amenable to video consultations given that examinations are primarily external, a significant barrier to implementation is visualising pathology. To alleviate this, we introduced patient generated photographs as a tool to supplement synchronous video appointments. Using this addition, our aim was to hone the quality of remote clinical assessments and clinicians’ diagnostic proficiency.  

Method

Prior to a virtual video consultation in the benign eyelid clinic new patients were asked to submit self-captured photographs to a designated email inbox. Photographs for 300 consecutive patients between 29th April and 6th May 2021 were reviewed by two independent observers GG and HK. Photographs emailed to the inbox for follow-up patients or those sent by a medical professional were excluded from this study. Photographs were assessed to see if there were of sufficient quality to allow for diagnosis.

Each patient’s submitted photographs were independently graded as either inadequate/adequate or excellent based of a previously agreed standard. Furthermore observers also noted whether the images were adequately focussed and well lit.

Results

A sample of 300 (n=300) patients submitted 895 photographs to the shared inbox in the time period. Females formed 57.3% (172) of participants and patient mean age was 42.49 years old (SD=16.37) ranging from 16 to 90. Each patient submitted a mean number of 2.98 (Sd = 1.84) ranging from 1 to 15 images. 84.5% of photographs were graded as excellent (40.5%) or adequate (44.0%). There was no statistical difference in the overall quality of images between different age groups (Chi-square test p-value=0.79) Inter-reader reliability score with Cohen’s Kappa overall was k=0.77 (P= <0.01) demonstrating good concordance between graders.

Conclusion 

Patients of all ages are able to provide photographs of adequate quality to allow for diagnostic assessment of benign eyelid lesions. Our study revealed that older age was not a barrier to the successful submission of adequate quality photographs of adequate quality. 80.8% of patients over 65 years were able to submit either adequate or excellent quality photographs with no statistically significant difference between different age groups. 

 


Gabriella GUEVARA (London, United Kingdom), Hardeep KANDOLA, Raja LAXMI, Swan KANG
10:40 - 12:40 #32228 - OP20 Digital analysis of eyelid contour changes in unilateral ptosis repair: External levator advancement vs Muller’s muscle conjunctival resection.
OP20 Digital analysis of eyelid contour changes in unilateral ptosis repair: External levator advancement vs Muller’s muscle conjunctival resection.

Purpose: Evaluation of lid contour changes and symmetricity analysis to compare outcomes of external levator advancement (ELA) and Muller’s muscle conjunctival resection (MMCR) surgeries in unilateral ptosis

Methods: The charts of unilateral ptosis patients who underwent ELA or MMCR were reviewed. Preoperative and postoperative 6th-month digital images were used for eyelid contour analysis. Digital analysis of eyelid contour was performed by a previously described technique, multiple MRD1, measuring the vertical distance from a line intersecting the center of the pupil to the eyelid margin at 10 positions at 2 mm intervals (Image 1). Marginal peak point changes were analyzed digitally by the coordinates of the peak point according to the pupil center. The mean distance at each position was compared pre-, post-operatively, and fellow eye.

Results: 16 patients had ELA and 16 patients had MMCR. The mean MRD1 improved by both techniques (1,46 vs 2,43 mm, and 1,12 vs 2,25 mm, p=0,008 and 0,0001 respectively), and became similar to fellow eye (2,43 vs 2,88 and 2,25 vs 2,58 mm, p=0,23 and p=0,19, respectively). However statistically significant lid margin elevation was limited between N6-T6 points in the ELA group, while this was achieved along the whole lid margin in the MMCR group (Image 2). A slight lateral shift of the marginal peak point was observed in the ELA group (p=0,11).

Conclusions: Both techniques provide effective lid elevation, however, the effect of ELA lessens towards canthi while MMCR provides more uniform elevation across the lid margin. MRD1 is not sufficient alone to reflect contour changes.


Serdar BILICI, Tomurcuk HARBIGIL-SEVER, Suat Hayri UGURBAS (Zonguldak, Turkey)
10:40 - 12:40 #32102 - OP21 Periocular asymmetry is increasing with age: a three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry study in Caucasians.
OP21 Periocular asymmetry is increasing with age: a three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry study in Caucasians.

Objective: To quantitatively assess the periocular asymmetry and investigate its sex and age-related differences in a Caucasian population using three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry.

Method: Three hundred and one volunteer Caucasians were recruited from May to December 2020. Three-dimensional periocular photos were taken for all subjects using the VECTRA M3 3D Imaging System. The 3D images were imported into the VECTRA Analysis Module software, and a coordinate system was established automatically. Subsequently, the periocular landmarks were localized, and a series of measurements were performed on these 3D images. All measurements were assessed with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for inter-observer reliability, and both sides' absolute differences and asymmetry rates were calculated. Lastly, sex and age-related differences were evaluated.

Result: All 301 volunteers were German Caucasians, including 128 males (51.2 ± 19.2 years old) and 173 females (54.1 ± 19.5 years old). They were divided into the youth group (≤ 35 years old), middle-aged group (35 to 60 years old), and elderly group (> 60 years old). (1) Age variations: palpebral fissure height (PFH) asymmetry positively correlated with age (F = 7.616, p = 0.006). In the elderly group, marginal reflex distance (MRD) asymmetry positively correlated with age (F = 5.526, p = 0.0204). (2) Sex variations: absolute difference of tarsal platform show (TPS) was 0.65 ± 0.79mm for females and 0.90 ± 0.94 mm for males (p = 0.013). In the elderly group, the absolute difference of MRD was 0.664 ± 0.471 mm for males and 0.470±0.408 mm for females (p=0.001); the absolute difference of PFH was 0.619 ± 0.469 mm for males and 0.436±0.372 mm for females (p = 0.027). All measurements had an ICC between 0.668 and 0.943.

Conclusion: Asymmetry is prevalent in periocular appearance. Periocular asymmetry is more prominent in older people. The PFH asymmetry increases with age, and the MRD asymmetry is more evident in the elderly population. Meanwhile, the PFH and MRD asymmetry tend to be more significant in older men than women. Furthermore, three-dimensional photogrammetry might provide an accurate and effective reference and standard for periocular cosmetics and plastic surgery.


Xiaojun JU (Köln, Germany), Ludwig M. HEINDL
10:40 - 12:40 #32539 - OP22 Elaborated Analysis of Short and Long Term Results of Skin-Only versus Skin+Muscle Blepharoplasty.
OP22 Elaborated Analysis of Short and Long Term Results of Skin-Only versus Skin+Muscle Blepharoplasty.

Objective: It was aimed to evaluate the short and long-term effects of skin only and  skin+ muscle excision blepharoplasty on corneal nerves, dry eye parameters, meibomian glands, and eyebrow height.

 

Method: Twenty-four eyes (Group-S) of 12 patients who underwent skin excision and 24 eyes (Group-M) of 12 patients who underwent skin+muscle excision were included in the study. Preoperative, 1st week, 1st month, and 1st year Schirmer test, corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) parameters, non-invasive tear break-up time (NTBUT), meibomian gland area (MGA) analysis with infrared meibography, and lateral (LBH) and central (CBH) eyebrow heights were evaluated.

 

Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding age, gender, and preoperatively evaluated parameters (p>0.05). According to the preoperative values, a significant decrease was observed in the CCM parameter of nerve branch density in Group-S at week 1 (19.50±7.88 vs. 16.70±7.72 branches/mm2, p=0.026), and a significant decrease was observed in nerve fiber density in Group-M (19.98 ±7.59 vs. 17.11±7.16 fibers/mm2, p=0.006). A non-significant increase was observed in corneal nerve parameters in the 1st month; however, there was a slight decrease in the 1st year compared to baseline in both groups (p>0.05). Regarding Schimmer and NTBUT, there was no significant change from baseline in all visits in both groups (p>0.05). According to preoperative MGA values, a significant increase was observed in Group-S (18.84±6.02 vs. 21.18± vs.6.10, p=0.005) and in Group-M (18.25±8.45 vs. 20.21±8.02, p=0.001) at 1 year. While no significant change was observed in eyebrow height in Group-S, a significant increase was observed in Group-M at 1 year in LBH (16.50±2.81 vs. 17.19±2.40 mm, p=0.007) and 1 month (17.31±2.77 vs. 18.00±2.50 mm, p=0.007) and 1 year (17.31±2.77 vs. 18.13±2.71 mm, p=0.001) in CBH compared to baseline.

 

Conclusion: Elaborated analysis of this cohort showed that both surgical methods had similar effects on corneal nerves and dry eye parameters. Both approaches provided a significant increase in MGA. In addition, including muscle excision in the routine blepharoplasty operation has been found to be a reliable method that will give a slight elevation in eyebrow position.


Volkan DERICIOĞLU (Istanbul, Turkey), Burçin ŞAN
10:40 - 12:40 #32544 - OP23 Popeye: Rejuvenation of the brow and upper eyelid volume, projection and contour using PDO threads.
OP23 Popeye: Rejuvenation of the brow and upper eyelid volume, projection and contour using PDO threads.

Objective: To describe the popeye procedure, evaluate clinical rejuvenation and patient satisfaction in patients with aging of the brow-upper eyelid continuum.

Methods: Experimental non-randomized prospective study. Pop eye was performed on two groups of patients with aging characterized by deflation or ptosis of periocular tissues. Each group was treated with an original designed standardized 3 step protocol using 3 types of polydioxanone  (PDO) threads: Biocannula for revolumization, mono double screw for projection and monofilament for fine lines and skin quality. All procedures were performed by the same doctor, duration, pain and complications were registered. Standardized digital and 3D photography was taken before and on follow up visits weeks 1, 6 and 12. Clinical outcomes: Brow fat pad volume, elasticity and shape; brow - eyelid linkage and dynamics, eyelid crease definition, skin quality and brow hair density. Patient satisfaction was assessed using face QTM 2013. 

Results: 7 women and 2 men, 45 years average underwent bilateral pop eye and completed follow up. The Popeye procedure took 30 minutes in average and patients reported pain ranging from 2 to 6 out of 10. 4 patients presented mild to severe hematomas during the procedure, all resolving within the first week. By week 6 all showed some degree of brow contour, skin quality and volume improvement, which increased significantly by week 12. The group with deflation aging showed higher satisfaction rates that the ptosic group. No severe complications were reported.

Discussion/Conclusion: Popeye is a minimally invasive safe in office procedure that rejuvenates the supero lateral periocular area. It targets multiple tissues achieving a natural and balanced restoration of the patients anatomy, thereby being highly accepted by patients. Because of the nature of PDO threads pop eye may be used in combination with other cosmetic treatments and as complement of surgery.


Jocelyne KOHN (Santiago., Chile), Geraldine KOHN
10:40 - 12:40 #32314 - OP24 Periorbital and peri ocular microfat grafting : Complications observed over a series of 262 personally performed procedures.
OP24 Periorbital and peri ocular microfat grafting : Complications observed over a series of 262 personally performed procedures.

Periorbital and periocular microfat grafting:


Complications observed over a series of 262 personally performed procedures

 

 

Objective:

 

Microfat grafting and lipostructure are becoming increasingly popular when it comes to achieving facial rejuvenation and socket reconstruction.

 

Very few papers concerning the complications encountered therein are available in the literature, and the follow-up periods are usually relatively short.

 

Considering that the potential complications and the benefit / risk ratio are critical when selecting the correct procedure, I thought it might be of interest to research the complications that arose in my personal series of consecutive patients who underwent these procedures between 2006 to 2021.

 

Method:

 

The series comprises 230 patients and 262 procedures, which concern the orbit (socket reconstruction) and the face (facial rejuvenation). These operations might have been associated with various other cosmetic procedures, such as blepharoplasty, ptosis repair, canthoplasty, etc.

 

Results:

 

I encountered the following issues:

 

 

Benign and temporary complications:

 

Facial pain
Thigh pain
Ecchymosis (thigh or face) 

 

More threatening complications:

 

Intermittent lymphatic oedema (2 cases) that did not improve over time
Cysts that appeared at 6 weeks post-surgery (2 cases)which cleared up spontaneously several weeks later
Accentuation of the pre-op pigmentation following post-op ecchymosis 
Infection (one caselymphangitis in the thigh) that required antibiotics 
Ptosis (3 cases) following orbital injections for socket reconstruction 

 

Discussion:

 

It must be emphasized that the following complications did not occur:

 

No orbital or palpebral hematoma 
No granuloma 
No embolization 
No surface irregularity
No excess of volume requiring surgical correction 

 

The precautions that were used to prevent these complications are outlined in the presentation.

 

Conclusion:

 

Microfat grafting and lipostructure in the periocular and orbital areas is a safe procedure in this series, wherein potential complications were anticipated and prevented with specific precautions.

 

 


Pierre ESCALAS (Saint Herblain)
10:40 - 12:40 #32402 - OP25 Lateral brow tail elevation using selective orbicularis muscle excision in upper blepharoplasty.
OP25 Lateral brow tail elevation using selective orbicularis muscle excision in upper blepharoplasty.

The Main lateral brow depressor, responsible for the unpleasant temporal hooding is the orbicularis muscle. Neurotoxin injections have proven efficient in weakening lateral orbicularis function & reducing this unwanted look, elevating the level of the brow, thereby delaying surgery for many.

This presentation is to show our results utilizing this concept to help elevate the tail of the brow in patients undergoing UL blepharoplasty in Magrabi Eye Hospital, Abu Dhabi UAE.

Patients:

30 female patients, 25-55 years old, undergoing UL blepharoplasty.

Inclusion criteria: 

Dermatochalasis with or without orbital fat prolapse

Exclusion criteria:

concomitant blepharoptosis

concomitant brow ptosis (below the orbital margin)

recent botox treatment or eyebrow filler (6months or less)

brow ptosis due to facial nerve paresis

history of previous surgeries

Assessment: Brow position is measured pre-op & 1 month post op, with the patient in seated position looking straight and with fully relaxed forehead, using a vertical line from lateral canthus to the bottom of the brow & another diagonal measurement from the lateral canthus to the tail of the brow (intersecting with the lateral ala of the nose)

Methods: (video will demonstrate the procedure) After skin incision, skin is dissected away from the orbicularis, lateral fibers of the orbital orbicularis is transected in a triangular incision & dissected away from the septum down to the periorbita of the lateral & superior orbital margin. The brow & sub-brow fat is dissected over the periosteumreleasing all tethering attachments. The rest of the surgery follows as a classic blepharoplasty, insuring intact lateral orbital septum, with added thermal treatment to tighten the lateral orbital septum & encourage post op adhesion.

Result: Overall satisfaction rate was almost 95% with no significant complications. Significant brow tail elevation (an average of 5mm) following this procedure, 1 month post-operative.  (due to elevation by take over action of the lateral fibers of the frontalis muscle)

Conclusion: The incorporation of selective orbicularis oculi muscle excision has been a safe & effective augmenting tool to produce elevation of the tail of the brow after UL blepharoplasty, providing a more pleasing result.


Riham AFIFI (Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates)
10:40 - 12:40 #32156 - OP26 Brow lifting using retro orbicularis oculi fat (ROOF) augmentation.
OP26 Brow lifting using retro orbicularis oculi fat (ROOF) augmentation.

Background

The eyebrow is a mobile structure, and some degree of brow ptosis occurs with age. Ptosis may be attributable to depletion of facial tissues, such as fat and ligaments, and gravitation. In assessing a patient for blepharoplasty or ptosis repair surgery, it is important to determine the eyebrow position. To date, numerous surgical techniques have been developed for brow lifting.

Methods

We introduce a new technique of repairing brow ptosis using retro orbicularis oculi fat (ROOF) augmentation. This surgery is performed through an upper eyelid crease incision. The procedure aims to reposition the preaponeurotic fat, which has two major roles. First, preaponeurotic fat supports the brow and soft tissues. Second, the volume added to the ROOF raises the eyebrow.

Results

By using ROOF augmentation we can raise the eyebrows and get a nice aesthetic result during blepharoplasty.

Conclusion

This is a new effective and easy technique for brow lifting.


Yanir KASSIF (Nahariya, Israel), Relli OVADIA, Dana COHEN
10:40 - 12:40 #32301 - OP27 Scar acceptability of the modified pear-shaped direct brow lift.
OP27 Scar acceptability of the modified pear-shaped direct brow lift.

Aims: The direct brow lift is a powerful method of raising the brow but can be associated with significant scarring. We describe a technique of raising the lateral brow to minimise visible scarring. 

 

Methods: Modifications to the direct brow lift included a lateral incision, incision close to the upper border of the brow hairs, counter-bevelling of the upper and lower incision and a pear-shaped excision. Patients who underwent direct brow lift by the senior author over a 5-year period were identified and asked to complete the validated Patient Scar Assessment Questionnaire.

 

Results:

76 patients were identified and 47 (62%) completed the questionnaire. Mean patient age was 57 years (range 26-79); 79% were female. 68% underwent concurrent upper eyelid blepharoplasty, 6% ptosis surgery and 30% lower eyelid blepharoplasty. 2 patients (4%) underwent revision of the brow lift; for a granuloma and residual brow ptosis.

The first component of the questionnaire is scar appearance and 70% of patients described the appearance as excellent, 11% as good, 15% as okay, 4% as poor and none as very poor. The scar was described as very well or well matched to surrounding skin in 92%, short or very short in 79%, thin or very thin in 94% and smooth or very smooth in 98%. 70% described the scar as flat and level, 11% as slightly raised, none as fairly or very raised, 15% as slightly sunken, 2% as fairly sunken and 2% as very sunken. In terms of symptoms, 96% reported that there were none, and 4% described symptoms as a little troublesome. Patients reported that itching was a feature in 8%, 2% reported numbness and odd sensations and no patients reported pain or discomfort. 96% were satisfied with the symptoms from the scar. Overall, 77% were not at all self-conscious about the scar, 13% slightly, 6% fairly and 4% very self-conscious.

 

Conclusion: The direct brow lift is associated with high levels of patient acceptance when the scar is hidden at the tail of the brow. 


Caroline WILDE (London, United Kingdom), Sherlock ALEXANDER, Tanaka ANNALISE, Blood AMBER, Daniel EZRA
10:40 - 12:40 #31962 - OP28 Periocular Fillers in Imaging - What can we learn?
OP28 Periocular Fillers in Imaging - What can we learn?

Introduction: Periocular fillers are commonly used. Usually they are ignored in imaging, although they have a specific well known appearance . Periocular fillers are usually incidental findings, but, they should be part of the differential diagnosis of every periorbital or orbital mass, swelling, inflammation or infection

The purpose of this presentation is to present all forms of fillers as expressed in CT MRI - in uncomplicated and complicated cases. It is important for the aesthetic surgeon/ Dermatologist or Oculoplastic surgeon to be aware of filler appearance in imaging in order to assist differential diagnosis, exact position of fillers, distribution and filler type 

In the presentation (depending on time ) 15 cases will be presented- each case adds to the understanding of fillers in imaging . MOreover - three main complications will be presented in imaging as well 

For summary- As we become more precise in fillers injections- imaging is a strong tool in understanding filler distribution differential diagnosis and complications. Understanding their appearance in imaging is mandatory for the aesthetic surgeon


Ayelet PRIEL (Ramat Gan, Israel), Gahl GREENBERG, Guy BEN SIMON
10:40 - 12:40 #32545 - OP29 In office high resolution ultrasound in the management of periocular filler related syndrome.
OP29 In office high resolution ultrasound in the management of periocular filler related syndrome.

Objective: To describe the applications, clinical and imagenological correlations of high resolution ultrasound in the diagnosis and treatment of patients presenting with periocular filler related syndrome.

Methods: 25 patients presented between June 2021 and June 2022 with at least one clinical feature of the syndrome: persistent edema, recurrent edema, persistent filler, discromia, filler migration, cutaneous expansion or contour abnormality. Complete and detailed medical history, clinical examination and standardized digital and 3D photography was complemented with high resolution doppler evaluation using a portable, cordless and simple to use devise (Clarius L20). Images and videos were recorded. 

Results: The most frequent signs of periocular filler related syndrome observed were edema and contour abnormalities. Ultrasound evaluation was key in identifying the presence and nature of the filler in all cases. The use of doppler ultrasound assessment was of great value, showing in vivo information on vessel anatomy and blood flow that correlates with edema and soft tissue changes. Direct visualization of the filler allowed to plan and tailor the treatment for each patient according to the findings. 15 patients underwhent treatment with hialuronidase. Only 2/3 of them required filler to be fully disolved, the rest were resolve with just partial dissolution. Patients were then treated subsequently with surgery, re-filled or with a combination of treatments. 

Discussion/Conclusion: Ultrasound is a useful and easy to use tool that may help the clinician confirm the diagnosis in complex cases of aesthetic filler complications. It is also a good ally to perform guided hialuronidase injection and then visualize no filler is left over. 


Jocelyne KOHN (Santiago., Chile), Geraldine KOHN
10:40 - 12:40 #32298 - OP30 Indications, outcomes and optimal dosing strategies for hyaluronidase injections in the treatment of filler related complications.
OP30 Indications, outcomes and optimal dosing strategies for hyaluronidase injections in the treatment of filler related complications.

Background: The presentation of patients with filler-related complications is increasing. Hyaluronidase is effective at dissolving hyaluronic acid fillers but concerns exist regarding post treatment hollowing, skin changes, wrinkling and pigmentation. This study aims to investigate the optimal dosing strategy for hyaluronidase and to identify predictors of poor outcomes.

 

Methods: Retrospective review of 157 orbits of 90 patients treated with hyaluronidase over a four year period. Demographic data, indication and details of hyaluronidase treatment were recorded. Patient outcomes were categorised as satisfactory result, insufficient treatment or adverse effects.

 

Results: The primary indication for dissolving filler was swelling in 52%, lumpiness in 20%, and prior to surgical blepharoplasty in 17%. The most frequently used hyaluronidase concentration was 150U/mL in 66%, followed by 75U/mL in 31%, 37.5mg/ml in 3% and 100mg/ml in 1%. Outcomes were characterised as: 59% with a satisfactory result; 24% as insufficient treatment requiring further hyaluronidase; and 18% complaining of facial changes such as hollowing, indicating a posthyalase syndrome. A significant correlation was identified between a hollow outcome and duration of filler in situ (p=0.00019) and volume of filler (p= 0.000017). There was no effect of concentration of hyaluronidase or total dose on outcomes.  There was no statistical difference in outcomes between the 75 and 150 U/mL dosage groups (p=0.625).

