Sunday 11 October
Time Auditorium Agnelli Room 500 Room Londra Room Istanbul Room Madrid Room Parigi Room Roma Room Atene Room Dublino Room Lisbona
13:00
13:00-14:30
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A11
State of the Art
Airway Emergencies

State of the Art
Airway Emergencies

Moderators: Pr Rick BODY (Professor of Emergency Medicine) (Manchester), Sabine MERZ (senior consultant) (Villingen-Schwenningen, Germany)
13:00 - 13:30 Extreme Airways. Rich LEVITAN (USA)
13:30 - 14:00 Preparing for the challenging airway. Chris NICKSON (South Yarra, Australia)
14:00 - 14:30 Decision time: Owning the airway in the ED. Dr Reuben STRAYER (Emergency Physician) (Brooklyn, USA)

13:00-14:30
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B11
Italy invites
Trauma

Italy invites
Trauma

Moderators: Corrado CASULA (Italy), Paolo CREMONESI (Italy)
13:00 - 13:20 I percorsi diagnostico-terapeutici in DEA. Marco BAROZZI (Cesena, Italy)
13:20 - 13:40 The STOP the bleeding campaign: a che punto siamo? Giuseppe NARDI (Roma, Italy)
13:40 - 14:00 Il trauma cranico nel paziente in terapia con farmaci anticoagulanti / antipiastrinici. Andrea FABBRI (Chief of Emergency Unit) (Forli, Italy)
14:00 - 14:20 Il trauma toracico nella prima ora. Elvio DE BLASIO (Salerno, Italy)

13:00-14:30
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C11
Clinical Questions: Controversies
Pre-hospital EM

Clinical Questions: Controversies
Pre-hospital EM

Moderators: Maaret CASTREN (Professor) (HELSINKI, Finland), Stefan TRENKLER (Košice, Slovakia)
13:00 - 13:30 Use of Point of Care in the prehospital EMS MICU ambulances. Eric REVUE (Chef de Service) (Paris, France)
13:30 - 14:00 All about gasping – from pathophysiology to ethics. Dr Jana SEBLOVA (Emergency Physician) (PRAGUE, Czech Republic)
14:00 - 14:30 The DNR order in pre-hospital  emergency intervention: possible or impossible. Carmen Diana CIMPOESU (Prof. Head of ED) (IASI, Romania)

13:00-14:30
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D11
Administration / Management
Managing Cost Effectiveness

Administration / Management
Managing Cost Effectiveness

Moderators: Wilhelm BEHRINGER (Director) (Jena, Germany), Michael DUERR SPECHT (Germany)
13:00 - 13:30 The principle of cost effectiveness. Wilhelm BEHRINGER (Director) (Jena, Germany)
13:30 - 14:00 National AED programs, are they worth the money? Patrick Stephen MORAN (Ireland)
14:00 - 14:30 Can cost control and appropriateness get along in today’s emergency medicine? Roberta PETRINO (Head of department) (Italie, Italy)

13:00-14:30
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E11
Research
Pulmonary Emergencies

Research
Pulmonary Emergencies

Moderators: Luis GARCIA-CASTRILLO (ED director) (Oruna, Spain), Said LARIBI (PU-PH, chef de pôle) (Tours, France)
13:00 - 13:30 Observational studies in Emergency Medicine. Luis GARCIA-CASTRILLO (ED director) (Oruna, Spain)
13:30 - 14:00 EuroDEM study: results and perspectives. Said LARIBI (PU-PH, chef de pôle) (Tours, France)
14:00 - 14:30 Australian study on dyspnea in Emergency Medicine. Anne-Maree KELLY (PHYSICIAN) (Melbourne, Australia)

13:00-14:30
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F11
YEMD
Sim Session #1

YEMD
Sim Session #1

Moderators: Jennifer TRUCHOT (MEDECIN) (Paris, France), Youri YORDANOV (Médecin) (Paris, France)
13:00 - 13:30 From Zero to Sim. Thomas PLAPPERT (Fulda, Germany)
13:30 - 14:00 Engaging Resident Education trough Simulation Competitions. Pier Luigi INGRASSIA (Novara, Italy)
14:00 - 14:30 SESAM @ EuSEM. Rainer GAUPP (Switzerland)

13:00-14:30
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G11
UK Patient Safety Forum
Making emergency care safe: what is our role?