 

Conclusions: 30-40 units of hyaluronidase per 0.1ml of filler is associated with a high rate of success and low rate of complications. All patients should be consented about the risks of hyaluronidase; patients with longer histories of filler use and higher total volumes should be advised of the increased risk of complications. In patients with high total volumes of filler, clinicians should consider a gradual process of filler dissolving over multiple sessions in lower doses to cautiously reduce the volume of filler to prevent a post hyalase syndrome.


Caroline WILDE (London, United Kingdom), Kailun JIANG, Sieun LEE, Daniel EZRA
10:40 - 12:40 Time for questions and discussion.
Room 1
12:40

"Friday 16 September"

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A25
12:40 - 13:00

Keynote Lecture II

12:40 - 13:00 Peri Orbital neurofibromasis. How to manage it ? Naresh JOSHI (Keynote Speaker, Londres, United Kingdom)
Naresh Joshi is a founder member, and ex-president of the British Ophthalmic Plastic Surgical Society (BOPSS). He heads the BOPSS and the Royal College of Ophthalmologist’s aesthetics subcommittee. He is the UK representative on ESOPRS committee.
12:40 - 13:00 Introduced by:. Jacques LAGIER (local organiser ESOPRS 2022) (Chairperson, NICE, France)
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"Friday 16 September"

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A26
13:00 - 14:00

THEA LUNCH SYMPOSIUM
WHEN EYELID IS A PROBLEM

13:00 - 14:00 Peri-ocular skin problems. Lionel STORK (Ophthlamologist) (Presenter, NANTES, France)
13:00 - 14:00 The microbiotia of the eyelid skin. Marc LABETOULLE (Presenter, KREMLIN BICETRE, France)
13:00 - 14:00 Interlink between eyelid surgery and dry eye. Daniel EZRA (Presenter, United Kingdom)
LUNCH IN THE EXHIBITION AREA Room 1
14:00

"Friday 16 September"

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A27
14:00 - 15:40

Oral Communications
Orbit

Moderators: Francesco QUARANTA-LEONI (Rome, Italy), David H. VERITY (London, United Kingdom)
14:00 - 15:40 #30793 - OP31 Orbital fat density as a predictive value in orbital cellulitis.
OP31 Orbital fat density as a predictive value in orbital cellulitis.

Objective: To evaluate orbital fat density as a tool to differentiate peri-orbital  and orbital cellulitis at initial diagnosis.

Methods: Data regarding all patients with clinical diagnosis of orbital and peri-orbital cellulitis (OC, POC) in a 10-year period were collected and analyzed. Intra-conal orbital fat density was measured using Hounsfield units (HU) in 6 different delineated surfaces: nasal and temporal at the axial equator plane, one section above, and one below (Figure 1). Fat density was correlated with disease status (i.e. pre septal and orbital) both at presentation and at final diagnosis. 

Results: Seventy-seven patients were included, 59 males (77%), mean (SD) age of 17 (19) years [0-90]; 57 (74%) underwent CT scans with contrast and were included in statistical analysis. Average intraconal fat density (SD) measured -52 (18) HU on the involved side vs. -63 (13) on the non-involved side (P<0.001). There was a strong correlation between the HU of both orbits (R=0.42, p=0.001, Spearman’s correlation). The HU values were higher in cases of a final diagnosis of OC vs. POC in both eyes, (involved orbit: -68 POC vs. -46 OC, p<0.001, uninvolved orbit: -68 vs. -61, p=0.09, Independent samples t-test). This effect was mirrored when taking into account HU measurements from the nasal intraconal space only (involved nasal fat: -62 POC vs. -30 OC, p<0.001, uninvolved nasal fat: -66 vs. -55, p=0.05, Independent samples t-test). 

The HU values were significantly higher in the nasal vs. temporal locations of each orbit, and this was observed both on the involved and noninvolved orbit (P<0.001). 

When stratifying patients into four groups based on the initial and final diagnosis of orbital cellulitis (OC) and peri-orbital cellulitis (POC), a similar trend of higher fat density was observed in cases with final diagnosis of OC. These differences were significant in the involved side (p<0.001, ANOVA multivariable analysis) and more robust on the nasal side (p<0.001, ANOVA multivariable analysis) (Figure 2).

Conclusions: Intraconal orbital fat density, measured by HU can assist in primary assessment of orbital involvement in patients with orbital and pre-septal/periorbital cellulitis. The nasal intraconal fat may be more sensitive perhaps because of its close proximity to the ethmoidal sinus from which the disease evolves. This may aid in initial differentiating pre-septal and orbital cellulitis in cases of uncertainty, pertaining directly to best treatment options. 


Daphna LANDAU (Tel Aviv, Israel), Ella NISSAN, Ofira ZLOTO, Gahl GREENBERG, Guy J. BEN SIMON
14:00 - 15:40 #31979 - OP32 Peculiarities of primary surgical treatment of bullet eye periorbital region and orbit injuries.
OP32 Peculiarities of primary surgical treatment of bullet eye periorbital region and orbit injuries.

Relevance: Considering war actions in Ukraine, the incidence of combined eye injuries is constantly growing. 

Aim: To improve surgical treatment of bullet injuries of the periorbital region and orbit.

Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 69 patients’ cases during the period of 24.02.2022 till 24.05.2022with eye trauma, the patients were admitted in the Center of Eye Trauma, Oleksandrivska hospital, Kyiv.

Results: 14,5% patients from the group had combined eye injury due to the orbit gunshot woundsThe vision acuity in 60% of patients was no light perceptionin 20% - light projection, 10% - light perception, and 10% -  totally destroyed eyeball. In 3 cases an open eye injury was combined with the ethmoidal sinus trauma, in 2 cases – with the temporal pit trauma, and in 5 cases – with the maxillary sinus trauma. In 6 cases the injury was accompanied with the traumas and defects of the periorbital area of eyelids. In 6 cases computed tomography revealed foreign bodies in the wound canals. All cases were characterized by the orbit fractures. Primary surgical treatment included: removing foreign bodies and suturing the entry and exit eyeball wounds.  Under impossibility of organ-saving operation, the debris of the eye were removed and the stump was made using Dermo-fat Graft of the sciatic area and introducing temporary prosthesis. At the same time, upon the necessity, metallo- osteosynthesis of orbit fractures was performed, if the soft tissues were injured, a primary defect plastics was used, otherwise - free plastics.

Conclusion: Organ-saving and reconstructive operations on the primary stage are aimed at timely appropriate ophthalmologic service, in order to achieve best anatomic-functional and esthetic results.


Nataliia ROSUMIY, Tetiana PIVNEVA, Anna CHMIL (Kyiv, Ukraine)
14:00 - 15:40 #31973 - OP33 Optic nerve sheath fenestration: current status in France and comparison of 6 different surgical approaches.
OP33 Optic nerve sheath fenestration: current status in France and comparison of 6 different surgical approaches.

PURPOSE: Optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) is a surgical procedure commonly performed in the Anglo-saxons countries for the treatment of medically refractory idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). We aimed to compare 6 different trans-orbital surgical approaches to perform an ONSF. We also aimed to determine the number of optic nerve decompression procedures in 2019 and 2020 in France.

 

METHODS: Four fresh frozen orbits were dissected at the University anatomy laboratory of Nice. We performed the following surgical approaches: (i) eyelid crease, (ii) lid-split, (iii) medial transconjunctival with medial muscle disinsertion, (iv) medial transconjunctival without muscle disinsertion, (v) lateral transconjunctival and (vi) lateral orbitotomy. For each surgical approach, we measured the distance between the incision and the optic nerve dura mater. We also extracted data providing from the French National PMSI (Programme de Médicalisation des Systèmes d’ Information) database between January 2019 and December 2020 to determine the annual number of optic nerve decompression procedures.

 

RESULTS: The lid crease and medial transconjunctival approaches provided the shortest distance to the optic nerve (average 21 mm and 24 mm, respectively) and the lowest levels of difficulty compared to the other surgical routes. A total of 23 and 45 optic nerve decompressions were performed in France in 2019 and 2020, respectively. Among them, only 2 and 7 procedures were performed through a trans-orbital approach, respectively.

 

CONCLUSION: Upper lid crease incision and medial transconjunctival approaches are the most direct and easiest surgical routes when performing an ONSF. We found that ONSF was rarely performed in France. We claim for a rehabilitation of ONSF especially in patients with IIH with severe visual loss and advocate close cooperation between the ophthalmologists, the neurologists, the neurosurgeons and the interventional radiologists.


Ken MARTINI (NICE), Laura TRUCCHI, Jerome DELAS, Jacques LAGIER, Arnaud MARTEL
14:00 - 15:40 #32392 - OP34 Magnetic Oculomotor Prosthetic for Acquired Nystagmus: Safety and outcomes.
OP34 Magnetic Oculomotor Prosthetic for Acquired Nystagmus: Safety and outcomes.

Objective: Acquired nystagmus in adulthood results in debilitating oscillopsia and functional reduction in visual acuity, caused by heterogeneous pathology affecting the complex multiplicity of cerebral nuclei and neural pathways. Thereby, producing an effective pharmacological therapeutic agent is challenging. Alternatively, the endpoint of such pathology converges towards extraocular muscles - which has prompted the development of strabismic approaches - with limited success. More recently, our centre reported a novel technique using a magnetic oculomotor prosthesis to dampen the rhythmic oscillations in such patients. We report on the safety of this technique and interim outcomes. 

Methods: Case series of patients undergoing orbital magnetic prosthetic implants for acquired nystagmus at a single tertiary centre. We assessed visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure (IOP), and colour vision (Ishihara) and perioperative complications. 

Results: Ten eyes of 5 patients underwent magnetic oculomotor prosthetic implantation at a mean age of 56 years (median 55, range 47-64). Patients were followed up on average for 44 months (median 30, range 16 - 112 months). On average, there was 1.7 line of Snellen acuity improvement in the operated eye (median 1.5, range 0-3), reflecting subjective dampening of nystagmus on primary gaze, with complete resolution in one patient. No patients had a significant change in intraocular pressure or reduction in colour vision. One patient had postoperative orbital inflammation, thought to be secondary to excess cyanoacrylate glue. No reaction is observed with conservative application in future cases. Change in oculo-motility was observed in 3 of 5 patients, of which one patient had symptomatic diplopia that was managed conservatively with head posture. 

Conclusions: Magnetic oculomotor prosthetic implantation is a novel technique for managing acquired nystagmus and overall safe with no detriment to patients' visual function. Such treatment offers a new management paradigm for patients that remain refractory to pharmacological and standard strabismus approaches. 


Mohsan MALIK (London, United Kingdom), David VERITY, Parashkev NACHEV, Geoff ROSE, Sanjay MANOHAR, Kelly MACKENZIE, Gill ADAMS, Maria THEODOROU, Quentin PANKHURST, Chris KENNARD
14:00 - 15:40 #31960 - OP35 Alterations in retrobulbar hemodynamics after orbital decompression surgery in inactive thyroid eye disease in Indian population - a prospective study.
OP35 Alterations in retrobulbar hemodynamics after orbital decompression surgery in inactive thyroid eye disease in Indian population - a prospective study.

PURPOSE:

Perfusion biomarkers in thyroid eye disease (TED) are an important predictor for the pathogenesis of dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON). Inactive TED shows reduced orbital blood flow with an increased resistance index in the orbital arteries. We plan to evaluate the exact effects of orbital decompression surgery on arterial and venous beds in orbit.

METHOD:

24 euthyroid inactive moderate-to-severe TED patients underwent surgical orbital decompression. Colour Doppler imaging was used to image the ophthalmic artery (OA), central retinal artery (CRA), and superior ophthalmic vein (SOV). The parameters assessed were peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV) and resistivity index (RI) for the arteries, and the direction of blood flow for the vein. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness was used to monitor for DON. All biomarkers were evaluated pre-surgery and 3 months post-surgery. 24 age and gender-matched cases of inactive TED, not requiring orbital decompression surgery, were used as disease controls along with 18 healthy controls.

RESULTS:

All cases had a significant reduction in proptosis after orbital decompression surgery. There was a reduction in SOV dilatation and a reduction in a reversal of blood flow from 8 to 3 TED orbits, post-surgery. The arterial velocities improved among all cases post-decompression. The improvement was significant (p<0.05) among CRA-PSV, OA-PSV, OA-EDV, and OA-RI. On dichotomously dividing the groups at the median duration of thyroid disease (48 months), the early and late groups showed significant improvement in CRA-PSV, CRA-EDV, OA-PSV, OA-EDV, and OA-RI. However, only the early group showed significant improvement in CRA-RI, suggesting the onset of irreversible changes in intra-ocular microvasculature with time. A thicker inferior RNFL rim at presentation, which declined in OCT RNFL values post-surgery was noted.

CONCLUSION: Orbital decompression surgery improves the orbital hemodynamics by resolving the orbital volume conflict. Long-standing TED cases may develop irreversible changes in the intraocular vasculature. A reduction in orbital perfusion parameters could herald the onset of ischemic DON. A timely intervention - early orbital decompression, can help reduce the visual morbidity in DON. 


Shalin SHAH (NEW DELHI, India), Ruchi GOEL
14:00 - 15:40 #32231 - OP36 Are we missing something in patients with Thyroid Eye Disease-Compressive Optic Neuropathy (TED-CON)?
OP36 Are we missing something in patients with Thyroid Eye Disease-Compressive Optic Neuropathy (TED-CON)?

Background: The aim of this research was to investigate the subclinical findings in patients with TED-CON and to present the tritan deficiency as an early indicator for the optic nerve compression in patients with Graves’ orbitopathy.

 

Patients and Methods: In this observational, retrospective study the medical charts of 24 patients (32 eyes) with a definitive diagnosis of TED-CON between 2008 and 2019 were included. Our goal was to identify potential pathological signs in patients prior to the TED-CON diagnosis. Therefore, our statistical analysis examined the data of the visits prior to the definitive diagnosis of TED-CON (subclinical phase) and at the time of the definitive diagnosis of TED-CON.

 

Results: We discovered that the earliest pathological sign in the subclinical cases was tritan deficiency of the color vision test. In all cases but one, regardless of the visual field defects, the tritan value was pathological (based on a threshold of  8%) in subclinical phase. The mean tritan value was 19.12% (range 6.9 – 80.8%) at the time of the subclinical phase and 32.16% (range 6.3 – 100.0%) at the time of the diagnosis of TED-CON. The sensitivity of the color vision test was 20% for protan and 96.67% for tritan in the subclinical phase. At the time of the definitive diagnosis of TED-CON, the sensitivity of protan was 48.15% and sensitivity for tritan was 96.30%.

 

Conclusion: In summary, we found in our retrospective analysis, that an early sign resulting from the compression of the optic nerve in patients with TED-CON involves changes to vision of blue-yellow (tritan) colors, even in patients with normal visual field tests. Our data suggest that, in cases suspected of TED-CON, a color vision test that can detect tritan deficiency is helpful in the subclinical phase, as well as for the confirmation of TED-CON diagnosis. 


Garip Kübler AYLIN (Munich, Germany), Kathrin HALFTER, Annemarie KLINGENSTEIN, Siegfried PRIGLINGER, Christoph HINTSCHICH
14:00 - 15:40 #31622 - OP37 Magnetic resonance imaging for dysthyroid optic neuropathy and moderate-to-severe Graves’ orbitopathy: an observational prospective cross-sectional study.
OP37 Magnetic resonance imaging for dysthyroid optic neuropathy and moderate-to-severe Graves’ orbitopathy: an observational prospective cross-sectional study.

Background: diagnosis of dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) is based on clinical criteria, but can be challenging in early or atypical cases. Imaging is often supportive. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can evaluate the same parameters as computed tomography, but can additionally assess inflammatory activity. It may therefore be a valuable adjunct in the diagnosis of DON.

Objective: To evaluate MRI and clinical characteristics in patients with moderate-to-severe Graves orbitopathy (GO) and DON, to assess the diagnostic value of these factors for DON, and to correlate the MRI features with the clinical activity score (CAS).

Design: observational prospective cross-sectional study.

Participants: patients older than 18 years diagnosed with moderate-to-severe GO or DON who have never undergone surgical decompression and did not receive corticoid or radiotherapy within 6 months prior to participation.

Methods: nineteen patients with DON (34 orbits) and 29 patients with moderate-to-severe GO (58 orbits) were consecutively enrolled. Orbital MRI was performed according to a standardized imagistic protocol followed by clinical ophthalmic and orthoptic examination within 4 weeks. Multivariable logistic regression models were built to predict the presence of DON and correlations between the primary outcomes and CAS were calculated.

Main outcome measures: maximal radial diameter of the extraocular muscles (EOMs), signal intensity ratio of the EOMs (relative to the temporalis muscle), relative apparent diffusion coefficient (rADC) of the EOMs (relative to the temporalis muscle), apical crowding index, CAS, duction scores.

Results: in a univariable analysis, depression, adduction, abduction, CAS (both ordinal and dichotomized), all EOM diameters, medial, superior and inferior rectus rADC and apical crowding were significant predictors of the presence DON. However, in multivariable models only medial rectus diameter, superior and inferior rectus rADC and depression remained significant independent predictors. The strongest model combined medial rectus diameter and inferior rectus rADC. Apical crowding and optic nerve stretching were not independent preditors of DON.

Conclusion: MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging sequences can be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of DON. Medial rectus diameter, inferior and superior rectus rADC and limitation of depression are independent predictors of DON. Apical crowding and optic nerve stretching may be less important in its pathogenesis.


Arnaud POTVIN (Amsterdam, The Netherlands), Maartje DE WIN, Peter BISSCHOP, Michael TANCK, Robert LOONTJENS, Hinke Marijke JELLEMA, Ioana IONESCU, Peerooz SAEED
14:00 - 15:40 #32199 - OP38 Comparative study on the efficacy of periocular methotrexate versus periocular triamcinolone injections in management of thyroid associated orbitopathy.
OP38 Comparative study on the efficacy of periocular methotrexate versus periocular triamcinolone injections in management of thyroid associated orbitopathy.

Aim:  To assess the efficacy and safety of periocular injections of methotrexate in management of active thyroid associated orbitopathy (TAO) in comparison to periocular injections of triamcinolone.

Methods: Prospective, double-blind, interventional randomized clinical trial in which eighteen patients with bilateral active, moderate to severe TAO were randomized such that an orbit received methotrexate (7.5mg) and the contralateral orbit received triamcinolone (20mg). Each orbit received three periocular injections at 3-weeks interval. 

Results:

In the methotrexate group, the mean clinical activity score (CAS) decreased significantly from 5.2± 0.89 at baseline to 0.9 ± 1.7 six months after last injection (p-value<0.001), mean proptosis also decreased from 25.2 ± 3.4 mm at baseline to 23.8 ± 3.7 mm at end of study (p-value=0.01). In the triamcinolone group, the mean CAS decreased significantly from 5.1± 0.9 at baseline to 1 ± 1.7 six months after last injection (p- value<0.001), mean proptosis also decreased from 24.27 ± 3.06 mm at baseline to 23.27 ± 3.3 mm at end of study (p-value=0.049). 

Statistically significant decline in lid aperture and soft tissue inflammatory score in each group was observed in all visits compared to baseline. BCVA in both groups remained stationary throughout the study. A statistically significant reduction in IOP was noted in the methotrexate but not in the triamcinolone group.

About 89% of patients in both groups had improvement in CAS at week 30, 33-50% of patients showed improvement in proptosis and lid aperture measurements and only 5.6% of patients had improvement in EOM function. No statistically significant difference was detected between both methotrexate and triamcinolone groups at any follow up visit. Both drugs were safe with minimal local complications and systemic adverse effects.

Conclusion: Periocular methotrexate injection is as effective as periocular triamcinolone injection and represents an effective and safe modality for management of active TAO.


Islam SWAIFY, Kareem ELESSAWY, Rania EL ESSAWY (Egypt, Egypt), Haytham NASR
14:00 - 15:40 #32064 - OP39 Pediatric Graves’ orbitopathy: a multicentre study.
OP39 Pediatric Graves’ orbitopathy: a multicentre study.

Purpose: Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is a rare condition in children and often considered to be milder than at an older age. The aim of our study was to analyze the characteristics of pediatric GO population in order add more data on how to assess and manage pediatric GO.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of 115 pediatric patients with GO seen at our university medical centers in the Netherlands and Iran was performed between 2003 and 2019. Patients were submitted for complete ophthalmological examinations, serological testing and/or orbital imaging. Main outcome measures were: the natural course of the disease, clinical picture and both medical and surgical treatment in pediatric GO.

Results: The median age at diagnosis and first presentation was 15 years (range 0–18) and 81% of the patients’ population were girls. Clinical findings included proptosis (84.3%), eyelid retraction (67%) and diplopia (11.3%). Eighty percent presented with mild disease, 18.3% with moderate-severe disease and around 2% with severe GO. Two patients experienced reactivation of the disease. Five patients underwent intravenous glucocorticoids and 25 patients underwent orbital decompression surgery. Overall, rehabilitative surgical treatment was performed in 26.9% of patients with inactive disease.

Conclusion: Although pediatric and adult GO are considered two separate entities, they might be the same disease with two different clinical phenotypes. Pediatric GO has a comparable clinical picture in relation to both soft tissue involvement and proptosis, which may require surgical rehabilitation.


Ioana Catalina LACRARU (BUCHAREST, Romania), Dion PARIDAENS, Eliane CAGIENARD, Rachel KALKMANN, Farzad PAKDEL, Stijn VAN DER MEEREN, Peerooz SAEED
14:00 - 15:40 #32346 - OP40 89Zr-rituximab PET/CT in orbital inflammatory disease - an update.
OP40 89Zr-rituximab PET/CT in orbital inflammatory disease - an update.

Background: Orbital inflammatory diseases are a heterogenic group of conditions that often entail a difficult diagnostic process and many patients are treatment resistant. Inflammatory diseases can be visualized by Zirconium-89 labelled rituximab PET-CT (89Zr-rituximab PET/CT). In this study we update our experience and potential of the 89Zr-rituximab PET/CT for diagnostic and therapeutic management of refractory orbital inflammation.

 

Methods: Retrospectively, 89Zr-rituximab uptake was assessed and related to clinical data. The main outcome measures were the characteristics of the scan and the clinical relation of uptake with the diagnostic process and treatment effectivity.

 

Results: We included >40 patients that received the 89Zr-rituximab PET/CT and updated our previous records. A high 89Zr-rituximab uptake was seen in almost all patients. We found that patients with high uptake of 89Zr-rituximab had a good response to rituximab treatment. Differences in 89Zr-rituximab uptake were noted for diagnosis and lesion location. Correlation with disease activity was variable for diagnosis.  

 

Conclusion: 89Zr-rituximab PET/CT has the potential to be a powerful tool for the detection of B-cell mediated disease within the orbit and ocular adnexa. This technique can be a valuable addition for diagnosing diseases around the eye and can potentially predict rituximab treatment response in patients with refractory inflammation.


Kamil LABAN (Utrecht, The Netherlands), Mahdi AL SAADI, Bart DE KEIZER, Rachel KALMANN
14:00 - 15:40 #32319 - OP41 Reconstruction after orbital exenteration: interest of the Radial Forearm free flap.
OP41 Reconstruction after orbital exenteration: interest of the Radial Forearm free flap.

Orbital exenteration is a disfiguring surgical procedure classically reserved for malignant, locally advanced or recurrent orbital and eyelid pathologies. Surgical progress in facial reconstruction has changed our practices, notably with the use of the Radial Forearm free flap. The purpose of this study is to show the evolution of a specialized tertiary care center practices in the management of orbital cavities and to show the interest of reconstruction by Radial Forearm free flap.

This was a retrospective single-center study, including patients who underwent orbital exenteration between January 2004 and December 2021. Clinical, therapeutic and surgical data were collected retrospectively via the computerized file.

133 patients were included (59 women; 74 men). Three types of exenteration were performed, 16 (12.0%) subtotal, 75 (56.4%) total and 42 (31.6%) extended exenterations. The reconstruction methods used were: Temporalis muscle flap (34.6%), Latissimus Dorsi free flap (24.8%), Radial Forearm free flap (18.8%), spontaneous granulation (9.0% ), skin grafts (9.8%) and Direct Closure (3.0%). The median healing time was 7 days for the Radial Forearm flap, 60 days for the Latissimus Dorsi flap, 92 days for the Temporal Muscle flap and 242 days for spontaneous granulation; it was significantly lower in the “Radial Forearm free flap” group than in the other groups (p < 0.0001). No free flap loss was described.

The rate of prosthetic equipment in the “Radial Forearm flap” group was significantly higher than in the “Other flaps” group (46.67% vs 19.74%) (p = 0.0439) and substantially identical between the groups “Forearm Free Flap” and “Granulation”; (46.67% vs. 45.45%) (p>0.99999).

The technique of reconstruction after orbital exenteration is chosen according to the habits of the teams, the type of exenteration, the comorbidities and the wishes of the patient. The use of a Radial Forearm free flap could be proposed for the reconstruction of total or extended exenteration cavities in patients in general good condition. This allows early adjuvant irradiation, reduces the risk of sinus communication and allow an aesthetic result and a satisfactory rate of equipment.


Nathalie BADOIS (Paris), Maria LESNIK, Antoine DUBRAY-VAUTRIN, Baptiste SABRAN, Romain MILHEIRO, Olivier CHOUSSY, Nathalie CASSOUX
14:00 - 15:40 #32375 - OP42 Decompression and reconstruction of orbital bones in spheno-orbital meningioma: comparison of reconstruction techniques with titanium mesh and patient-specific polyetheretherketone (PEEK) implants.
OP42 Decompression and reconstruction of orbital bones in spheno-orbital meningioma: comparison of reconstruction techniques with titanium mesh and patient-specific polyetheretherketone (PEEK) implants.

Introduction

Spheno-orbital meningioma is often characterized by hyperostosis of the orbital bones, requiring multidisciplinary surgery and decompression with reconstruction of the lateral orbital wall. We assessed the feasibility of reconstruction with computer aided designed and manufactured (CAD/CAM) patient specific implants (PSIs) made from poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) and compared outcomes with conventional reconstruction with titanium mesh. 

 

Methods

We compared consecutive patients with spheno-orbital meningioma who received reconstruction of the lateral orbital wall with PEEK PSI between 2019 and 2021 with an historical cohort of patients who received titanium mesh before 2019. Preoperatively a virtual 3D surgical planning was made and a CAD/CAM manufactured resection guide and a PEEK PSI were fabricated. Proptosis, visual acuity, visual fields, placement, cosmetic satisfaction and complications were compared.   

 

Results

Eleven patients, median age of 47 years, were operated. Reoperation with PEEK PSI was performed in two patients to resolve oscillopsia and temporal pain after previous surgery without reconstruction and titanium mesh reconstruction respectively. The periorbita was opened in 11 cases and intra-orbital tumor was resected in 7. In 3 cases the PEEK PSI was slightly refined intraoperatively. Median proptosis before surgery was 5.0mm (IQR: 3.0 to 6.0), which significantly improved to 1.5mm (IQR: 0 to 4.0) 1 year after surgery, p<0.01. Preoperative median visual acuity was 1.1 (IQR: 1.0 to 1.2), which remained stable after surgery (median 1.2, IQR: 0.9 to 1.2). Preoperative median visual field was -3.7dB (IQR: -12.4 to -1), which improved to -1.5dB (IQR: -4.3 to -0.2). All patients were satisfied with the cosmetic results. Compared with the titanium mesh cohort (n=14) with similar baseline values, PEEK PSI resulted in better proptosis reduction (mean PEEK: 2.7mm, mesh 1.0mm, p=0.04), with similar stable visual acuity (PEEK: 0.6, mesh: -0.3: p=0.12) and improvement of visual fields (PEEK: 4.0dB, mesh: 2.9dB, p=0.13). Complications in the PEEK cohort were new visual field defects and an epidural hematoma, requiring surgery. One patient received proton beam therapy one year after surgery.

 

Conclusions

CAD/CAM PEEK PSI results in satisfying reduction of proptosis in spheno-orbital meningioma with good visual outcomes compared with titanium mesh reconstruction with the additional benefit that it does not interfere with proton beam radiotherapy.  


Amir H. ZAMANIPOOR NAJAFABADI (Leiden, The Netherlands), Sarina E.c. PICHARDO, Wouter A. MOOJEN, Roy P.j. VAN DEN ENDE, Wouter R. VAN FURTH, Stijn W. VAN DER MEEREN
14:00 - 15:40 #31923 - OP43 Long-term outcomes after multidisciplinary treatment for pediatric orbital rhabdomyosarcoma.
OP43 Long-term outcomes after multidisciplinary treatment for pediatric orbital rhabdomyosarcoma.

Purpose: description of clinical presentation, imaging characteristics, prognostic factors, histopathology, and treatment outcomes of pediatric orbital rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS). 

 

 

Methods: institutional retrospective study with data from 39 patients (children aged 0-18) with primary orbital RMStreated between 1995 and 2016 at the Amsterdam University Medical Centers / Emma Children Hospital. We evaluated demographic characteristics, symptoms and signs, imaging characteristics, risk factors and treatment outcomes.

 

 

Outcome Measures: Medical records review for demographic information, clinical data history (including symptoms at presentation), imaging studies, histopathologic information, treatment received, and follow-up.

 

Results: The median age at presentation was 7 years (range, 9 months to 16 years). The median follow-up period was 9.4 years (range, 3 to 25 years). Eyelid swelling (in 45% of cases) was the most common presenting manifestation. The majority of orbital tumors were located in the superior medial quadrant of the orbit. Ninety-five percent of cases showed embryonal histology. Sixty-two percent of patients presented with Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) group III disease. Of the 39 patients, 10 underwent chemotherapy and excision without additional radiotherapy. The 29 patients with additional local treatment received Ablative surgery, MOld technique with after loading brachytherapy and surgical REconstruction (AMORE) (N = 21), proton (N = 4) or external beam radiation treatment (EBRT; N = 4). We found 14 cases with recurrences, 9 of which underwent exenteration and two of them died. 

The 10-year overall survival was 95% and the EFS 63%. All 18 cooperative patients had functional decimal visual acuity (0.5 or better). Cataract was the most common adverse event of local treatments, present in 33% of survivors.

 

Conclusions: long term follow up with 10-year survival rate of orbital RMS in this series was 95% by achieving local tumor control and eye preservation in 77% of our study population. 

 


Nur KHATIB (Tel Aviv, Israel), Johannes MERKS, Jeroen MARKENSTEIN, Brian BALGOBIND, Cemile SAVCI-HEIJINK, Michele MORFOUACE, Bradley PIETERS, Peerooz SAEED
14:00 - 15:40 #32340 - OP44 Congenital Microphthalmia – Results of a conservative rehabilitation approach.
OP44 Congenital Microphthalmia – Results of a conservative rehabilitation approach.

Background: The importance of an early intervention in the rehabilitation of anophthalmic and microphthalmic patients for optimal aesthetic results is well established. However, minimize medical and surgical procedures at an early age is also important to reduce surgical scarring and sequelae in young children.

Methods: Retrospective review of consecutive cases of anophthalmia or microphthalmia referred to Centro Hospital e Universitário de Coimbra, between 2006 and 2020, submitted to a conservative rehabilitation with orbital conformers, progressively adapted to expand the orbital cavity and conjunctival fornixes. The final surgical rehabilitation was performed, when necessary, at a later age (usually at pre-school age).

Results: During the study time, 14 children were referred to our center: 10 males, with a mean age at initial follow up of 8.9 months (range 0.1 – 24) and including 3 cases of bilateral microphthalmia. All children had conformers  (augmented  every 2-3 months) adapted to their cavities by a specialized prosthetist. Seven children were thereafter submitted to surgery for rehabilitation of cavity volume (1 dermis-fat graft [DFG], 1 expandable hydrogel implant and 5 spherical porous implants) and 2 children were submitted to surgery for palpebral reconstruction due to associated colobomas/malformations. The mean age at first surgery 3.9 years (range 1,5 - 8).  Five children had to be submitted to second surgeries due to: overgrowth of DFG, insufficient expansion of hydrogel implant or exposure of orbital implants. The mean follow up was 10.7 years (range 4-14). Eleven (78.6%) children obtained a good or very good aesthetical result, with good facial symmetry. Children referred at an older age, bilateral cases and syndromic complex cases had poorer results. No children were lost to follow up.

Conclusions: Our series enlightens a valuable alternative to more invasive approaches for the rehabilitation of micro- and anophtalmic patients. Our conservative management, associated to individually selected surgical interventions performed at older ages, offers a good aesthetical result providing a progressive dilatation of the bone cavity and soft tissues accompanying children growth.


Joana PROVIDENCIA (Coimbra, Portugal), Margarida QUEIRÓS, Cecília RAMOS, Catarina PAIVA, Guilherme CASTELA
14:00 - 15:40 #31746 - OP45 Trametinib for orbital plexiform neurofibromas in young children with neurofibromatosis type 1.
OP45 Trametinib for orbital plexiform neurofibromas in young children with neurofibromatosis type 1.

Introduction: Plexiform neurofibromas (PNF) in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are usually diagnosed in childhood and can grow rapidly during this period. In 10% of patients, PNF involve the orbital-periorbital area and may cause visual problems including glaucoma, visual loss from amblyopia (deprivational, strabismic, or refractive), optic nerve compression, or keratopathy. Ptosis, proptosis, and facial disfigurement lead to social problems and decreased self-esteem. Complete surgical removal involves significant risks and mutilation, and regrowth after debulking is not uncommon. Inhibitors of the RAS/MAPK pathway have recently been investigated for their activity in PNF. We administered the oral MEK inhibitor trametinib to five young children with NF1 and PNF of the orbital area, with visual compromise and progressive tumor growth; and followed them clinically and by volumetric MRI.

Methods: Treatment was initiated at a mean age of 26.8 months (SD ± 12.8) and continued for a median 28 months (range 16-51). Doses were 0.025 mg/kg/day for children aged > 6 years and 0.032 mg/kg/day for those aged < 6 years.

Results: Volumetric MRI measurements showed a reduction of 2.9-33% at 1 year after treatment initiation, with maximal reductions of 44% and 49% in two patients, at 44 and 36 months, respectively. No change in visual function was recorded during treatment. One child reported decreased orbital pain after 2 weeks; and another, with involvement of the masseters, had increased ability to chew food. Toxicities were mostly to skin and nails, grades 1-2.

Conclusions: Trametinib can decrease tumor size in some young children with orbital PNF and may prevent progressive disfigurement.


Helen TOLEDANO, Meydan BEN ISHAI (Tel Aviv, Israel), Gad DOTAN, Rivka FRIDLAND, Rony COHEN, Iftach YASSUR, Hagit TOLEDANO-ALHADEF, Shlomi CONSTANTINI, Mika SHAPIRA ROOTMAN
14:00 - 15:40 #30965 - OP16b Multimodal approach to lateral canthotomy and cantholysis training using a low-fidelity model in combination with visual teaching: a study on a cohort of Emergency Medicine doctors.
OP16b Multimodal approach to lateral canthotomy and cantholysis training using a low-fidelity model in combination with visual teaching: a study on a cohort of Emergency Medicine doctors.

Background: Acute orbital compartment syndrome as a result of retrobulbar haemorrhage secondary to trauma is rare but has the potential to cause irreversible blindness. Lateral canthotomy and cantholysis (LCC) can be sight-saving but needs to be performed urgently upon arrival to the Emergency Department. 

 

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a training session for junior Emergency Medicine doctors, which combined visual learning consisting of watching a video of a LCC being performed on an actual patient and an interactive demonstration of the lateral canthal area anatomy on a large-scale 3D model by an Oculoplastic surgeon, with hands-on experience on a low-fidelity model. 

 

Participants and Setting: 17 emergency medicine, non-consultant doctors from hospitals across South-East London (King’s College Hospital, Princess Royal Hospital, University Hospital Lewisham). 

 

Main outcomes measures: Participant self-reported using 3-point Likert Scales of their knowledge of the lateral canthal area, understanding the steps in performing a LCC and confidence in performing a LCC in a clinical indicated setting.

 

Results: 88.2% (15/17), had never performed a LCC even in simulation, while the remaining 11.8% (2/17) had only performed this procedure in simulation. Before training, the mean confidence level in understanding of the lateral canthal area anatomy was 1.12 and rose to 3.00 post-training (p<0.0001). Prior to training the mean confidence level in knowing the steps of an LCC was 1.29 and rose to 3.00 post-training (p<0.0001). Pre-training, the mean confidence level in performing a LCC when clinically required was 1.12 and improved to 2.76 post-training (p<0.0001). 

 

Conclusions: This study found that the cost of constructing such a model to be low-cost (£2.16 per model) and also easily replicable, allowing this procedure to be practiced regularly by clinicians. Unlike cadaveric simulation models, it is also safer; avoiding infection risk should a needle-stick injury occur and it is also not limited to human/animal dissection lab-based settings.  This in combination with the visual and interactive teaching programme as described above, resulted in a significant increase in the knowledge and confidence of EM clinicians in this essential, sight-saving procedure. 


Li Yen GOH (London, United Kingdom), Tahir FAROOQ
14:00 - 15:40 Time for questions and discussion.
Room 1
15:40

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A28
15:40 - 16:00

Keynote Lecture III

15:40 - 16:00 Teprotumumab in TED. Raymond DOUGLAS (Keynote Speaker, Beverly Hills, CA, USA)
What is the main medical revolution of the last decade? Undoubtedly the emergence of targeted therapies to fight against cancer allowing dedicated and personalized medicine. In recent years, personalized medicine has also become possible in thyroid eye diseases (TED).

In 2020, the insulin growth factor receptor 1 (IGF1R) inhibitor teprotumumab gained FDA approval for the first time for the treatment of patients with TED. This approval was based on 2 randomized, controlled trials published in the prestigious New England Journal of Medicine comparing teprotumumab with a placebo. Teprotumumab demonstrated superiority over placebo in terms of clinical activity score and reduction in proptosis.

Dr Raymond DOUGLAS is a worldwide recognized oculoplastic surgeon working in Beverly Hills, California. He is also a professor at Cedars Sinai Hospital in Los Angeles where he is head of the orbital and TED programs. Dr. DOUGLAS' lab was associated with the initial development of teprotumumab by investigating the role of IGF1R in TED. Dr DOUGLAS was respectively last and first author of the 2 clinical trials published in the New England Journal of Medicine. He treated the first patient and currently has the most experience with Teprotumumab.

Dr. DOUGLAS will tell us about his daily clinical experience with teprotumumab in TED. Most importantly, Dr. DOUGLAS will address the current challenges, questions and fears raised by the growing use of teprotumumab: Should teprotumumab be used in inactive TED? How common is hearing loss and how do you monitor it? What is the cost-benefit of teprotumumab? Will teprotumumab cause orbital decompression obsolete?

See you in Nice for the next ESOPRS congress with our special guest Dr Raymond DOUGLAS.
15:40 - 16:00 Introduced by:. Arnaud MARTEL (doctor) (Chairperson, Nice, France)
Room 1
16:00 COFFEE BREAK & EXHIBITION AREA - VISIT OF THE EPOSTERS
16:15

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A29.1
16:15 - 17:00

Oral Communications
Socket

Moderators: Olivier GALATOIRE (PARIS, France), Dan GEORGESCU (Romania)
16:15 - 17:00 #32174 - OP46 CT Volumetry Study of Micro Fat Graft survival from different donor sites in augmenting the Enophthalmic Socket.
OP46 CT Volumetry Study of Micro Fat Graft survival from different donor sites in augmenting the Enophthalmic Socket.

Purpose: The aim of the current study is to study autologous fat grafts harvested from the abdomen and thigh for treating the enophthalmic anophthalmic socket using CT volumetry.

Methods:  A randomized prospective interventional study including 20 patients suffering from unilateral enophthalmic socket. Pre-operative clinical assessment included photographs, exophthalmometry reading as well as CT volumetry for volume deficit calculations. The harvesting site was randomly allocated between patients (abdomen or thigh). Patients were followed up to 6 months post-operatively. Percentage of fat retained 1 and 2 (Percentage of fat remaining at the last follow up compared to pre-operative measurements of the enophthalmic socket with the globe and without the globe respectively) was calculated as well as exophthalmometry change.

Results: Mean percentage of retained fat 1 was 14.75 ± 17.06 %, while mean percentage of retained fat 2 was 25.31 ± 25.49 % A statistically significant difference was found between the post-operative increase in orbit soft tissue volume and the preoperative calculations in the volume of fat retained 2 (p <0.001) in every visit and volume of fat retained 1 (p= 0.001 at 6 months). No statistically significant correlation was found between the sex, age of the patients, donor site and the microfat graft survival. Difficulty of extraction and degree of atrophia correlated significantly with percentage of fat retained 2 and not 1. Exophthalmometer change correlated significantly with percentage of fat retained 1 and not 2.  Decline in the percentage of volume of fat retained continued up to 6 months post operatively.

Conclusion: Autologous fat grafting is a safe and effective technique for volume augmentation. CT volumetry has an important role to assess the volume deficit and measure the postoperative results accurately. No statistical significant difference was found in percentage of fat survival between the abdomen and thigh groups.  


Aliaa AHMED (Cairo, Egypt), Haythem E. NASR, Tamer I. GAWDAT, Rania A. ABDELSALAM, Kareem B. ELESSAWY
16:15 - 17:00 #32184 - OP47 Individualizing enucleation implant size: volumetric vs empirical methods.
OP47 Individualizing enucleation implant size: volumetric vs empirical methods.

Introduction

Individualization of enucleation implant size has been advocated to reduce the incidence of the anophthalmic socket syndrome. Implant size has been determined by preoperative ultrasound, intraoperative volume measurement, and sizing implants. We compared outcomes of the volumetric measurement (‘volume’) and sizing implant (‘empirical’) methods. Effects of preoperative and surgical findings on implant size were also investigated.

 

Methods: 

This retrospective study included 139 patients undergoing enucleation with insertion of spherical implants between 2007-2016. The ‘volume’ method was preferentially used in patients with symmetrically appearing globes, while the ‘empirical’ method was more commonly used in patients with apparent proptosis or enophthalmos. 

 

Results: 

Preoperative phthisis (p<0.0001) and conjunctival-Tenons fibrosis (p=0.001) were more common in the ‘empirical’ group. Mean implant size was larger in males (21.3mm) than females (20.7mm) (p=0.003), and in the ‘volume’ (21.4mm, n=55) than ‘empirical’ (20.8mm, n=84) cases (p=0.002). Spheres >21mm were placed in 46% of patients with and 63% without intraoperative fibrosis (p=0.047). Implants >20mm were more frequently used in patients with a wider exophthalmometry base (80% of males >95mm; 77% of females >97mm).

 

Postoperative mean implant (p=0.6562) and prosthetic (p=0.1990) enophthalmos, and the frequency of sulcus deformity (p=0.6394) were similar between the two methods. We estimate that 11% of patients could have accommodated a sphere >22mm. 

 

Conclusions: 

Previous studies have shown the advantages of individualizing enucleation implant size. While implants should not be intentionally oversized, larger spheres provide improved implant motility and reduce the incidence of the anophthalmic socket syndrome. Sizing implants can provide similar results as intraoperative volumetric measurement, as determined by postoperative superior sulcus depth, and prosthetic or implant enophthalmos. Preoperative exophthalmometry can guide selection of implant size. Preexisting conjunctival-Tenon fascial fibrosis often did not limit implant size and was not associated with a higher rate of wound breakdown or implant exposure. 


Philip CUSTER (St Louis, USA), Robi MAAMARI, Julia HUECKER, Mae GORDON
16:15 - 17:00 #31951 - OP48 Clinical Use of Cryopreserved Ultra-thick Human Amniotic Membrane for Anophthalmic Socket Contracture: A prospective study.
OP48 Clinical Use of Cryopreserved Ultra-thick Human Amniotic Membrane for Anophthalmic Socket Contracture: A prospective study.

Purpose

 

Anophthalmic socket contracture (ASC) refers to a decrease in fornix depth (FD) incited by prior surgery, trauma, inflammation, radiation, or infection. The traditional treatment is mucous membrane graft which offers the advantage of an autologous source and a low incidence of graft rejection, but the disadvantages include donor-site pain and morbidity, and additional harvesting time. This is the first prospective study that reports on the use of cryopreserved ultra-thick human amniotic membrane (CUT-hAM) in ASC treatment.

 

Methods

 

Patients with ASC caused by previous trauma, radiotherapy, congenital anophthalmia, anophthalmia 2ry to Enucleation/Evisceration, delay in the use of prosthesis, and post pyogenic granuloma excision were included. A thick amniotic membrane was taken from donor umbilical cord. Ultrasound biomicroscopy was used for standard thickness measurement. Fornix contracture grade ( using classification proposed by Tawfik et al. ) was used. Post-operative evaluation includes measurement of FD pre/post-surgery, prosthesis fitting, and complications such as infection and wound dehiscence in addition to the rate of re-operation were included.

 

Results

 

33 patients ( 42 fornices ) were involved from Dec 2020 until Dec 2021 with a mean follow up 10.5 months. Grade II fornix contracture was the most common type ( 54.8% ). The most common involved primary diagnosis was anophthalmia 2ry to Enucleation/Evisceration ( 31% ). The overall success rate was 85.7% when the fornix achieved a 70% increase in FD and/or prosthesis fit at the last visit. Overall median FD ( medially, centrally, and laterally )  before surgery and at the last visit was ( 3, 3, 2 ) and ( 5, 7, 6 ) mm respectively.

 

 

Conclusion

CUT-hAM is well tolerated and ideal for the treatment of ASC. It is effective to establish FD and improving prosthesis fit. It has the advantage of being easy to use, having a relatively short surgical duration, and avoidance of second-site surgery. The overall success rate is higher among patients with Anophthalmia 2ry to Enucleation/Evisceration compared to other causes.


Mohammad ALSEMARI (RIYADH, Saudi Arabia), Fatimah ALZAHRANI, Muhammad AHAD, Hailah ALHUSSAIN, Hamad ALSULAIMAN, Rawan ALTHAGIB, Diego STRIANESE, Osama ALSHEIKH
16:15 - 17:00 #31985 - OP49 Manus ex Machina; Can 3D Printing and Scanning Change Our Prosthesis Making Techniques?
OP49 Manus ex Machina; Can 3D Printing and Scanning Change Our Prosthesis Making Techniques?

Handmade objects have been historically associated with exclusivity, individuality, and elitism. While machine products have been identified with progress but also with dehumanization and homogenization.

In this presentation, I would like to discuss the possibility of a common practice of custom handmade and 3d printing and scanning in prosthesis making.

I would like to share two innovative prosthetic projects that became a common practice in treating congenital anophthalmic patients, and patients in need of a facial prosthesis, in my clinic. In both projects we designed prototypes that helped us refine the end prosthesis. 3D scanning and printing advantages as well as limitations will be discussed using clinical cases, in order to prove their benefit and judge their role in prosthesis making.

We have learned that incorporating 3D scanning and printing with manual production of ocular and facial prosthesis rather than replacing the production process seems to bring a better prosthetic outcome to this population of patients.


Yoav VARDIZER (Haifa, Israel)
16:15 - 17:00 #32057 - OP50 Congenital anophthalmia and microphthalmia with cyst:new concepts in management strategies.
OP50 Congenital anophthalmia and microphthalmia with cyst:new concepts in management strategies.

Microphthalmia and Anophthalmia (A/M) are rare conditions, which represent maldevelopment of the eye and may be associated with orbital cysts. Current literature recommends cyst retention to drive orbital growth during socket rehabilitation; this study aims to illustrate the long-term outcomes when other elements, such as forniceal and lid development, are considered alongside orbital bone growth, when forming bespoke treatment plans for patients.Retrospective case series from a single prosthetics clinic since 1988. Patient outcomes and natural history data are reported using clinical and surgical notes, radiological imaging, clinical photographs and patient/doctor satisfaction questionnaires.89 sockets of 78 patients (11 bilateral) were included; median age of presentation being 2.8 years (9 days-29.5 years). Cysts were clinically detected (48%) or were incidental findings (52%). The mean follow-up time was 7.2 years (6 months–28 years). 46 % of sockets had surgical excision of the cyst at the median age of 17 months (3 months–28 years); the rest were managed with customised cosmetic prosthesis only. Satisfaction surveys were obtained for 75 patients, with cosmetic outcomes rated as ‘excellent’ or ‘good’ in 90% of cases by physicians and 97% of cases by patients or guardians.The management of cysts in Anophthalmia /Microphthalmia (A/M) involves bespoke treatments whether or not surgical intervention is required.We define ‘regional orbital growth’ as an important concept to understand when looking after patients with A/M and cysts as it is possible for cysts to drive the growth of regions of the orbit disproportionately.The favourable long-term outcomes in this study have resulted from bespoke plans that consider periocular tissue development, regional orbital growth and orbital volume replacement. The authors consider early cyst excision if there is the risk of long-term periocular deformation.


Sri K GORE, Gustavo SAVINO, Collin RICHARD, Gabriela GRIMALDI, Alessandra MODUGNO (roma/italy, Italy)
16:15 - 17:00 #32473 - OP51 How to plan conformer treatment for congenital microphthalmia and anophthalmia?
OP51 How to plan conformer treatment for congenital microphthalmia and anophthalmia?

Background/aims To evaluate treatment with custom, three-dimensional (3D) printed conformers for socket expansion in congenital microphthalmia and anophthalmia (MICA).


Methods Retrospective analysis of prospective cohort from 2016 to 2020. All children received custom-made 3D-printed conformers increasing in size. We measured height, width, thickness, surface and volume of first and consecutive conformers, as well as horizontal palpebral fissure length (HPF) at start and follow-up visits. We analysed these parameters for severely (<45%) and moderately (>45%–75%) affected children, based on affected axial length on ultrasonography.

Results We included 18 cases (9 severe, 9 moderate) with a total of 174 conformers (88 severe, 86 moderate) and a mean follow-up of 2.8 years (range 1.3–4.8). The mean relative HPF increased from 77% to 93% with 16/17 cases reaching >80%, and 12/17 cases >90% symmetry. Horizontal and vertical conformer dimensions increased up to 10 months of treatment, with a steeper slope for the severe group (10.5% vs 5.5% for height and 9.0% vs 6.1% for width gain per treatment month, for severe and moderate MICA, respectively). After 10 months of treatment conformer height and width increased only slightly. No serious complications were observed.

Conclusion 3D-design and printing of solid conformers results in highly acceptable horizontal eyelid symmetry in the treatment of congenital MICA. The mean increase in conformer height and width in the first 10 months should be about 170% for moderate and about 200% for severe MICA. The presented conformer size formulas can aid ophthalmologists and ocularists to plan conformer treatment.

NB this work has recently been accepted for publication in British Journal of Ophthalmology, copyright by the authors: Groot ALW, et alBr J Ophthalmol 2022;0:1–7. doi:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2021-320882 1


Annabel GROOT (Nijmegen, The Netherlands), Jelmer REMMERS, Birgit LISSENBERG-WITTE, Simon DE MEULENAERE, Duygu TALAN, Niels LIBERTON, Pim DE GRAAF, Annette MOLL, Peerooz SAEED, Dyonne HARTONG
16:15 - 17:00 Time for questions and discussion.
Room 1
17:00

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A29.2
17:00 - 17:45

Full Member ESOPRS General Assembly

Room 1
20:00 CONGRESS DINNER Room 1
Saturday 17 September
08:00 ESOPRS MAIN MEETING - DAY 2
08:15

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A30
08:15 - 09:45

Oral Communications
Lacrymal

Moderators: Daniel EZRA (United Kingdom), Ulrich SCHAUDIG (Chief) (HAMBURG, Germany)
08:15 - 09:45 #30885 - OP52 Age-related changes in the lacrimal punctum morphology in a normal population: an update.
OP52 Age-related changes in the lacrimal punctum morphology in a normal population: an update.

Objective: To define the clinical and optical coherence tomography (OCT) morphology of the lacrimal punctum and assess the age-related changes across 8 decades of life in a normal population.
Methods: A total of 1310 high-magnification slit-lamp, Fourier-domain OCT (FD-OCT), and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images were obtained from 320 puncta of normal asymptomatic individuals representing the Indian population. The punctum and peri-punctal area were defined with the help of 2 rims (inner punctal rim and outer punctal rim ) and 3 zones (white zone [Wz], separation zone [Sz], and peri-punctal vascularity). FD-OCT images were used to measure the external punctal diameters and internal lacrimal punctal diameters and the reflectivity patterns of the 3 punctal layers. OCTA was used to assess the branching and extent of vascular networks.
Results: The upper puncta were narrower and more circular than the lower puncta across the decades. The elevation of the punctal papilla began in the upper puncta in the fifth decade, involved the lower puncta in the sixth decade, and gradually became exaggerated by the eighth decade. A typical punctal narrowing in previously wide puncta began to appear in the sixth decade of life, peaks in the seventh decade, and reverses gradually and spontaneously by the end of the eighth decade of life. The third and fourth decades saw a narrowing of the Sz with prominent vascularity crossing the Sz to reach the Wz. The Sz became indistinct in the fifth and sixth decades of life. The FD-OCT showed gradual thickening and dominance of the fibrous layer from the fifth to eighth decade of life. The clinical vascularity in the peri-punctal region increases from the third decade onwards, with vascular networks becoming increasingly dense, intricate, and branched as the age progresses.
Conclusion: The present study defined and characterized the involutional changes in a normal population’s first–eighth decades of life. Significant morphological changes were noticed across the different age groups with several clinical implications.


Nandini BOTHRA (India, India), Mohammad JAVED ALI
08:15 - 09:45 #32143 - OP53 Ultrasonic guidance of transcutaneous injection of stem cells into the lacrimal gland of patients with aqueous deficient dry eye disease.
OP53 Ultrasonic guidance of transcutaneous injection of stem cells into the lacrimal gland of patients with aqueous deficient dry eye disease.

Objective: To develop a method of injecting a volume of up to 50% of the lacrimal gland (LG) volume whilst minimizing patient discomfort and maximizing accurate delivery.This method was used in a randomized placebo-controlled trial aimed at elucidating the therapeutic effect of allogeneic stem cells in 40 patients with aqueous deficient dry eye disease (ADDE). These patients had a small LG, suffered from sensitivity to light and found lid eversion painful.Methods:Stem cells:The authors have recently conducted a safety study for injection of mesenchymal stem cells to the LG of 7 patients with ADDE. One transconjunctival injection of a volume of maximally 50% of the LG was well tolerated in all 7 patients (ref 1) Ultrasonography and injection into the LG:Traditionally injection into the LG is performed by everting the upper eyelid and aiming the needle towards the palpebral lobe (ref 2)Ultrasound can provide real-time images of the LG and can be used to safely guide the needle ensuring the correct placement within the gland capsule. This reduces the risk of injury to the eye and adjacent structures and enables transcutaneous injection.Ultrasound scans were performed using a GE Logiq E10 (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA) ultrasound machine with 5-16 ML and 6-24 MHz transducers. Ultrasound was performed by two expert rheumatological ultrasonographers. We recorded the injection and observed an enlargement of the LG ensuring delivery within the lacrimal gland before the needle was removed.Results:The position of the injection needle within the LG was documented in all 40 patients. Injection of the stem cells (N=20) or vehicle (N=20) led to an enlargement of the glandular structures in all cases.Conclusion:Ultrasound guidance of injection into the lacrimal gland enables injection on a closed eye causing minimum patient discomfort and maximum certainty of accurate “drug” delivery. No adverse reactions related to this injection procedure were observed.[LT1] 

References:1.      Møller-Hansen M et al. Safety and feasibility of mesenchymal stem cell therapy in patients with aqueous deficient dry eye disease. Ocul Surf. 2021 Jan;19:43-52. doi: 10.1016/j.jtos.2020.11.013. Epub 2020 Nov 28. PMID: 33253910.2.      Riemann R et al Successful treatment of crocodile tears by injection of botulinum toxin into the lacrimal gland: a case report. Ophthalmology 1999; 106: 2322–2324.

 

 [LT1]


Anne Katrine WIENCKE (Copenhagen, Denmark), Lene TERSLEV, Søren TORP-PEDERSEN, Ann-Cathrine LARSEN, Michael MØLLER-HANSEN, Steffen HEEGAARD
08:15 - 09:45 #30464 - OP54 Evaluating the effectiveness of lacrimal gland botulinum toxin using the TEARS score.
OP54 Evaluating the effectiveness of lacrimal gland botulinum toxin using the TEARS score.

Purpose:

To evaluate the effectiveness of lacrimal gland botulinum toxin injections for epiphora.

 

Methods:

Patients receiving incobotulinum toxin A injection (Xeomin 2.5 - 5 units) injected into the palpebral lobe of the lacrimal gland for epiphora of any cause were prospectively recruited. Epiphora was graded at baseline and at 2-6 months using the TEARS score. This is a validated measure of tearing frequency (T), clinical effects (E), activity limitation (A) and reflex tearing (R). The underlying aetiology was recorded, along with duration of treatment effect, complications and whether the patient went on to undergo further injections.

 

Results:

Thirty-four patients were recruited with a mean age of 62.2 (+/- 15.1) years. Of these, 23 (68%) had gustatory epiphora secondary to facial nerve synkinesis. Other aetiologies included eyelid malposition (18%) and canalicular or nasolacrimal obstruction (12%). There were no complications reported. The effect duration lasted a median 13 weeks (range 6 – 26). Over half (52%) saw a reduction in tearing frequency (T), with 33% gaining >= 2-point improvement. Improvements in clinical effects (E) and activity limitation (A) were seen in 48% and 55% of patients respectively, with 30% and 33% respectively gaining >= 2-point improvement. Improvements in R scores were observed in 42% with 24% seeing >= 2-point improvements. There was no significant difference in the proportion responding favourably when comparing gustatory and non-gustatory epiphora. Additional injections were sought in 91% of patients with gustatory epiphora vs 50% of those with other causes (p<0.01). 

 

Conclusion:

Incobotulinum toxin A administered to the lacrimal gland is a safe and effective treatment option for epiphora, with clinical improvements seen in most patients regardless of aetiology. Patients with gustatory epiphora secondary to facial nerve synkinesis are more likely to undergo repeat injections compared with other aetiologies. The TEARS score provides validated quantitative and qualitative outcome data that can be used to support treatment decisions and provide evidence of value for commissioners.


Samantha HUNT (East Grinstead, United Kingdom), Christopher SCHULZ, Raman MALHOTRA
08:15 - 09:45 #31966 - OP55 The role of dacryoscintigraphy in evaluation and management of patients with functional epiphora.
OP55 The role of dacryoscintigraphy in evaluation and management of patients with functional epiphora.

Abstract

Purpose: Many patients present with complaints of tearing but have a normal lacrimal outflow work up. To investigate how dacryoscintigraphy (DSG) may aid in their diagnosis and management.

Methods: A retrospective case series was performed on patients with symptomatic tearing despite no identified external cause and normal lacrimal probing and irrigation (i.e., functional epiphora). Many of these patients had been diagnosed by other providers with “dry eye”, but failed to improve with artificial tear supplementation. All patients with normal office evaluation underwent DSG testing.  If DSG demonstrated normal evacuation of tears into the nose no intervention was undertaken. We recommended surgery to enhance entry of tears through the puncta and canaliculi into the lacrimal sac for those with delayed tear flow prior to entering the lacrimal sac (pre-sac) and dacryocystorhinostomy for those with delayed tear flow after the lacrimal sac (post-sac). Surgical success was defined as epiphora being resolved or improved. Surgical failure was defined as epiphora being unchanged or worse when compared to the preoperative timepoint.

Results: Fifty five patients (86 sides) were identified for DSG testing. Of these, 96% (53 patients, 79 sides) had abnormal DSG findings indicating delayed clearance of tears through the lacrimal outflow system. A pre-sac delay was observed in 14 cases (18.2%) and post-sac delay in 63 (81.8%). Overall surgical success was 83.1% across the cohort. Success was 100% in the pre-sac group and 79.4% in the post-sac group (p = 0.06). Mean follow-up time was 22 months (Standard Deviation = 21 months).

Conclusion: Many patients present with complaints of tearing but have a normal lacrimal outflow work up. DSG revealed an anatomic location of impaired lacrimal outflow in 96% of cases. Surgery to correct the anatomic localization of outflow restriction allowed a better than 80% successful resolution of epiphora.

 


Evan KALIN-HADJU, Robert KERSTEN (San Francisco, USA), Mikaël BERNIER, Reza VAGEFI, Victoria LEUNG, Amanda MILLER
08:15 - 09:45 #30756 - OP58 Outcome of primary monocanalicular stent placement in pediatric Down’s syndrome patients with congenital nasolacrimal obstruction.
OP58 Outcome of primary monocanalicular stent placement in pediatric Down’s syndrome patients with congenital nasolacrimal obstruction.

Objective: Congenital Nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) is a relatively common problem in children with Down Syndrome (DS). Probing and irrigation (PI) may be less successful with monocanalicular stent intubation (MSI), thus raising some concern regarding the preferred treatment in this population. Our purpose was to describe the surgical outcome of PI along with MSI in children with DS compared with non-DS patients.

Methods: A single-center retrospective medical chart review was performed for all children who underwent PI with MSI as primary treatment for congenital NLDO between 2009 and 2020. The diagnosis of NLDO was based on the history, ocular examination, and dye disappearance test. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon (WRK). Main outcome measure was surgical success defined as resolution of symptoms after surgery.

Results: A total of 1020 patients participated in the study, 1001 children without DS and 19 children with DS, 48.6% female and 52.4% male. A total of 1469 eyes were operated on the non-DS group and 35 eyes on the DS group. The mean age at procedure was 1.9±1.4 years (range: 0.1 – 18.1), the mean follow-up time was 35.0 months. No difference was found in age and gender between both groups.

A higher rate of right NLDO was observed in the DS group (100% vs. 73.2%, p=0.006). Patients with DS had more bilateral obstructions (84.2% vs. 46.8%, p=0.001) and had lower success rate (57.1% vs 92.4%,p<0.0001). No difference was found between nasolacrimal stenosis grade as appreciated during the procedure or rates of stent loss after the procedure. The median time to failure was 3.1 months in the DS group, and 5.2 months (range: 0.7-43.2) in the non-DS group. The hazard ratio comparing Down’s syndrome patients to Down’s syndrome-free patients was 6.6 (95% CI: 3.2-13.7, P<0.001).

Conclusions: CNLDO in DS has unique characteristics. It is more likely to be bilateral and to involve the right nasolacrimal system, and less likely to resolve after initial probing with monocanalicular stent intubation. However, in most patients, the procedure was successful, thus withholding the need for more aggressive primary treatment modalities such as balloon dacryoplasty or DCR. Therefore, we believe that probing with monocanalicular stent intubation remains a viable primary treatment option for DS patients.


Daphna LANDAU (Tel Aviv, Israel), Christiana E. MUNROE, Karen E. REVERE, Lama KHATIB, Peiying HUA, Gui-Shuang YING, Gil BINENBAUM, James A. KATOWITZ, William R. KATOWITZ
08:15 - 09:45 #32163 - OP59 Mid-term outcome of endoscopy-guided laser-assisted transcaruncular stoploss jones tube implantation for canalicular obstructions.
OP59 Mid-term outcome of endoscopy-guided laser-assisted transcaruncular stoploss jones tube implantation for canalicular obstructions.

Purpose: To assess mid-term outcomes of minimally-invasive endoscopy-guided transcaruncular laser-assisted StopLoss Jones tube (SLJT) implantation for severe canalicular obstructions in primary surgeries.

Method: We retrospectively identified patients who underwent an endoscopy-guided transcaruncular SLJT implantation as the primary surgery for complete canalicular dacryostenosis. The procedure was conducted under an 810-nm diode laser's assistance. Patients were followed up for a minimum of 1 year postoperatively. Surgical and functional success rates, intraoperative and postoperative complications, and the necessity for secondary surgery are evaluated.

Result:Thirty-two eyes in 32 patients were identified, including 19 (59%) of canalicular agenesis and 13 (41%) of acquired canalicular obstruction. Primary surgical success was achieved in 30 of the 32 cases (94%). Two patients (6%) required secondary surgery to replace an SLJT with a shorter one. Ultimately, all cases showed well-placed functioning tubes. Seven of the 32 cases (22%) presented conjunctival scarring, conjunctival granuloma tissue, with or without tube-associated irritation of the ocular surface. In the one-year follow-up of 32 patients, complete functional success was achieved in 84%, and five patients (16%) complained about ocular surface discomfort. In the two-year follow-up of 15 patients, complete functional success was achieved in 12 patients (80%), and three patients (20%) suffered from ocular surface discomfort. No sink-in, migration, extrusion, nor crack of the tube was observed during the follow-up.

Conclusion: Endoscopy-guided transcaruncular diode laser-assisted SLJT implantation appears to be a promising minimally invasive approach for the primary treatment of severe canalicular dacryostenosis. It has shown a high functional success rate and might avoid the risk of tube malposition and extrusion, septal and turbinate injury, nasal adhesion, drainage failure, ethmoiditis, postoperative bleeding, and cutaneous scars.


Ludwig M. HEINDL, Sitong JU (Koln, Germany), Yongwei GUO, Alexander C. ROKOHL
08:15 - 09:45 #30669 - OP60 Assessment of lacrijet monocanalicular intubation for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction.
OP60 Assessment of lacrijet monocanalicular intubation for congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

     Background: Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO) is usually secondary to a blockage at the valve of Hasner by a membranous tissue. Silicone lacrimal intubation is indicated if conservative and/or probing treatments fail to resolve CNLDO. The purpose of this study is to assess the success rate and complications of Lacrijet monocanalicular stent (FCI S.A.S, Paris, France) intubation in children treated for CNLDO.

        Methods: Retrospective review study which included children with CNLDO that were intubated with Lacrijet monocanalucilar silicone tube.The Lacrijet tube remained in place for 11-15 weeks post operatively and was removed in the clinic with topical anesthesia. Operative time was recorded for each case. All children were evaluated using the following parameters preoperatively and postoperatively: tear meniscus height, Fluorescein dye disappearance test, and MUNK score. 

         Results: The study included 20 eyes with mean age of 26.25 ± 11.25 months. 17 eyes (85%) had undergone probing previously. Mean operation time of Lacrijet intubation was 8.5 minutes (95%CI 7.04 – 9.95). Mean follow-up period was 204.65 ± 105.27 days. Lacrijet intubation resulted in statistically significant improvements in tear meniscus height (P < .001), fluorescein dye disappearance test (P < .001), and MUNK score (P < .001) in all children. Two different sizes of Lacrijet intubations were used. Complete success was obtained in all cases. No complications were observed.

         Conclusions: Lacrijet lacrimal intubation has a high rate of success, shortens surgical time and has a low rate of complications in children with CNLDO.


Shirin HAMED AZZAM, Shirin HAMED AZZAM (Poriya, Israel), Morris HARTESTEIN, Angela DOLMETSCH, Abed MUKARI
08:15 - 09:45 #31950 - OP62 Chronic inflammation score of the lacrimal sac: Can it be a prognostic factor for external dacryocystorhinostomy outcomes?
OP62 Chronic inflammation score of the lacrimal sac: Can it be a prognostic factor for external dacryocystorhinostomy outcomes?

Aim:Many factors can affect external-Dacryocystorhinostomy (ex-DCR) success.It was reported that chronic inflammation score (CIS) can aid to determine the outcomes of endoscopic DCR.However, to date there is no study evaluating the relationship between ex-DCR outcomes and CIS.Therefore, this study was conducted to find out if there is an effect of CIS on the surgical outcomes of Ex-DCR.

Methods:Lacrimal sac specimens of the 30 naive ex-DCR patients were scored according to these 3 histopathological features:the intensity of inflammatory cell infiltration (IC), the density of fibrosis (F) and the degree of capillary proliferation (CP).Each features were scored as 1 for mild, 2 for moderate and 3 for severe.The total score was CIS.The surgical outcomes were assessed subjectively (+/- epiphora) and objectively (+/- syringing).Histopathological features and CIS were compared between successful and unsuccessful results.

Results:The subjective success rate was 86.7% and the objective rate was 90%.For both subjective and objective outcomes;IC, F and CP were significantly different between successful and unsuccessful patients(for subjective outcomes;p=0.02, 0.001 and 0.001; for objective outcomes;p=0.03, 0.01 and 0.007 respectively).Total mean CIS was 3.80±1.24 and it was higher in both objectively and subjectively unsuccessful cases than in successful cases(6.33±0.57 vs. 3.52±0.94, p=0.004 and 6.25±0.50 vs. 3.42±0.81, p<0.001;respectively).

Conclusion:CIS were found to be higher in unsuccessful ex-DCR than in successful.CIS can be a useful prognostic factor for ex-DCR outcomes.This study should be regarded as a pilot study and must be validated with a larger sample size.


Deniz KILIC (Ankara, Turkey), Ayşenur PAŞAOĞLU, Sefa ÜNAL, Bekir AYYILDIZ, Suat Hayri UGURBAS
08:15 - 09:45 #32502 - OP63 Comparing outcomes of standard silicone tube lacrimal intubation techniques with adaptations to reduce risk of Covid-19 transmission in Dacryocystorhinostomy surgery.
OP63 Comparing outcomes of standard silicone tube lacrimal intubation techniques with adaptations to reduce risk of Covid-19 transmission in Dacryocystorhinostomy surgery.

Introduction

During the Covid-19 pandemic, dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) technique was modified to reduce risk of viral transmission through exposure to nasal mucosa during the tube removal and to reduce the number of post-operative visits.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed case notes from patients who had DCR (external and endonasal) in 2020 at Moorfields Eye Hospital, comparing 2 groups:

Group A. Lacrimal intubation technique requiring post-operative removal via nasal cavity – tied bicanalicular silicone stents, or:

Group B. Lacrimal intubation not requiring post-operative manipulation via nasal cavity - self-retaining monocanalicular stents or untied bicanalicular silicone stent with intranasal silicone sleeve.

Exclusion criteria:

  • no lacrimal intubation

  • obstruction proximal to nasolacrimal duct

  • primary insertion of Lester Jones tubes

Primary outcome was success or failure, measured by symptomatic improvement (epiphora or discharge). Secondary outcomes include number of post-operative appointments, wound healing and complications. We compared outcomes between group A vs B, and whether outcomes differed in external DCR with suture vs glue skin closure. Chi-squared and T-test were used.

Results

114 DCR (61% external; 39% endonasal) were performed from 1st January to 31st December 2020 for nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Median age was 58 years (range 5-92; 26% male, 74% female). 19 (14%) patients met exclusion criteria. Group A (n=87) success was 87%; post-operative complications arose in 9% (most commonly cheesewiring (2%), hypertrophic scarring (2%) and epistaxis (2%)). 

In group B (n=27), neither success (92%, p=0.488) nor post-operative complications (4%, p=0.319; one case of mild infection) were significantly different to group A.

Success did not differ between patients who had skin closure with glue (95% success, 28% of patients) or sutures (88% success, 72% of patients, p=0.367) during external DCR. Average number of post-operative appointments was lower in patients who had skin closure with glue (1.89) compared to sutures (3.25, p<0.001). No wound healing issues or post-operative cellulitis were reported in either group.

Conclusions

Variations in lacrimal intubation and skin closure during DCR can avoid high-risk exposure to nasal mucosa and reduce post-operative appointments without compromising success or complication rates. These modifications in DCR developed during the pandemic may have a long-term value.


Otti VANESSA (London, United Kingdom), Maria MAS CASTELLS, Rishi RAMESSUR, Swan KANG
08:15 - 09:45 #32201 - OP64 Long-term outcomes of revision endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy aided by 4-mm coronary balloon catheter dacryoplasty.
OP64 Long-term outcomes of revision endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy aided by 4-mm coronary balloon catheter dacryoplasty.

Purpose: To assess the long-term efficacy of 4-mm coronary balloon catheter dacryoplasty in revision endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (RevEnDCR).

Methods: Retrospective interventional case-series of patients who underwent RevEnDCR aided by a 4-mm coronary balloon catheter (CBC) dacryoplasty. The indications for the surgery were previously failed DCRs by external or endoscopic approach where the ostium showed near total cicatrization with or without the presence of organized granuloma threatening the internal common opening (ICO). The coronary balloon (4 × 10 mm, SPALNO, Cardiomac, Haryana, India) with the guidewire was used and a minimum of >12 months of follow-up was considered for analysis.

Results:Ten lacrimal systems of eight patients with mean age of 48.8 years underwent CBC-assisted revision endoscopic DCR. Of the 10 failed DCRs, 6 had a previous external approach DCR and 4 were endoscopic DCRs. Grossly stenosed ostium with near total cicatricial closure were noted in half of the patients (50%, 5/10) while the remaining half, in addition, showed organized granulomas threatening the ICO. The surgical technique using CBC was found to be minimally invasive, easy to perform with multiple advantages like uniform clearance of the area in front of ICO and more predictable lacrimal sac flaps. At a mean follow-up of 20 months, anatomical and functional success were achieved in 90% (9/10) of the eyes.

Conclusion: The coronary balloon catheter-assisted revision endoscopic DCR is a minimally invasive and viable alternative in select group of patients of failed DCR with near total cicatrisation or organized granulomas threatening ICO.


Nandini BOTHRA (India, India), Mohammad JAVED ALI
08:15 - 09:45 Time for questions and discussion.
Room 1
09:45 COFFEE BREAK & EXHIBITION AREA - VISIT OF THE EPOSTERS
10:10

"Saturday 17 September"

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10:10 - 10:30

Keynote Lecture IV

10:10 - 10:30 Lacrimal endoscopy ; myth or reality in the management of epiphora. Karl-Heinz EMMERICH (Direktor der Klinik) (Keynote Speaker, Darmstadt, Germany)
To look inside the lacrimal was a long existing wish in the management of Epiphora.
The lacrimal system was still a myth, the diagnostic possibilities have covered the clinical examination and indirect procedures like Dacryocystographie.

Since 1995, microendoscopes with rather good quality of pictures and a maximum diameter of 1.1 mm have been presented by Storz company and Polydiagnost company. The results were first presented to the ESORPS by J. M. Piffaretti with the Storz system and by Karl-Heinz Emmerich and Hans Meyer-Rüsenberg by the Polydiagnost system. Microendoscopic procedures for recanalization of the lacrimal system like Microdrilldacryoplasty and Laserdacryoplasty have been introduced and have been developed as important tools managing epiphora.

Reality is the worldwide spreading of Dacryoendoscopy. Reality is, the experience of more than 30.000 Dacryoendoscopies by Hans Meyer-Rüsenberg an me in the last 28 years. Reality is, in most cases of PANDO microendoscopic procedures are the first step procedures and the rates of DCR in our patients could decrease from more then 30% to 10%. Reality is, DCR and Jones procedure are still keeping to be important in those cases, which are not giving the indication for micoendoscopic procedures.
So, in reality, Dacryoendoscopy has brought a lot of new insights of epiphora reasons for us and the possibility of a less traumatical, but successful treatment of Epiphora.
10:10 - 10:30 Introduced by:. Mehrad HAMEDANI (Médecin chef) (Chairperson, LAUSANNE, Switzerland)
Room 1
10:30

"Saturday 17 September"

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A33
10:30 - 12:00

Oral Communications
Flash

Moderators: Mehdi FENDRI (MEDECIN CONSULTANT) (TUNIS, Tunisia), Hirohiko KAKIZAKI (Aichi, Japan)
10:30 - 12:00 #32295 - OP65 The Lesser-known Lateral Fornix Orbitotomy.
OP65 The Lesser-known Lateral Fornix Orbitotomy.

In the array of lateral orbitotomy procedures, the lateral fornix approach is less well known. It involves a curvilinear conjunctival incision in the lateral fornix, situated behind the equator of the globe. Dissection remains posterior to the lateral orbital tubercle of Whitnall. The technique allows exposure of the lateral orbit for repair of orbitozygomatic fractures and defects, to access extra- and intraconal lesions, and to perform lateral orbital decompression. The advantage of the lateral fornix approach is wide access to the lateral orbit without severing the anatomy of the lateral canthal ligament. The secretory tear ducts of the lacrimal gland require identification to avoid injury. In this presentation, the technique and applications are described.


Ilse MOMBAERTS (Leuven, Belgium, Belgium)
10:30 - 12:00 #32441 - OP66 Development of endoscopic orbital surgery - the progression of a tertiary referral centre.
OP66 Development of endoscopic orbital surgery - the progression of a tertiary referral centre.

Abstract title: Development of endoscopic orbital surgery - the progression of a tertiary referral centre

Format: Oral

Authors: Ahmad Aziz, Vickie Lee, Rajni Jain, Catherine Rennie, William Grant

Affiliation: Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, UK

Introduction/purpose: Transorbital neuroendoscopic surgery is gaining in popularity with ENT and neurosurgeons as an approach with improved visualisation of the orbit. Here we present with pictures and videos the benefits of an endoscopic approach to the orbit.

Methods: An endoscopic approach has been used in the procedures of enucleation, orbital abscess drainage, orbital decompression, access to the orbital apex and biopsy of lesions in the medial orbit posterior to the globe. We present a sample of the techniques used and the examples of the visualisation achieved with this approach.

Results: An endoscopic approach to the orbit has been used successfully in a busy London tertiary referral centre. There is superior visibility compared to traditional anterior orbital approaches of the posterior orbit and optic nerve.

Conclusion: The use of an endoscope in the orbit has a learning curve but offers enhanced visualisation in what is a small operative field and improved access to posterior orbital lesions. We recommend the use of the endoscope in cases where access can be limited and visualisation poor.


Ahmad AZIZ (London, United Kingdom), Vickie LEE, Rajni JAIN, Catherine RENNIE, William GRANT
10:30 - 12:00 #32303 - OP67 Evaluation of Orbital lymphoproliferative and inflammatory diseases by Gene Expression Analysis.
OP67 Evaluation of Orbital lymphoproliferative and inflammatory diseases by Gene Expression Analysis.

Background: Non-specific orbital inflammation (NSOI) and IgG4-related-orbital-disease (IgG4-ROD) are often challenging to differentiate. Furthermore, it is still uncertain how chronic inflammation, like IgG4-ROD, can lead to Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of gene expression analysis to differentiate orbital autoimmune diseases and elucidate genetic overlaps.

Methods: First, we established a database of NSOI, IgG4 ROD and MALT patients of our orbital center (2000-2019). In a consensus process, three typical patients of the above mentioned three groups (mean age 56.4±17y) at similar locations were selected. Afterwards, RNA was isolated using the RNeasy-FFPE-kit (Qiagen) from archived paraffin-embedded tissues. The RNA was then subjected to gene expression analysis (NanoString nCounter®) including a total of 1364 target genes. The most significantly up- and downregulated genes were used for a machine learning algorithm to distinguish entities. All statistical analyses were calculated using the Ri386 statistical programming environment (v4.0.3).

Results:

Using a set of marker genes the decision-tree-based algorithm could distinguish between the three entities with a high probability (p<0.0001). Interestingly, gene expression patterns showed a characteristic overlap of lymphoma with IgG4-ROD and NSOI. In contrast, IgG4-ROD shared only altered expression of one gene regarding NSOI.

Conclusion: Genetic expression analysis has the potential for faster and more secure differentiation between NSOI and IgG4-ROD. After this screening process for marker genes, a validation in a larger cohort is undergoing to verify the results. MALT-lymphoma and IgG4-ROD showed markedly more genetic similarities, which points towards the possible progression to lymphoma.


Michael OEVERHAUS (Essen, Germany), Karim AL-GHAZZAWI, Fabian MAIRINGER, Anja ECKSTEIN
10:30 - 12:00 #32144 - OP68 Orbital solitary fibrous tumours: a single-centre case series.
OP68 Orbital solitary fibrous tumours: a single-centre case series.

Background: Solitary fibrous tumours (SFT) are rare tumours with an intermediate malignant potential. The risk factors for aggressive behaviour of these tumours are still poorly understood. We detail a series of orbital SFT managed in a specialised centre in order to contribute to a better understanding of these rare tumours.

Patients and methods: 15 patients with orbital SFT treated in our centre between 01/01/2013 and 30/11/2021 have been selected. Clinical, radiological and histo-pathological characteristics are described and analysed.

Results: On the 15 lesions included, 4 lesions are secondary addressed recurrences with infiltration of surrounding tissue. These 4 lesions have been treated with a further surgical resection: 2/4 with preservation of the globe, the optic nerve and/or the oculomotor muscles with remaining tumour tissue controlled by adjuvant treatments (1/4 gamma-knife, 1/4 proton therapy), and 2/4 with exenteration up to the vital neurosurgical structures with later recurrence from the intracranial tumour tissue and metastasis in spite of adjuvant treatment.

On the 11 primary lesions managed in our centre, 8/11 lesions have been completely removed with no recurrence. 3/11 lesions have been near-totally removed due to infiltration of the surrounding noble tissues. Radiological and histo-pathological considerations are detailed.

Discussion: Orbital SFT are rare tumours with a potential malignancy with still poorly understood prognostic criteria. Our single-centre series of orbital cases is one of the largest series described in the literature. Discussion and comparison with recent studies pinpoint the need of meta-analysis.

Conclusion: Considering the rarity of orbital SFT, our additional data should contribute to a better understanding of these tumours with malignant potential.


Natasha MAMBOUR, Natasha MAMBOUR (Paris), Mathieu ZMUDA, Augustin LECLER, Marc PUTTERMAN, Pierre-Vincent JACOMET, Olivier GALATOIRE
10:30 - 12:00 #32501 - OP69 Orbital Apex Exenteration.
OP69 Orbital Apex Exenteration.

Background:

Orbital exentration is a standard treatment for severe orbital involvement in mucormycosis when it has its indications in addition to other medical remedies.

Normally, Orbital exenteration removes the entire contents of the bony orbit, including the globe, extraocular muscles and periorbital fat, and many times includes the eyelids.

It leads to several functional, esthetic and psychological problems for the patients.

In many cases of orbital mucormycosis, only orbital apex is involved and the anterior orbit including the globe and eyelids are not necrotic and logically and potentially do not need debridment.

If there is any technique not to debride the uninvolved tissues including the globe and eyelids, we will be able to avoid the devastating effects of a total or subtotal orbital exentration.

In this presentation, we introduce a technique to remove and debride the necrotic tissues behind the globe including the orbital apex but sparing the uninvolved orbital tissues including the globe and eyelids.

 

 Methods:

 Case series, Endoscopic endonasal orbital surgery approach

 

Results:

The surgery was done in 4 proved sino-orbito-nasal post-covid mucormycosis patients with severe orbital apex necrosis that were given indications of orbital exentration by at least 2 oculoplastic surgeons.All eyes had no light perception with frozen movements.

The technique was endoscopically and endonasally removal of the necrotic tissues of the whole orbital apex including the medial and lateral necrotic bony wall and apex necrotic soft tissues. We will show the technique and all cases one by one. In all of four patients, globe,eyelids and anterior orbital tissues were saved. We followed up them between 4 to 8 months until we were sure there was not any sign of the infection recurrence.
Conclusion:

Many cases of severe mucormycosis have already lost their vision due to orbital apex involvement, and frozen eye is observed in many; hence, the surgeon needs not to worry about vision loss perioperatively and can remove even the optic nerve in the case of involvement.

Sparing the globe and uninvolved tissue with the aid of endoscopic-power-assisted surgeries can bring the feasibility of avoiding a rather disfiguring and catastrophic procedure and eliciting the need for further complex reconstruction.


Abolfazl RAHIMI (Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran), S Hadi SAMIMI
10:30 - 12:00 #32244 - OP70 The change of fusion area after Bilateral microscopic extra/intraconal Orbital fat Decompression for Thyroid Eye Disease.
OP70 The change of fusion area after Bilateral microscopic extra/intraconal Orbital fat Decompression for Thyroid Eye Disease.

Indroduction; Exophthalmos caused by thyroid eye disease is usually treated by orbital decompression, which involves resection of orbital fat and bone. The most common postoperative complication of orbital decompression is new-onset diplopia (NOD). However, almost reports concern diplopia in the primary position, and there are no reports showing changes in the entire visual field. In this study, we investigated how the fusion image area (FIA) changes after orbital decompression surgery, which mainly involves microscopic resection of the orbital intra/extraconal fat, using the binocular single vision (BSV) test.

Methods: Of 76 patients (150 eyes) with thyroid eye disease who underwent bilateral orbital fat decompression under general anesthesia at Oculofacial Clinic Tokyo between January and December 2021, 29 (58 eyes) who were available for a 6-month follow-up were enrolled. Patient age and sex, postoperative changes in Hertel exophthalmometer measurements, amount of orbital fat removed, and BSV were recorded. FIA was defined as the average of the four locations from the primary position at which diplopia was felt, which were measured using the BSV test.

 

The surgery was performed through a conjunctival incision in the inferior fornix, excising the anterior orbital fat, extraconal fat and then intraconal fat entering between the lateral and inferior rectus muscles and between the medial and inferior rectus muscles, being careful to avoid nerves and blood vessels. The excised fat was placed in an empty syringe without air to measure the volume after blood was removed with gauze.

 

Results: The 31 patients (28 women, three men) had a mean age of 43.4±13.2 years (range, 19–72). Mean ocular protrusion decreased 3.6mm from 20.0±3.2 mm preoperatively to 16.4±3.0 mm postoperatively. The average amount of fat removed was 3.8±1.6 mL; accordingly, the volume of orbital fat needed to improve the exophthalmos by 1 mm was 1.1 mL. FIA was changed  from 43.7° preoperatively to 44.2° (P=0.38), 44.5° (P=0.31), and 44.4° (P=0.34) at 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively, after surgery. At 6 months postoperatively, none of 30 patients without preoperative diplopia in the primary position developed NOD in the primary position. One patient had all field diplopia throughout follow up duration.

 

Conclusion: The fusion area was not decreased significantly at 1,3 months and 6 months after  orbital fat decompression. There were no cases of residual NOD postoperatively.


Tomoyuki KASHIMA (Tokyo, Japan), Masashi MIMURA
10:30 - 12:00 #32151 - OP72 The role of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) in evaluating Thyroid Eye Disease.
OP72 The role of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI) in evaluating Thyroid Eye Disease.

Background: The most common blood tests to evaluate patients with Thyroid Eye Disease (TED) are: Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), T3, T4. However, it is known that those blood tests are not correlated with the severity of TED. In recent years, a new blood test for Thyroid Stimulating Immunoglobulins (TSI) is in use. However, there is not enough evidence about the correlation between the TSI level to Thyroid Eye Disease (TED). Therefore, the purpose of this current study was to evaluate the correlation between TSI and TED and to examine if TSI is a good predictor for the severity of the disease. 

Methods:  A retrospective review of medical records of all patients who attended the TED clinic at Sheba Medical Center, Israel from January 2020 to April 2022 and had a TSI results was performed. The retrieved data included: demographics, comprehensive ophthalmic examination findings, orbital and eyelids evaluation, clinical activity scores (CAS) and laboratory test results.

 Results: 60 patients (43 females) had a known TED and had a documented TSI result.

The mean TSI  at presentation was 1171.35 while at the end of follow up,it was 517.98 (P=0.012). TSI values were found to be positively correlated with IOP (P=0.01) and eyelids measurements of PF (P=0<0.01) and MRD1 (P<0.01) while negatively correlated with Pattern Standard Deviation result (P=0.05).

TSI values > 500 were also found positively correlated with the clinical activity score (CAS) (P=0.02) and eyelids measurements of PF (P=0.02), MRD1 (P=0.01) and MRD2 (P=0.003) while negatively correlation with Pattern Standard Seviation result (P=0.015).

TSI values > 500 were found to be significantly correlated with medical treatment- high dose steroids (P=0.05), steroid treatment according to the European Group on Graves’ Orbitopathy protocol (P=0.02) and Radioactive iodine (P=0.03).

Conclusions: TSI value is correlated with the presentation of the clinical features of TED. TSI can be considered as a good predictor factor for the activity of the disease as well as the number of surgical and medical interventions. Therefore, It is recommended to add this blood test to the panel of blood tests for patients with TED. 


Shiran MADGAR (Tel Aviv, Israel), Guy BEN SIMON, Ayelet PRIEL, Ofira ZLOTO
10:30 - 12:00 #30874 - OP73 Porous orbital implants: is it time to close this chapter?
OP73 Porous orbital implants: is it time to close this chapter?

Abstract: A new era in anophthalmic socket surgery began with the introduction of coralline hydroxyapatite (HA) in the late 1980’s. The HA implant represented a new generation of buried spherical implant with an interconnecting system of pores that allowed host fibrovascular ingrowth. By drilling into the HA implant and inserting a peg, the orbital implant could be directly coupled to the overlying prosthetic eye, producing life-like movement of the prosthesis. Although HA implants significantly increased the cost of rehabilitating the anophthalmic socket (e.g., higher implant costs, wrapping material costs, additional surgeries to implant a peg, confirmatory bone scan etc.), the proposed advantages of a lower migration rate, lower extrusion rate, resistance to infection, and enhanced motility were used to justify the added expense. The author reviews his 30-year experience with a variety of these porous implants as well as the literature and reports that there is no evidence to corroborate a lower migration rate, a lower extrusion rate, and a lower infection rate. With respect to enhanced motility, there is no difference from that of a non-porous implant unless a coupling peg has been used. As with innovative implant designs from the past (e.g., Mules, Rudemann, Cutler), the initial wave of enthusiasm with porous implants has been tempered as an increasing number of surgeons recognize the touted advantages have little scientific data to support them and the implants associated with numerous risks and complications that may be difficult to manage. They are not the gold standard as some once thought.


David JORDAN (Ottawa, Canada)
10:30 - 12:00 #32225 - OP74 Patient Satisfaction and Long-Term Volumetric Measurements after Transcutaneous Restylane Injection for Anophthalmic Socket Syndrome.
OP74 Patient Satisfaction and Long-Term Volumetric Measurements after Transcutaneous Restylane Injection for Anophthalmic Socket Syndrome.

Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of transcutaneous Restylane injection in patients with anophthalmic socket syndrome.

Methods: Twenty-six patients with anophthalmic socket syndrome were treated with transcutaneous injections of Restylane. Patient satisfaction was evaluated using the validated Face-Q scale. A subset of patients (n=12) was followed for ultrasound filler dimensions over time. Three-dimensional images (Figure 1) were also acquired in 11 cases to evaluate both changes in filler volume and upper eyelid crease height (UECH) symmetry. Follow-up was scheduled at 3 months and annually after surgery.

Results: One year post-injection, significant improvement was observed on the FACE-Q scales for psychological well-being (p=0.04), social functioning (p=0.02), satisfaction with facial appearance (p=0.04) and satisfaction with eyes (p=0.02) in the ‘Restylane-only’ group (n=19). Based on echography, no significant differences were observed in the axial, anteroposterior and craniocaudal filler dimensions over 4 years. Compared to baseline, median filler volume based on 3-D imaging significantly increased one year after a single injection (3.35 mm3, IQR: 2.76-4.48 mm3) (p=0.003) and remained stable up to 4 years (p=0.392). Median UECH difference between the prosthetic and the healthy fellow eye significantly decreased from baseline (4.9mm, IQR:1.6-8.6mm) to final follow-up (0.33mm, IQR: 0.16-1.21mm) (p<0.001).

Conclusions: Transcutaneous injection of Restylane improved significantly patient satisfaction scores, lid crease symmetry and superior sulcus volume in patients with anophthalmic socket syndrome. Volumetric measurements remained stable up to at least 4 years after injection. This represents a long-lasting feasible nonsurgical alternative for the management of upper eyelid crease asymmetry and superior sulcus deformity. 


Linda Marie Louise BUSIN (Milan, Italy), Humeyra AYDIN, Steffi J E ROMBOUTS, Emiel ROMEIN, Jelmer REMMERS, Pim DE GRAAF, Dyonne T HARTONG
10:30 - 12:00 #32325 - OP75 Non-surgical treatment for reshaping fornices in contracted sockets.
OP75 Non-surgical treatment for reshaping fornices in contracted sockets.

Purpose: To describe a non-surgical method to reshape shallow fornices in contracted sockets that cannot be adequately fitted with a prosthesis, and to prevent fornices’contraction following socket surgery.Methods: Thirty-two patients unable to retain the prosthesis due to a contracted socket were retrospectively reviewed. Ten patients had a moderately contracted socket and preferred to avoid surgery; in 8 patients the surgery was contraindicated for medical reasons; 14 patients had previously been submitted to mucous-membrane graft or dermis-fat graft. In all cases the socket was fitted with a customised conformer; a mark was made on the conformer at the centre of the eyelid opening. The conformer was then removed from the socket and a cylindrically shaped handle was glued onto the previously marked area to form the so-called compressor. This device was inserted into the socket with two patches positioned on the top of the handle to keep the compressor stable. In 14 patients who underwent reconstructive surgery, the device was positioned immediately after removal of the temporary tarsorrhaphy in order to avoid graft retraction. The compressor is kept 24 hours a day for a week, and afterwards it is alternated with a prosthesis or a conformer during the daytime, until a customized prosthesis can be properly retained into the socket .Results: The use of the compressor allowed the deepening of the fornices in non-surgical patients, and reduced graft contraction and stabilised the fornices after reconstructive surgery. After the treatment, all patients were able to wear a prosthesis.Conclusion: This procedure is effective in permitting the reshaping of shallow fornices in contracted sockets. It is very beneficial in patients who are unfit for surgery. By reducing socket contraction, the compressor increases the success rate of surgery, with good patient satisfaction and the advantage of reducing the chances to having to undergo further interventions.


Alessandra MODUGNO (roma/italy, Italy), Elia FRANZOLIN, Francesco QUARANTA-LEONI
10:30 - 12:00 #32259 - OP76 Manchester eye removal study: 15 years of real-world eye removal experience in a tertiary centre.
OP76 Manchester eye removal study: 15 years of real-world eye removal experience in a tertiary centre.

Introduction

To assess patient demographics, clinical indications, over a fifteen-years period in Manchester (United Kingdom) and to investigate the systemic co-morbidities associated with orbital implant exposure in patients with anophthalmic sockets.

 

Methods:

Retrospective review of patients who underwent enucleation or evisceration at a single tertiary oculoplastic centre between January 1, 2007 and January 1, 2022. The data collected included patient demographics, surgical indication, implant size, implant exposure rate and other postoperative complications. Medical comorbidities, including peripheral or coronary vascular disease, inflammatory conditions, diabetes, malignancy, history of smoking or substance abuses were also recorded. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to determine clinical and demographic factors that have impact on post-operative outcomes.

 

Results:

After excluding patients with incomplete data, two hundred and seventy patients underwent eye removal surgery over a fifteen-year period. Implant exposure was seen in 21 (7.8%) patients. The most common indication for eye removal surgery was painful blind eye (147, 54.4%), followed by trauma (31, 11.5%), severe infection (30, 11.1%) and malignancy (29, 10.7%). Significantly more patients with the following clinical or demographic factors experienced implant exposure: malignancy (29.4% vs 4.7%, p=0.002), substance addiction (50.0% vs 5.6%, p=0.021) and smoking (37.5% vs 4.3%, p=0.001). Multivariate logistic regression model revealed that history of smoking, secondary implant, and use of porous implant materials were significant predictors of implant exposure (p=0.017, 0.008, 0.045, respectively).

 

Conclusion:

This report shed novel insights in the impact of medical comorbidities on patients with orbital implant exposure. Understanding the pathophysiology of implant exposure and taking a holistic approach are crucial to preoperative planning and postoperative care.


Siyin LIU (Manchester, United Kingdom), Daisy MORGAN, Laura CHAN, James LAYBOURNE, Anne COOK, Paul CANNON, Sajid ATAULLAH
10:30 - 12:00 #30461 - OP77 Phantom vision after eye amputation: prevalence, features and related risk factors.
OP77 Phantom vision after eye amputation: prevalence, features and related risk factors.

Aim: Phantom eye syndrome (PES) is a poorly understood and underestimated complication of eye amputation (EA). Seeing with the amputated eye, referred to as phantom vision (PV), is undoubtedly the most intriguing and confusing complication experienced by anophthalmic patients. The aim of the study was to assess PV prevalence, clinical features and risk factors after EA.

Methods: A multicentric questionnaire-based study was conducted between April 2016 and July 2017. Patients >18 years who underwent EA >3 months ago had a socket examination before inclusion. Data recorded included patients’ demographics, and preoperative, surgical and postoperative features.

Results: One hundred patients (53 men) with a mean age of 65.1 years (29-92; SD=13.0) were included. EA indications were: uveal melanoma (n=24, 24%), trauma (n=20, 20%), retinal detachment (n=20, 20%), glaucoma (n=14, 14%) and endophthalmitis (n=12, 12%). Thirty (30%) patients experienced PV. Elementary and complex visual hallucinations were experienced by 80% and 20% of patients, respectively. PV usually appeared within the first postoperative month and tended to decrease over time. Risk factors for PV were the preoperative use of proton beam therapy (p=0.006), uveal melanoma (p=0.014), enucleation (p=0.015), anxiety with a HAD score ≥8 (p=0.042), depression with a HAD score ≥8 (p=0.030), phantom eye pain (p=0.044) and phantom eye sensations (p=0.002).

Conclusion: PV was reported by one third of our patients. Despite being widely misunderstood, ophthalmologists and neurologists should be aware of this complication to adequately reassure patients.


Ken MARTINI (NICE), Jacques LAGIER, Jerome DELAS, Olivier GALATOIRE, Mehrad HAMEDANI, Arnaud MARTEL
10:30 - 12:00 #32287 - OP79 Analysis of Earlier Failed Probing without Endoscopy Guidance in Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstructions.
OP79 Analysis of Earlier Failed Probing without Endoscopy Guidance in Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstructions.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to report the profile and outcomes of children with an earlier failed probing that was performed without endoscopy guidance.

Methods: Retrospective interventional case study was performed on all the patients who were referred with a diagnosis of a single or multiple failed probing from Jan 2016 to June 2019 to a tertiary care Dacryology center. All the patients had a blind probing without an endoscopy assistance before referral. The parameters evaluated were patient demographics, number of earlier probings, prior operative notes, clinical presentation, findings of endoscopy guidance during the repeat procedure, simple vs complex CNLDO, types of complex CNLDO, management, complications and outcomes.

Results: One hundred eyes of 82 children had a failed probing experience without endoscopic guidance elsewhere. The mean age of the children was 55.7 months (range: 9-168 months). Of these, 63 eyes underwent repeat probing under endoscopic guidance, 35 eyes being simple CNLDO (35/63, 55.5%), and 28 eyes (28/63, 44.5%) being complex CNLDO. Among the complex subset, balloon dacryoplasty was performed for five cases and monoka-Crawford stents for eight cases under direct endoscopy visualization. Buried probes were managed successfully by standard protocols of probe exteriorization. The two cases of misdirected probes were re-directed under endoscopy guidance for appropriate recanalization and the single case of granuloma at the NLD opening was excised followed by intubation without any recurrence.

Conclusion: Endoscopy guidance plays a crucial role in the management of CNLDO with an earlier failed probing.


Nandini BOTHRA (India, India), Mohammad JAVED ALI
10:30 - 12:00 #32382 - OP80 Post-operative epiphora in patients who have undergone marsupialisation for the management of canaliculitis.
OP80 Post-operative epiphora in patients who have undergone marsupialisation for the management of canaliculitis.

Canaliculitis is described as inflammation of the lacrimal canaliculus, most caused by infection. Of the symptoms, epiphora is common and can have significant impact on patients’ quality of life. Conservative management alone is often trialled but is rarely curative. In comparison, various forms of surgical techniques have been described for more definitive management. Marsupialisation involves incising into the canalicular space and suturing the edges to form a surface extending from the interior to exterior, allowing the space to remain open and drain. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of marsupialisation in the treatment of canaliculitis and specifically, the impact on pre-existing and post-operative epiphora.

 

A retrospective, single centre study was conducted. Patients treated for canaliculitis via marsupialisation between years 2006 to 2021 in a tertiary hospital ophthalmology unit were included. 45 patients were identified through electronic patient records (EPR). Data was collected via EPR, physical notes, and telephone surveys. Data collected included demographics, presenting complaints, presence of pre- and post-operative epiphora, Munk scale classification of epiphora, and postoperative complications. The presenting complaints investigated included redness, epiphora, discharge, pain, and swelling. Post-operative complications reviewed included redness, lid malposition, exposure of conjunctiva, and non-resolution.

 

68% of the patients were found to have pre-operative epiphora with an average Munk scale grading of five, indicating constant epiphora. Of these patients, 86% of patients experienced an improvement or resolution of epiphora post-operatively, 9% had a similar severity of epiphora post-operatively, and 5% had worsening of epiphora. Of the 32% of patients who did not suffer from epiphora pre-operatively, none developed new epiphora post-operatively.

 

Epiphora is a debilitating symptom for those with canaliculitis and was found in a large proportion of canaliculitis patients prior to treatment. This retrospective study suggests marsupialisation to be an effective and safe surgical technique in managing epiphora in such patients.


Tracie LIU (Sheffield, United Kingdom), Jennifer TAN
10:30 - 12:00 #32538 - OP81 Results of Simultaneous Bilateral Endoscopic Dacryocystorhinostomy: Duration of Surgery, and Evaluation of Success and Complications.
OP81 Results of Simultaneous Bilateral Endoscopic Dacryocystorhinostomy: Duration of Surgery, and Evaluation of Success and Complications.

Purpose: It was aimed to evaluate the results of simultaneous bilateral endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR).

 

Method: Simultaneous bilateral endoscopic DCR was applied to patients with bilateral acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction who applied to Marmara University, Department of Ophthalmology between 2020-2022. Patients with punctal - canaliculi occlusion and a history of previous DCR were excluded from the study. Only Kerrison punch and curettes were used for bone excision in all cases, and lacrimal intubation was applied to all eyes. History of dacryocystitis, duration of symptoms and surgery, complications, and functional and anatomical success parameters were evaluated.

 

Results: Twenty-four eyes of 12 patients were included in the study. The female ratio was 4/12 (33.3%), and the mean age of the patients was 50.9±9.1 years. Six eyes (25%) had a history of dacryocystitis. The mean time to development of symptoms was 9.21±4.14 months. The mean operation time per eye was 37.08±6.41 (min:25-max:50) minutes. The functional and anatomical success rates at 3 months were 91.7% (n=22) and 95.8% (n=23), respectively; and 6 months success rates were 87.5% (n=21) and 91.7% (n=22), respectively. While no perioperative complication was observed, the hematoma was seen in 4 eyes (16.6%), and intranasal bleeding occurred in 2 eyes (8.3%) postoperatively. In one of the anatomically unsuccessful eyes, the lacrimal intubation tube extruded on the 3rd postoperative day, and another eye had a history of dacryocystitis.

 

Conclusion: Simultaneous endoscopic DCR can be applied as a useful method in bilateral acquired nasolacrimal duct obstructions with its high anatomical and functional success rate, short operation time, and low complication rates.


Volkan DERICIOĞLU (Istanbul, Turkey)
10:30 - 12:00 #32389 - OP82 Periorbital Injectable 5-fluorouracil for Teatment and Prevention of Cicatricial Lagophthalmos After Eyelid Surgery.
OP82 Periorbital Injectable 5-fluorouracil for Teatment and Prevention of Cicatricial Lagophthalmos After Eyelid Surgery.

Purpose: The authors describe their experience with the treatment of postoperative subcutaneous injections of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in a subset of patients that underwent different eyelid surgeries, to treat or prevent cicatricial sequela. 

Methods: A retrospective case series review of patients with post-operative eyelid cicatricial changes treated with a series of subcutaneous 5-FU injections to the area of the scar. 

Results: We present 5 cases (in 4 patients) of cicatricial changes after eyelid surgery treated with a series of 4 weekly injections of 0.3ml 5-FU in a concentration of 50mg/ml. Two patents after eyelid reconstruction secondary to eyelid trauma, one patient after upper and lower eyelid aesthetic blepharoplasty, and one patient after bilateral cicatricial ectropion repair, combined with basal cell carcinoma excision. All patients presented with lagophthalmos and secondary corneal changes. All patient showed resolution of lagophthamos corneal dryness. None of the patient required secondary revision and no drug side effects were notes. 

Conclusions: The use of post-operative injectable 5-FU for the treatment and prevention of cicatricial changes after eyelid surgery appears to be both effective and safe.


Zvi GUR (Jerusalem, Israel), Pablo GALARZA
10:30 - 12:00 #32547 - OP83 Levator palpebrae superioris tuck with small incision.
OP83 Levator palpebrae superioris tuck with small incision.

Background:

The direction is always towards interventions that are more conservative preserving as much of the normal tissues as possible.

And so, levator palpebrae superioris tucking is to be considered in correcting ptosis of the upper eyelids.

Since 2017, this has been the sole technique for correction of ptosis to the eyelids with levator palpebrae superioris muscle function ranging between moderate to good.

Method:

135 eyelids with moderate to good LPS function were done.

The incision to the skin is only 20 - 25 mm.

The LPS was tucked to the tarsus after freeing it from the orbital septum and fats.

Postoperative outcome measures included: level of the eyelid, contour of the eyelid and postoperative lagophthalmos.

The follow up was done at 1 week and then monthly along 6 months from the surgery.

Results: 

The position of the upper eyelid was good in 75% of the cases after 6 months from surgery. Eyelid contour was normal in 70% of the cases. Postoperative lagopthalmos was not seen in any case with proper closure of the eyelids.

Conclusion:

The LPS tucking preserves the normal fibers of the muscle, in case there is any recurrence later on that makes it much easier. Doesn't affect the closure of the eyelids and minimizes the possibility of any lagophthalmos. The small incision on the skin in the crease preserves the cosmetic aspect.


Bassem MORSHED, Bassem MORSHED (Cairo, Egypt)
10:30 - 12:00 #32462 - OP84 Replacing “like to like” - a modified approach for lower eyelid reconstruction following tumor resection.
OP84 Replacing “like to like” - a modified approach for lower eyelid reconstruction following tumor resection.

Purpose:  To describe a modified approach for the anterior lamella reconstruction during full thickness reconstruction with a tarsoconjunctival flap or free tarsal graft.

 

Methods:  This is a retrospective review of 6 patients with greater than 80%, full-thickness eyelid defects after tumor resection requiring reconstruction. For lower eyelid defects, a traditional tarsoconjunctival flap from the upper eyelid was used to rebuild the posterior lamella.  For upper eyelid defects, a free tarsal graft from the contralateral eyelid was used.  In all cases, the anterior lamella was supplied from an adjacent myocutaneous flap in a bucket handle configuration.  To prevent anterior lamellar shortening, a full thickness skin graft is placed in the resulting defect after mobilization of the bucket handle. Data collection included: tumor type and location, size of eyelid defect, presence of canalicular involvement, post-operative eyelid position, patient satisfaction, and complication rates.

 

Results:  Six eyelids in 6 patients underwent Mohs micrographic excision of basal cell carcinoma followed by reconstruction with a bucket handle flap. There was one male and 5 females, with the age ranging from 68 to 96 years old (mean of 81 years). Five patients presented with lower eyelid involvement and 1 with upper eyelid involvement. The defect size ranged from 80% to 100% of the eyelid. Four patients had canalicular involvement and required bicanalicular nasolacrimal stent placement. After reconstruction, all patients showed good eyelid apposition to the globe. No eyelid malposition, lagophthalmos, corneal decompensation, or epiphora was noted postoperatively. All patients expressed satisfaction with their results. Average follow up time was 12 months (range of 5 to 21 months).

 

Conclusion:  The bucket handle flap for full-thickness eyelid reconstruction is a simple technique that allows for preservation of all anatomical layers of the anterior lamella. This technique shows promising functional and aesthetic outcomes

 

 


Zvi GUR (Jerusalem, Israel), Liu CATHERINE, Don KIKKAWA, Bobby KORN
10:30 - 12:00 #32245 - OP85 Long-term outcome of hyaluronic acid in dark under-eye circles.
OP85 Long-term outcome of hyaluronic acid in dark under-eye circles.

Introduction:

The injection of hyaluronic acid is an aesthetic medicine procedure that is very commonly used, particularly for dark under-eye circles. We know a lot about the immediate complications. What about the complications when the product ages?

Materials and Methods:

The authors reviewed the files of about fifty patients injected in the dark under-eye circles with a 10-year follow-up and tried to highlight the aging of the product by comparing the different photos.

Results:

There are still late complications related to the aging of the product. We often find a progressive swelling linked to an increase in hydrophilicity and a hyperpigmentation of the area related to a probable chronic inflammatory reaction, as well as a migration of the product.

Conclusion:

Hyaluronic acid injections in dark circles are not harmless. We know very well the short-term complications, but we don’t know as much the late complications. Should we continue to inject dark circles with hyaluronic acid?

Keywords: Dark under-eye circles, hyaluronic acid, complications.


Arthur AULANIER (Marseille), Thierry MALET, Eric SARFATI
10:30 - 12:00 #32150 - OP86 Surface electromyography of the orbicularis oculi muscle with pretarsal electrode placement.
OP86 Surface electromyography of the orbicularis oculi muscle with pretarsal electrode placement.

Introduction:

Surface electromyography is being widely used in skeletal muscles function assessment. However, in eyelid muscles examination, surface electromyography is used only in experimental studies, mainly regarding developing the blinking periorbital prothesis. Nevertheless, surface electromyography has a potential to be used in monitoring of the orbicularis oculi muscle recovery after eyelid surgery, trauma, paralysis or planning the best surgical approach. Developing reliable technique may increase the feasibility of surface electromyography in clinical practice. One of the main limitations is crosstalk with adjacent muscles. We propose placing the electrode in the mid-pretarsal area of the upper eyelid.  

Material and methods: 126 surface electromyography examinations in 39 controls and 29 ptotic patients were conducted. Silver-chloride electrodes with the dimensions of 5x8 mm were used. The electrode was placed in the central portion of the upper eyelid horizontally, 5mm above the lash line. The orbicularis oculi muscle function was assessed in the primary gaze and while performing maximal eyelid closure using Root Mean Square in controls and ptotic patients before and after ptosis surgery.

Results: We found significantly lower Root Mean Square values of the maximal contraction of the orbicularis oculi muscle 2 weeks after surgery (p<0.05). After 6 months there were no statistically significant differences in Root Mean Square values compared to the preoperative results. No technical difficulties in the electrode instillation, performing the examination and interpretation of the results was observed.

Conclusions: By placing the electrode in the mid-pretarsal area of the upper eyelid, one can easily perform fast examination and achieve repeatable results, which may enhance the feasibility of surface electromyography in clinical practice. Eyelid surface electromyography may be an useful diagnostic tool in an objective and quantitative post-operative orbicularis oculi muscle recovery monitoring.

 


Larysa KRAJEWSKA-WĘGLEWICZ (Warsaw, Poland), Marta BANACH, Ewa FILIPIAK, Joanna SEMPIŃSKA-SZEWCZYK, Piotr SKOPIŃSKI, Małgorzata DOROBEK
10:30 - 12:00 #32390 - OP87 Oculoplastic video clinics in the real world.
OP87 Oculoplastic video clinics in the real world.

Background

 

During the COVID pandemic, we conducted oculoplastic teleclinics via Attend Anywhere, a virtual consultation platform provided by the National Health Service (NHS), due to reduced clinic capacity and social distancing requirements.

 

Purpose

The aim of this study is to to assess the efficacy of Attend Anywhere clinics for the oculoplastic service and identify the cohort of patients suitable for virtual consultations by analyzing the outcome patterns.

 

Methods

100 consecutive patients seen over 5 weeks were included in study.

 

Results

Patients ranged from 6-93y, 67% of patients were >60 years old, 17% were >80 years old.

There were 46 video consultations, 36 phone consultations and 12 face to face consultations. 6 patients did not attend.

There were 46 new and 54 follow up patients (29 post-operative patients).

 

We were able to offer definitive treatment for 25%, discharge 34%; 37% required face to face consultation, 4 further video consultations.

Of the 9 patients listed for surgery, 5 were listed from video consultation, for lower lid malpositions and dermatochalasis, 4 patients had a biopsy prior to  definitive surgery. All the patients listed for minor operations were able to be listed following video consultation.  27patients had to be brought back face to face for assessment such as ptosis measurements, syringing and lid lesion malignancy before further decision on surgery could be made.

25% of patients had technical difficulties, including not having internet connection or video enabled devices.  Despite these problems consultation was successfully supplemented with telephone consultation.

 

Conclusions

Video consultation is effective for oculoplastic clinics despite real-world difficulties and can be adapted to a hybrid model of consultation to reduce departmental footfall, limit the exposure of the elderly to COVID risk and save on costs related to multiple hospital visits.

 


Lee Teak TAN (Chelmsford, United Kingdom), Seyed GHAZI-NOURI
10:30 - 12:00 #31976 - OP88 Oculoplastic Surgeries in Patients Older than 90 Years of Age.
OP88 Oculoplastic Surgeries in Patients Older than 90 Years of Age.

Purpose: To report the epidemiology, indications and surgical outcomes of oculoplastic surgeries in very old patients (≥ 90 years old).

Methods: A retrospective, tertiary single center study was carried out on the medical charts of 114 patients aged 90 years old and older who underwent oculoplastic procedures from 2010 to 2019. Data retrieved from the medical records included: past medical and ocular history, indication for surgery, type of surgery, intra and post-operative complications, pathological analysis for removed tissues, and surgical outcome in the last follow-up.

Results: 128 surgeries were performed in 114 patients (male: female = 1:1). The mean age was 92.95 years old (± 3.12 SD). Six patients (5.2%) were older than 100 years old. The most common indication for surgery was lower lid malpositioning (32%). Mass/lesion excision was performed in 34 procedures (25%). 43 biopsies were analyzed. Basal cell carcinoma was the most common pathological diagnosis (32%). 20% of the patients had glaucoma and 15% had neovascular age related macular degeneration. Hypertension was the most common associated systemic comorbidity (79 patients, 69%). 80% of the surgeries were done under local anesthesia. In seven patients (5.2%) - surgical revision was required. One patient suffered from minor stroke one day postoperatively. The same patient had orbital-skin fistulas after orbital exenteration

Conclusion: In our experience, oculoplastic surgeries in the elderly population are safe without significant complications and can usually be performed under local anesthesia. Advanced age should not prevent surgery, especially if the procedure may improve vision and quality of life.


Muhammad ABUMANHAL (Tel Aviv, Israel), Ran BEN CNAAN, Igal LEIBOVITCH
10:30 - 12:00 #32383 - OP89 Addressing digital exclusion in Oculoplastic Outpatient Clinics.
OP89 Addressing digital exclusion in Oculoplastic Outpatient Clinics.

Background

Our previous study of 92 outpatients identified lack of digital skills, access to technology and low confidence in digital healthcare as contributors to digital exclusion. Patients expressed interest in digital skills workshops and schemes to enhance access to internet and devices.

Methods

Oculoplastic outpatients at Moorfields Eye Hospital who had previously declined video consultations (VC) - and those attending parallel clinics eager to improve digital skills - were invited for training to use our VC platform, take ‘selfie’ photos, and send them via email – using departmental laptops, tablets and patients’ devices. We secured internet data packs to donate to patients who lack internet access and require frequent telemedicine access.

Pre- and post-workshop surveys explored patients’ confidence with online services, inclination to use VC and perceived utility of the workshop using a 10-point Likert scale (0 ‘extremely unlikely’ à 10 ‘extremely likely’). Two-tailed paired T-test was used to assess significance of rating differences before and after the workshop. Qualitative feedback was analysed thematically.

 

Results

Feedback was obtained from 38 of 51 (75%) patients (average age 66 years - 47% male, 53% female).

Patients reported greater inclination to use (mean rating 6.9/10 vs 5.5/10, p=0.002) – and felt more confident with (mean rating 6.7/10 vs 5.3/10, p=0.0002) – VCs after attending the workshop compared to before.

Patients found the workshop useful (mean rating 7.6/10) and were likely to recommend it to family and friends (mean rating 7.9/10). Most common suggestions were for interpreters for patients with limited command of English.

Preliminary findings suggest that loaning SIM cards to patients who frequently need telemedicine has improved healthcare accessibility.

 

Conclusion

Patients consider digital skills workshops useful to improve confidence and motivation with using Oculoplastic online services. Scaling these and aiding internet (data and device) connectivity may help address increasing issues of exclusion as services become more reliant on teleophthalmology.


Rishi RAMESSUR (London, United Kingdom), Juwairiya REHMAN, Hardeep KANDOLA, Claus GRUBER, Swan KANG
10:30 - 12:00 #32525 - OP90 Role of Oculoplastic fellow in facial trauma pathway.
OP90 Role of Oculoplastic fellow in facial trauma pathway.

Aim - We describe a unique one of a kind setup at Royal London Hospital which is a tertiary trauma referral center with oculoplastic fellow as part of weekly maxillofacial trauma clinic.

Methods- Role of the fellow is to examine patients with orbital fractures presenting to the maxillofacial clinic. Assessments include- visual acuity, pupil reaction, ocular motility (performed by specialist orthoptist) and exophthalmometry. Additionally screen for signs of retinal detachment and acute ophthalmic concerns. If red flags are noted from the above, the patient is streamed to a same urgent ophthalmology clinic for detailed assessment including dilated fundus examination. The fellow is also regularly involved in maxillofacial theaters for repair of orbital fractures, complex eyelid laceration, canthal repair, etc. 


Results- We present a cross section of patients seen from March 2022 to May 2022 (3 months). The average number of patients seen with orbital fractures 9.6 (range 7 - 15); median 9. A total of 61 patients were seen with orbital fracture during this period. Out of these, 16 patients (26.2%) were streamed for urgent same day ophthalmology review, 9 patients (14.7%) required further orthoptic assessment (including Hess chart). 3 patients (4.9%) were referred to specialist ophthalmic clinic and 4 patients (6.5%) were planned for either a joint surgical procedure with oculoplastics or required further multidisciplinary (MDT) discussion


Conclusion- We highlight a scope for collaboration and multidisciplinary input in improving patient outcomes. The presence of oculoplastic fellow in maxillofacial trauma clinics helps streamline patient flow and improve patient experience. This also offers a unique training opportunity and a framework for designing facial trauma service.


Radhika DASHPUTRA, Nikhil CASCONE (London, United Kingdom), Andrew COOMBES
10:30 - 12:00 Time for questions and discussion.
Room 1
12:00

"Saturday 17 September"

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A34
12:00 - 12:35

Mustardé Lecture

12:00 - 12:35 Grave's Orbitopathy a disease known for 2500 years. Lelio BALDESCHI (Keynote Speaker, BRUXELLES, Belgium)
He qualified in Medicine cum laude at the University of Pisa, graduated in Ophthalmology cum laude at the University of Florence, became PhD at the University of Amsterdam and Fellow of the European Board of Ophthalmology (FEBO) (international recognition of the title of specialist in ophthalmology) in Paris. He sub-specialized in oculoplastic and orbital surgery first under the guide of Richard Collin and Geoffrey Rose at Moorfields Eye Hospital in London and then with Leo Koornneef at the Orbital Centre, University of Amsterdam.
He is Professor of Ophthalmology (“Chargé de Cours”), Director to the “Orbita and Ocular Adnexal service” and President to the PhD Council “Oculoplastic, Orbital, Lacrimal Diseases and Surgery” at the Department of Ophthalmology, Catholic University of Louvain, at the Saint Luc Academic Hospital of Brussels, member of the Examining Commission of the European Board of Ophthalmology (EBO) which grant the international recognized title of specialist in ophthalmology.
He is member of the Italian Society of Ophthalmology (SOI), European Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (ESOPRS), European Association for Vision and Eye Research (EVER), has been elected among the three honorary members of the Asia Pacific Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (APSOPRS), has been Secretary (2011-2014) and President (2014-2017) of the International Society of Dacryology and Dry Eye (ISD&DE), President for two terms (2010-2012 and 2013-2015) of the Italian Society of Ophthalmic Plastic Surgery (SICOP), Secretary for two terms (2014-2017 and 2018-2021) of the European Group on Graves’ Orbitopathy (EUGOGO).
Currently he is the President of the European Group on Graves’ Orbitopathy (EUGOGO), Associated Editor of Frontiers in Endocrinology and Associated Editor for orbit, oculoplastic and adult strabismus of the European Journal of Ophthalmology.
12:00 - 12:35 Introduced by:. Eva DAFGARD KOPP (Associate Professor, Karolinska Institutet , Consultant Oculoplastic and Orbital Surgeon) (Chairperson, Stockholm, Sweden)
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12:35 - 14:15

LUNCH - LIVE SURGERY - LIVE INJECTIONS
Live broadcast from the Clinique du Parc Imperial

Moderators: Philippe BERROS (Chirurgien) (Monaco, Monaco), Arnaud MARTEL (doctor) (Nice, France), Fabrice SERRA (1501299138006 88) (ANTIBES, France)
12:35 - 14:15 Hyaluronic Acid Injections - TEOXANE. Cyrielle BELA (MD) (Keynote Speaker, Geneve, Switzerland)
12:35 - 14:15 Botulic Toxin and Hyaluronic Acid Injections - MERZ AESTHETIC. Frederic BRACCINI (Director) (Keynote Speaker, NICE, France), Eric SARFATI (Ophtalmologue) (Delegate, TOULON, France)
12:35 - 14:15 Aesthetic Rejuvenation - DELEO INNOVATION.
12:35 - 14:15 Live Surgery. Jacques LAGIER (local organiser ESOPRS 2022) (Keynote Speaker, NICE, France), Jean-Marc RUBAN (Keynote Speaker, Agon Coutainville, France)
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14:15

"Saturday 17 September"

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A37
14:15 - 15:00

Orbital Tumor Session

Moderators: Mehdi FENDRI (MEDECIN CONSULTANT) (TUNIS, Tunisia), Mehrad HAMEDANI (Médecin chef) (LAUSANNE, Switzerland)
14:15 - 14:25 Lacrimal gland masses. 10 years experience in diagnosis and management. Ismail Gawdat TAMER (Congress Speaker, Egypt), Hesham KAMEL (Congress Speaker, Le Caire, Egypt)
(Cairo University, EGYPT)
14:25 - 14:35 Management of Orbital Cavernous Hemangioma. Abed CHARIF CHEFCHAOUNI (Medecin interne) (Congress Speaker, Rabat, Morocco)
Mohamed El Belhadji, Iatissam El Belhadji (Morrocco)
14:35 - 14:45 Low Pressure and Multimodality image guided Sclerotherapy for Vascular Orbital Lesions. Mehdi FENDRI (MEDECIN CONSULTANT) (Congress Speaker, TUNIS, Tunisia)
K. Hamza, H. Kamoun (Tunisia)
14:45 - 14:55 Orbital inflammatory disease: biopsy first or steroids first? Pierre-Vincent JACOMET (Deputy Head of Department) (Congress Speaker, PARIS, France)
14:55 - 15:00 Discussion.
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A38
15:00 - 15:45

Eyelid Tumor Session

Moderators: Michele BEACONSFIELD (Consultant Surgeon) (LONDON, United Kingdom), Jean MAALOUF (resident) (Nancy, France)
15:00 - 15:10 Malignant eyelid tumors : Study Of 520 Cases. Amel SAIDANI (DIU 2015) (Congress Speaker, Alger, Algeria)
15:10 - 15:20 Management of concomitant full upper and lower eyelid defect. Eric SARFATI (Ophtalmologue) (Congress Speaker, TOULON, France)
15:20 - 15:30 Eyelid reconstruction: is the equation graft + graft = necrosis still true? Johanna V. BERGGREN (MD, PhD) (Congress Speaker, Lund, Sweden)
15:30 - 15:40 Multidisciplinary team management in ocular oncology: unexpected opportunities with the Covid-19 crisis. Sacha NAHON (Ophthalmologist) (Congress Speaker, Nice, France)
15:40 - 15:45 Discussion.
Room 1
15:45 COFFEE BREAK & EXHIBITION AREA - VISIT OF THE EPOSTERS
16:15

"Saturday 17 September"

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A39.1
16:15 - 17:15

European Oculoplasty: the past, the future

Moderators: Michele BEACONSFIELD (Consultant Surgeon) (LONDON, United Kingdom), Francesco QUARANTA-LEONI (Rome, Italy)
16:15 - 16:16 Current challenges in young oculoplastic surgeon formation in Europe: the YESOPRS point of view.
16:15 - 16:25 In France. Arnaud MARTEL (doctor) (Congress Speaker, Nice, France)
16:25 - 16:35 In Spain. Santiago ORTIZ-PEREZ (Head of the department) (Congress Speaker, Granada, Spain)
16:35 - 16:45 In Italy. Matteo DI MARINO (medical doctor, ophthalmologist) (Congress Speaker, Rome, Italy)
16:45 - 16:55 In Germany. Christina MILLER (Consultant) (Congress Speaker, Ulm, Germany)
16:55 - 17:05 The History of ESOPRS: Introduction. Francesco QUARANTA-LEONI (Congress Speaker, Rome, Italy)
17:05 - 17:15 History of the ESOPRS. Jean-Paul ADENIS (Congress Speaker, LIMOGES, France), Richard COLLIN (Oculoplastic Surgeon) (Congress Speaker, London, United Kingdom)
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17:15

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A39.2
17:15 - 18:00

ESOPRS AWARDS

Moderators: Michele BEACONSFIELD (Consultant Surgeon) (LONDON, United Kingdom), Francesco QUARANTA-LEONI (Rome, Italy)
17:15 - 17:30 The EBO-ESOPRS. Michele BEACONSFIELD (Consultant Surgeon) (Congress Speaker, LONDON, United Kingdom)
17:30 - 17:40 Peter Eustace medal Award to Dr M. Beaconsfield. Renata IVEKOVIC (prof) (Congress Speaker, Zagreb, Croatia)
President of the EBO
17:40 - 17:50 Presentation of the 2021 RICHARD COLLIN AWARD – Junior Award of ESOPRS: Developing a Radiological Activity Score for the diagnosis and surveillance of Graves’ Orbitopathy. Nicole GEORGE (Congress Speaker, United Kingdom)
What I did with the award price?
17:50 - 18:00 The RICHARD COLLIN AWARD – Junior Award of ESOPRS 2022. Eva DAFGARD KOPP (Associate Professor, Karolinska Institutet , Consultant Oculoplastic and Orbital Surgeon) (Congress Speaker, Stockholm, Sweden)
Room 1
18:00 CONGRESS ADJOURNMENT Room 1
00:00
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EP01
00:00 - 00:00

Eposters
01 -Aesthetic & Eyelid

00:00 - 00:00 #32125 - "Woody" plaques in the eye, a dangerous disease.
"Woody" plaques in the eye, a dangerous disease.

We present a case of Ligneous conjunctivitis due to inhered Congenital plasminogen deficiency. Debut as 2-3 years old with recurrent, bilateral pseudomembranes in the conjunctiva. Referred to us when she was 12 years old, with an interactable chronic conjunctivitis. 

The patient was born with congenital hydrocephalus, with multiple (>30) shunt revisions due to thrombosis in the shunts.  No other diseases. The father and mother were consanguine in several generations.

Histopathological biopsy confirmed ligneous conjunctivitis, systemic disease was suspected, and the patient was referred to systemic workup and genetic counseling and genetic investigation. The plaques are composed of fibrinogen, granulation tissue, and inflammatory cells.

One month after she was diagnosed with bladder thrombosis, and acute oliguric renal failure and sepsis. Multiorgan influence and cardiac obstructive shock due to thrombosis of the shunt and the heart valves. The patient was hospitalized for 11 months and was restored cardiovascular. The recurrent thrombosis in the bladder developed a chronic renal failure. Her cerebral shunt has been revised 8 times over the last year. Due to high pressure in the brain between all the shunt revisions her vision field have been affected creating an incomplete left sided homonym hemianopsia.

Currently the patient is treated with plasma infusion IV every 3 days (cryodeplated plasma). One month after the plasma infusions her conjunctiva normalized completely. The patient is now back at school and thrives apart form her renal impairment, where she is waiting for a renal transplant.   

Ligneous conjunctivitis is an important or though rare differential diagnosis in chronic conjunctivitis characterized by wood-like pseudomembranes developing on the ocular conjunctiva and can be associated to congenital plasminogen deficiency. In this case the eye symptoms led to the right diagnosis.


Marie Louise RASMUSSEN (Copenhagen, Denmark), Anne Kathrine WIENCKE, Peter Kristian RASMUSSEN
00:00 - 00:00 #32179 - 'Slow Mohs' surgery for periocular non-melanomatous skin cancer: 5 year follow-up data on recurrence, histology, functional outcome and patient satisfaction.
'Slow Mohs' surgery for periocular non-melanomatous skin cancer: 5 year follow-up data on recurrence, histology, functional outcome and patient satisfaction.

‘Slow Mohs’ surgery offers an alternative to traditional Mohs surgery for the treatment of periocular non-melanomatous skin cancer (PO-NMSC) facilitating en-face evaluation of the entire peripheral tumour margin without the need for dedicated Mohs equipment and expertise. It avoids freeze artefact and unpredictable operating time. 

 

This single-centre evaluation of Slow Mohs surgery to treat PO-NMSC assesses long-term (>5 years) rates of recurrence, functional outcomes and patient satisfaction. 92 patients underwent Slow Mohs for PO-NMSC prior to 2016 and were invited for long-term follow-up. In total, 45 had follow-up >5 years with long-term functional outcomes and satisfaction evaluated in 38.

 

40/45 cases were for BCC, 4 for SCC and 1 for basosquamous carcinoma. Nodular BCC was the most common growth pattern, followed by superficial and infiltrative BCC. 2/45 patients (4.4%) had recurrence of PO-NMSC within 5 years. An additional 2/45 (4.4%) had recurrence more than 5 years after surgery (73 and 101 months). All recurrences had an initial histological diagnosis of superficial BCC with 3/4 also demonstrating nodular growth patterns. In cases that recurred, the median minimum peripheral margin at closure was 2mm (range 0.5-3mm). All had clear margins at closure. This compares with a median minimum peripheral margin of 1.6mm (range 0-2.2mm) in cases without recurrence.

 

When assessed more than 5 years post-surgery, the rates of lagophthalmos, ectropion and ocular surface symptoms were 10%, 22.5% and 20%, respectively. Satisfaction regarding surgical experience, eyelid function and cosmesis was reported as good or excellent in 97.2%, 91.7% and 94.4%, respectively.

Slow Mohs surgery for PO-NMSC is a well-tolerated procedure with an acceptable 5-year recurrence rate making it a non-inferior option for oculoplastic services without access to Mohs surgery. Superficial growth patterns may confer an increased risk of recurrence.


Thomas Rp TAYLOR (Portsmouth, UK, United Kingdom), Christopher B SCHULZ, Simon ROGERS, Sarith MAKULOLUWE
00:00 - 00:00 #32146 - 3 x 5 cm palpebral neurofibroma and our surgical approach: a case report.
3 x 5 cm palpebral neurofibroma and our surgical approach: a case report.

Introduction

Type I neurofibromatosis involves development of neurofibromas with cafe au lait macules. Neurofibromas of the orbit and palpebra are relatively uncommon. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice however is a complex procedure. Here we present our surgical approach to a 27 year old male presenting with 3 x 5 cm superior palpebral neurofibroma. 

 

Case Illustration 

A 27 year old male presents with a right superior palpebral mass from 5 years ago. The mass was painless, lobulated and soft on palpation with indistinct borders and recurring. The mass was suspected to be neurofibroma which was later confirmed by histopathology. A 3 x 5 cm hyper -vascularized and lobulated mass was undermined under the orbicularis muscle, and the lateral periorbita was freed to debulk tumor as much as possible. Debulking was also done in the inferior palpebra. Palpebral reconstruction involved inferior palpebral lateral tarsal strip and direct closure of the superior palpebra, with the palpebral margin slightly everted.

Discussion

Tumor removal by surgical resection was done in this case, along with direct closure as it involved small margin defects with lateral cantholysis. Through the signs obtained from our patient and difficulties faced during surgical procedure, it is more likely that the patient had Plexiform type neurofibroma. 

Conclusion 

Orbital/palpebral neurofibroma is uncommon. Tumor removal remains the main treatment choice. Mass debulking was done to our patient, as complete removal was not favorable. Direct closure was then done to reconstruct palpebra. 


Josiah IRMA, Erna KRISTIANTI, Cheryll YUDAKUSUMA, Saraswati Anindita RIZKI, Patricia BUDIMULIA (Jakarta, Indonesia), Celine CHRYSTELLE, Regan ELBERT
00:00 - 00:00 #32394 - 5-year survival outcomes for Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in specialist ocular oncology Center in a Temperate Climate.
5-year survival outcomes for Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in specialist ocular oncology Center in a Temperate Climate.

ObjectiveThere is an established association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), sunlight exposure and development of OSSN, which reflects geographic variation in incidence – high as 35 cases/ million/ year in tropical environments with poor access to antiretroviral therapy. However, clinical outcomes following treatment remain less established due to loss of follow-up, thereby difficulties in assessing the effectiveness of treatment. We aimed to evaluate epidemiological risk factors and survival outcomes in patients with ocular surface squamous neoplasia in temperate climates.

 

MethodsRetrospective chart review for patients seen in a specialist oncology service between 2005 and 2017, with the review of patient demographics, co-morbidity, histology and outcomes after treatment.

 

ResultsSeventy-eight patients (46 males; 59%) presented at a mean age of 62 (median 64, range 3-92 years). Seventy-Seven (88%) patients had unilateral disease, whereas 11 had bilateral involvement. Predominant histological findings conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in situ) and Conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 was the most predominant presentation, 48% and 28%, respectively.

Overall 12, month and 5-year survival were found to be 96% and 79%. Disease recurrence was found in 63 (72%) patients, of which 27 were found to have progression of the disease, with progression-free survival found to be 91% and 67% at 12 and 60 months. None of the CIN 1 patients was found to have progression in the five years, whereas CIN 3 had the highest rate, 11% in 1 year and 34% in 5 years. Nine patients required exenteration for invasive SCC during the study period.

Concurrent inflammatory ocular surface disease, immunodeficiency and significant sun exposure were noted in 13% (11/88), 19% (17/88) and 26% (23/88), respectively, associated with a higher risk of recurrence, whereas the former, was found to be associated with a higher risk of progression (p=0.03)

ConclusionOcular Surface Squamous Neoplasia is a spectrum of ocular surface tumours that offers favourable outcomes with the current management regime, with 26% of patients progressing to require orbital exenteration for locally advanced disease. In the UK, ocular surface disease appears to be a risk factor for disease progression; however, other factors such as HPV remain to be examined.


Mohsan MALIK (London, United Kingdom), Periklis GIANNAKIS, Safa AYKAC, Jeannon JEAN-PIERRE, Claire DANIEL
00:00 - 00:00 #32453 - A case of combined periocular merkel cell carcinoma and eyelid basal cell carcinoma.
A case of combined periocular merkel cell carcinoma and eyelid basal cell carcinoma.

Purpose: To describe the case of a patient diagnosed simultaneously with periocular Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) and eyelid basal cell carcinoma (BCC).

Material and Methods: Medical records of a patient with periocular MCC and eyelid BCC were reviewed. 

Results: A 66-year-old caucasian female with a history of frequent, unprotected solar exposition and a slowly growing eyelid lesion was referred for ophthalmic evaluation. Eyelid and periocular examination revealed a pink-coloured, pearly-edge, ulcerated skin lesion occupying most of the left inferior eyelid margin, suggestive of BCC. An additional small, ‘‘violaceous’’ cutaneous lesion was present near the left lateral cantus, with vascularization and superficial ulceration. Surgical excision of both lesions was proposed, but the patient declined surgery. Two months later, the patient returned to the Ophthalmology department because of rapid growing of the periocular lesion. Tarsoconjunctival flap advancement and superior eyelid skin graft were undertaken following the excision of the eyelid margin lesion. The periocular lesion was removed by simple excision with wide margins and undermining for adequate wound closure. Histopathological analysis was compatible with nodular type BCC for the eyelid margin lesion and MCC for the lateral cantus lesion. Both biopsy specimens showed negative margins. The patient maintained regular follow-up visits and was referred to the oncology department for systemic evaluation and decision on further treatments.

Conclusion: This is a rare case of a patient presenting with both eyelid BCC and periocular MCC, possibly explained by older age and history of ultra-violate radiation exposure. BCC is a common malignancy of the eyelid, with a relatively good prognosis when adequately treated. Conversely, MCC is a rare, highly aggressive skin malignancy whose prognosis is often poor given the potential for recurrence, lymph node metastasis, and distant dissemination. Prompt and aggressive treatment with ongoing clinical surveillance are needed for MCC management.


Catarina FERREIRA (Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal, Portugal), David JOÃO, Agostinho SANCHES, Renata ROTHWELL, Sandra PRAZERES
00:00 - 00:00 #32338 - A case of dupilumab associated conjunctivitis and the importance of specialist ophthalmology involvement.
A case of dupilumab associated conjunctivitis and the importance of specialist ophthalmology involvement.

Dupilumab is the first biologic drug licensed for the treatment of moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD). It works on Interleukin (IL)-4 receptors, disrupting the IL-4, IL-13 pathway. It is used widely in the UK, Europe and the US and has shown high efficacy in difficult to manage AD. The use of dupilumab is becoming more prevalent and has recently been approved for the treatment asthma. It’s role in the management of other allergic conditions is also being researched.

 

This poster presents the case of a 22-year-old with long-standing and severe AD. Shortly after commencing a course of dupilumab, he presented to our service suffering from conjunctivitis with right lower lid cicatricial ectropion. He had associated reduction in visual acuity. This is a known complication of treatment with dupilumab, and severity of ocular surface disease can vary from mild and self-limiting in most cases to severe, with cicatrisation, madarosis and reduction in visual acuity. 

 

The development of severe conjunctivitis is often difficult to manage and places significant burden on patients. It is therefore important to raise awareness of this association. Firstly, to encourage screening and identification of those at greater risk for development of ocular surface disease and secondly, to promote adequate counselling of patients commencing treatment with dupilumab. We suggest a closer liaison with ophthalmology services prior to starting therapy in those at high risk and in those who are symptomatic. 


Mark AWAD (Southampton, United Kingdom), Elizabeth JAMES, John AWAD
00:00 - 00:00 #32505 - A case of extensive linear basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with secondary cicatricial ectropion.
A case of extensive linear basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with secondary cicatricial ectropion.

Introduction

Linear BCC is a very rare variant, in part due to misdiagnosis and under-recognition of its morphological phenotype. This can lead to substantial delay in treatment and hence progression of the primary lesion. Here we illustrate the features of Linear BCC with an extensive archetypal clinical case with photos. 

Case

A 96 year old woman with a background of previous breast cancer and no other ocular or facial surgery presented to a specialist oculoplastic clinic in the UK, having been referred by the optician who noted a scab-like lesion under the right lower lid. The patient stated that the lesion had been present and increasingly painful for over two years; the general practitioner had dismissed it and given topical ointment.

Examination revealed a long, curvilinear, telangiectatic pearlescent lesion, 2-3mm wide and 40mm in length, extending from the right lateral canthus downwards and curving medially towards the nasal bridge along the intraocular relaxed skin tension lines (RSTLs). She had total loss of lower lid skin laxity with overt cicatricial ectropion. By contrast the fellow eye (Left)showed pronounced skin laxity and ballooned anterior fat prolapse under the lower lid. Biopsies of the lesion have been arranged and she has been listed for cryoablation. 

Discussion

This patient is the oldest documented case of Linear BCC. The size of the lesion is also remarkable, and likely to be one of the largest documented due to the delay in diagnosis. Like other documented cases, this linear lesion also appears to track along RSTLs as the path of least resistance. As illustrated by this case, linear BCCs are often misdiagnosed as scabs or scars, with significant secondary complications such as cicatricial ectropion from retraction of the surrounding tissue. Therefore it is an important phenomenon to recognise in an oculoplastic clinic.


Lizzie ROSEN (Bristol, United Kingdom), Harry ROSEN, Annette BACON
00:00 - 00:00 #31984 - A comparison of the clinical outcomes of anterior levator resection, simple levator plication, and modified deep levator plication for the treatment of congenital ptosis based on five years of experience.
A comparison of the clinical outcomes of anterior levator resection, simple levator plication, and modified deep levator plication for the treatment of congenital ptosis based on five years of experience.

Purpose

To compare the outcomes of levator resection and simple and deep levator plication techniques for correcting congenital ptosis.

Methods

In this prospective, comparative, and interventional case series, 45 lids were divided into three groups. The study included 45 patients older than five years with mild to moderate congenital ptosis and good to fair levator function. Levator resection was performed in group I, simple levator plication in group II, and modified deep levator plication in group III. The final assessment was conducted six months postoperatively. A successful outcome was defined as a marginal reflex distance 1 (MRD1) between 3 and 5 mm, an interlid MRD1 difference of less than 1 mm, and a symmetrical lid contour.

Results 

For group I, the mean improvement of MRD1 was  2.56±0.24 mm, and the success rate was 93.3%. One patient experienced overcorrection immediately after the surgery (Figure 1). One patient had conjunctival prolapse (Figure 2). Only one case (6.7%) of early minimal undercorrection was accepted by the patient with no more progression. For group II, the mean improvement was 1.10±0.11 mm, and the success rate was 53.3%. Three patients were scheduled for reoperation due to recurrence, with a failure rate of 20%. For group III, the mean improvement was 1.37±0.14 mm, and the success rate was 73.3%. One lid was scheduled for reoperation because of recurrence (failure rate, 6.7%) (Table1).

 Conclusion

Levator resection is the most effective and stable option for correcting congenital ptosis. Simple levator plication is not recommended for correction of congenital ptosis because it has the highest failure rate. Recurrence, the main drawback of levator plication, can be reduced using the deep plication technique.


Hossameldeen Elsayed Awad ELBARBARY (Alexandria, Egypt, Egypt)
00:00 - 00:00 #31975 - A Long Cut: Emergency and long-term management of a severe and complex traumatic ocular injury involving a long vertical eyelid wound and a penetrating corneo-scleral laceration.
A Long Cut: Emergency and long-term management of a severe and complex traumatic ocular injury involving a long vertical eyelid wound and a penetrating corneo-scleral laceration.

A 41-year-old Chinese man sustained a left-sided penetrating ocular injury from an angle-grinder resulting in a corneo-scleral laceration and an extensive vertical upper and lower eyelid defect. Left visual acuity (VA) was light perception, right eye VA 6/5 (Snellen). Computerised tomography showed a deformed globe, no intra-ocular/-orbital foreign-bodies and a stable orbital floor fracture. Exploration and primary repair under general anaesthesia revealed a V-shaped, full-thickness corneal defect, which extended inferiorly to transect the inferior-rectus. Total anterior iris loss and an intact lens were noted. The corneal, then scleral laceration were closed first and followed by inferior rectus repair. The vertical eyelid wound measured 15cm; sub-brow to the nasolabial fold. There was <25% eyelid tissue loss and direct closure in layers was achieved methodically. Limited skin Z-plasty and deep fornix sutures were performed to minimise scarring and cicatrisation. Horizontal lid tightening was not undertaken to minimise pressure on the globe. Post-operative regime included antibiotics (moxifloxacin orally and guttae) and topical steroid (dexamethasone 0.1% guttae) application to the left eye and eyelid wounds (dexamethasone 0.1%/neomycin ointment three times daily (t.d.s.)).

Post-operatively, the globe was comfortable and sealed. VA was counting fingers and intraocular pressure 14. Corneal oedema limited fundal view but ultrasound B-scanning showed a flat retina. Four weeks post-operatively, eyelid wound contraction ensued, with 1mm lagophthalmos. This resolved with high concentration steroid (hydrocortisone 0.1% t.d.s. cream) application and wound massage for six months. 16 months post-operatively, the globe was well-formed with no appreciable volume loss. Corneal scarring and a white cataract were evident. Optical coherence tomography showed good corneal alignment and intact zonules. Following phacoemulsification surgery with intra-capsular lens implantation, VA improved to 6/60 (Snellen).

Traumatic ocular injuries are common and variable, and can significantly impact physical functionality and mental health. It is imperative to adapt the primary repair to the presenting injury, while prioritising the globe for best overall outcomes. Despite a severe and complex ocular injury, this patient achieved stable globe integrity with visual potential, and recovered excellent eyelid functional and cosmesis, which he reported was fundamental in regaining confidence. 


Li Yen GOH (London, United Kingdom), Tahir FAROOQ
00:00 - 00:00 #32393 - A novel multi-modal approach to managing severe paralytic ectropion with periocular lymphoedema secondary to infiltrative squamous cell carcinoma.
A novel multi-modal approach to managing severe paralytic ectropion with periocular lymphoedema secondary to infiltrative squamous cell carcinoma.

Introduction

 

A 74 year old male developed gross unilateral periocular lymphoedema and grade V facial nerve palsy secondary to infiltrative squamous cell carcinoma. We describe management with cemiplimab immunotherapy, Endolift® (EUFOTON S.R.L. Italy) laser and extensive lower eyelid surgery. This challenging problem and management approach adopted has not been previously reported.

 

Methods

 

Patient initially presented with unilateral painful, erythematous periocular swelling 1 month prior to developing a grade V facial nerve palsy. He had loss of infraorbital nerve sensation with cheek and temple skin induration and ulceration. MRI revealed sphenoid, temporal fossa and infraorbital malignant subcutaneous lesions with periorbital inflammation. Histology confirmed moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with perineural invasion. He was given a very guarded prognosis and commenced cemiplimab palliative immunotherapy. This treatment yielded an excellent response. Quality of life was limited by severe left ocular pain due to gross lower lid paralytic and mechanical ectropion. Endolift® laser reduced gross lymphoedema significantly with sustained improvement. Subsequent lower lid surgery with retractor recession, donor fascia lata sling with drill hole fixation, subcutaneous debulking of all involved tissues of lower lid and upper cheek down to periosteum and Tisseel glue dermadesis was performed. Patient is delighted with improvement thus far and reports complete pain resolution.

 

Discussion

 

A multi-modal approach in managing this complex condition was crucial in addressing multiple issues affecting patient’s quality of life. Cemiplimab is a human immunoglobulin G4 monoclonal antibody, which potentiates an immune response to squamous carcinoma cells. Endolift® is a minimally invasive 1470 nm laser that remodels both deep and superficial layers of the skin by stimulating neocollagenesis and lipolysis. Extensive lower lid surgery as described above improved lid malposition and ocular surface protection and relieved his severe ocular pain. Through this novel multi-modal approach, the patient has achieved a very satisfactory outcome.


Michael Yoon Tze LAI (Leicester, United Kingdom), Sabrina SHAH-DESAI, Sajid ATAULLAH
00:00 - 00:00 #30741 - A theory of unified pathogenesis for tarsal ectropion and involutional entropion.
A theory of unified pathogenesis for tarsal ectropion and involutional entropion.

Introduction

Tarsal ectropion and involutional entropion are two frequent age-related lower eyelid malpositions characterized by their "mirrored" clinical presentation, respectively external rotation and internal rotation of the lid margin.

Several pathogenic factors have been recognized in both conditions: involutional weakness of lower lid retractors responsible for tarsal instability, tarso-tendinous laxity, and specifically for entropion the ascent of the preseptal orbicularis, and even some degree of enophthalmos. However, no study links these two malpositions pathologically nor describes an overarching mechanism by which the lower eyelid would rotate in one direction or another. 

Material and Method

A recent anatomical description of retractors confirms the existence of two layers, anterior and posterior, and their close relationship with the anterior and posterior palpebral lamellae. This description has focused our attention on the function of retractors in lamellar stability ensuring the normal position of the lower eyelid. Moreover, the clinical study of these malpositions, the surgical interventions on the retractors, the postoperative results and the data in the literature lead us to suggest a greater role of the retractors in these malpositions.

This study excludes the involutional hypotonic ectropion, where tarso-tendinous hyperlaxity is predominant.     

Results

This study describes two new clinico-anatomical entities and proposes a unified pathogenesis placing the retractors at the origin of the mechanism leading to tarsal ectropion or involutional entropion


Philippe IMBERT (TOULOUSE)
00:00 - 00:00 #32433 - A variety of flap techniques for upper eyelid reconstruction after surgical resection of eyelid tumors.
A variety of flap techniques for upper eyelid reconstruction after surgical resection of eyelid tumors.

 

 Reconstruction of the upper eyelid is one of the greatest challenges facing the orbitofacial surgeon.

we are presenting 5 cases with a different techniques for upper eyelid reconstruction after tumor excision :

  1st case: the inverted semicircular flap for reconstruction of upper lateral 1/3 of the eyelid after basal cell carcinoma excision 

2nd  case:   the Cutler-Beard bridge flap from the lower eyelid,two stage procedure flap for recontruction of 90 % of upper eyelid after Merckel Cell Carcinoma excision

3d case : Revisited FRICKE flap, the flap donor site is situated immediatly superior to the brow cilia, one stage procedure, with contralateral tarsal graft for total superior upper eyelid reconstruction after sebaceous cell carcinoma excision

4th case : ABBE MUSTARDE lower transposition eyelid flap for 2/3 upper eyelid reconstruction, two stage procedure flap after sebaceous cell carcinoma excision

5th case : Glabellar flap for upper 1/3 medial reconstruction after Basal Cell Carcinoma excision 

 

the determination of which lamella of the eyelid is involved in the defect is a crucial part of the evaluation.

Since the anterior and posterior lamellae contain different tissues, the surgeon should consider a different graft or flap for each portion.

any tissue that replaces the posterior lamella must have a stable lid margin, closely approximate the cornea and globe, but does not abrade the cornea by hair follicules or epethelium.

the survival of the flap depends on its design, with the flap length as measured from the medal end of the defect to the base or rotation point of the flap. The length: width ratio of the flap must not exceed of 4:1 


Edgard FARAH (PARIS)
00:00 - 00:00 #30728 - Adopting the CADS scoring system; perspectives of a new user.
Adopting the CADS scoring system; perspectives of a new user.

AIM: Several grading instruments exist for assessing the severity of facial nerve palsy, with associated prognostic indications, including House-Brackmann, Yanagihara, and Sunnybrook gradings. However, these have been criticised for inadequately assessing the periocular region, and the associated consequences on ocular function. These instruments are unable to identify all patients at risk of, or experiencing, ocular complications. Similarly, they cannot adequately track changes over time, particularly important after interventions. The CADS score was developed to address these shortfalls and provide a periocular-specific, comprehensive, objective assessment. Despite previous oculoplastic experience, enough to feel I could identify which patients with a facial nerve palsy required surgical intervention, I previously relied on subjective descriptions to communicate the clinical situation with colleagues and determine the most appropriate intervention for them. CADS may appear onerous to incorporate into daily practice. This study highlights the learning curve for an experienced fellow in oculoplastics beginning to use the CADS score in daily practice.

METHODS: A retrospective study highlighting my experience and learning curve in using the CADS score. Aspects of usefulness and weakness, difficulties in using the score in a busy practice are outlined.

RESULTS: Approximately 70 patients examined over 6 months. Use of the CADS score necessitated routine evaluation of all relevant parameters every consultation, rather than focusing specifically on patient concerns or overt pathology. I developed an appreciation for the impact of lid-to-brow-margin distance, blink lagophthalmos, brow movement and evidence of synkinesis, which now form conscious parts of my assessments. My evaluations became more objective and repeatable, particularly for corneal disease, which is notoriously subjective. I recognised that patients with high C scores required the most urgent intervention though those with high scores elsewhere likely have high disease burden too. CADS enabled me to develop consistent decision-making, addressing each scoring parameter for a comprehensive intervention. 


Samantha HUNT (East Grinstead, United Kingdom), Raman MALHOTRA
00:00 - 00:00 #32251 - An insidious infection that creates a mass effect in the nasojugal groove.
An insidious infection that creates a mass effect in the nasojugal groove.

Purpose: To present a case with skin and soft tissue involvement in the periorbital region and isolated staphylococcus lugdunensis.Case presentation: A 44-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic with complaints of swelling under the eyes and narrowing of the visual field in downward gaze, which had been present for 6 months. It was learned from the patient's history that she was examined in another center in the hematology and oncology department for the preliminary diagnoses of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, iron deficiency anemia and lymphoma. In her ophthalmological examination, her vision was bilaterally 20/20, anterior segment, intraocular pressure and fundus examinations were normal. In the external examination, it was observed that there was swelling matching the tear trough area and xanthelasma on it (Figure 1A). MRI radiographs showed hypodense lesions on T1-weighted images and hyperdense lesions on T2-weighted images in the nasojugal groove and premaxillary area (Figure 2). During excisional biopsy performed bilaterally from xanthelasma and subcutaneous tissues in this region, it was observed that there was a collection of white colored, creamy fluid (Figure 1C,D). Pathological examination of the removed skin and subcutaneous tissues revealed xanthelasma and fibrolipomatous tissues. Staphylococcus lugdunensis was grown in culture as a result of microbiological examination of the fluid. Antibiotic therapy was administered to the patient for 10 days, as she was sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in the culture antibiogram. There was no re-collection of fluid in the patient's controls (Figure 1B).Conclusion: Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase negative, Gr (+) bacterium that is most commonly present in the normal skin flora between the axilla, groin and toe. It has been reported to cause skin and soft tissue inflammation, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, prosthetic joint infections, endocarditis, and endophthalmitis infections. This is a rare case in which this infection was detected in the periocular region.   


Gamze OZTURK KARABULUT, Zehra KARAAGAC, Korhan FAZIL, Kubra SEREFOGLU CABUK (istanbul, Turkey), Senay ASIK NACAROGLU
00:00 - 00:00 #32424 - Avoiding Complications on the Upper Face Treatment With Botulinum Toxin: A Practical Guide.
Avoiding Complications on the Upper Face Treatment With Botulinum Toxin: A Practical Guide.

Background Currently, botulinum toxin (BoNT) injections are the most commonly performed non-invasive procedure for rejuvenation on the upper face. The therapeutic use of botulinum toxin has generally been safe and well tolerated. Adverse effects are considered mild, transient, and self-limited. However, as with all other injectable procedures, this one is also susceptible to adverse events and complications. When the safety zones are respected, the chance of any of these complications is practically null. Thus, this review aims to describe the main complications of treatment with BoNT on the upper face and to present a practical guide based on current evidence on how to avoid them. Methods The literature research considered published journal articles (clinical trials or sci