UK Patient Safety Forum
Making emergency care safe: what is our role?

Moderator: Ruth BROWN (Speaker) (London, United Kingdom)
13:00 - 13:30 UK incidents and audience vote on actions. Ruth BROWN (Speaker) (London, United Kingdom)
13:00 - 14:00 Second victim. Mary DAWOOD (United Kingdom)
14:00 - 14:30 Panel discussion.

13:00-14:30
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OP1-11
Oral Paper 1
Cardiovascular Emergencies I

Oral Paper 1
Cardiovascular Emergencies I

Moderators: Al BEHCET (faculty speaker) (Gaziantep, Turkey), Cristian BOERIU (Assoc.Professor) (Targu Mures, Romania)
13:00 - 14:30 #1002 - #1002 - Cluster analysis of emergency department acute heart failure patients based on their presenting hemodynamic measurements. Implications for therpay.
#1002 - Cluster analysis of emergency department acute heart failure patients based on their presenting hemodynamic measurements. Implications for therpay.

Background: Hemodynamic (HD) phenotyping of patients with acute heart failure (AHF) using cluster analysis may help to define potential targets for specific therapeutic interventions. Blood pressure (BP) and pulse do not accurately identify the underlying HD profiles of acutely ill patients in general. Objectives: To derive distinct clusters of Emergency Department (ED) patients with AHF based on their presenting noninvasive HD measurements and to identify any potential distinguishing clinical characteristics among patients within each cluster. Methods: Presenting, pre-treatment noninvasive HD parameters (n=23) were compiled using the Nexfin device (Bmeye/Edwards LifeSciences) from 127 ED patients with confirmed AHF. Based on these parameters, k-means clustering was performed to identify a set of variables that provided the greatest level of inter-cluster discrimination and intra-cluster cohesion. The parameter k, representing the number of clusters, was identified iteratively by maximizing the ratio of inter (discrimination) and intra cluster error (cohesion), with smaller values of k being preferred. Principal components analysis validates the choice of small k as appropriate for the data. Our final model included 3 groups with clustering based on the following mean parameters: stroke volume index [(SVI), ml/M²], systemic vascular resistance index [(SVRI), dynes/sec/cm/M²] and finger mean arterial pressure [(fMAP), mmHg]. Group comparisons were then performed. Results: Cluster 1 had normal cardiac function and vascular resistance (SVI 38.7 ± 9.7; SVRI 2065.4 ± 305.7; fMAP 66.7 ± 21.2); cluster 2 slightly low cardiac function (SVI 31.0 ± 6.2) with increased vascular tone (SVRI 3109.4 ± 379.3, fMAP 81.0 ± 20.0); and cluster 3 very decreased cardiac function (SVI 22.4 ± 7.5) with markedly elevated vascular resistance (SVRI 4696.8 ± 795.3, fMAP 89.8 ±26.5). All p values for the cluster HD parameters were <0.0001. Presenting diastolic BP differed among the clusters. However the systolic BP and other baseline variables (including age, gender, heart rate, history of coronary artery disease and creatinine, BNP and recent ejection fraction values) were statistically equivalent. Conclusions: Among ED patients with AHF, distinct clusters can be defined based on presenting non-invasively derived HD measures of cardiac function, systemic vascular resistance and finger mean arterial BP. This approach may help identify distinct patient subtypes that would benefit from target-specific treatment, providing granularity that cannot be achieved using more traditional ED variables.

Richard NOWAK (Detroit, USA), Brian REED, Salvatore DISOMMA, Prabath NANAYAKKARA, Michele MOYER, Scott MILLIS, Robert SHERWIN, Phil LEVY
13:00 - 14:30 #1215 - #1215 - The utility of a modified heart score in chest pain patients with normal troponins in predicting need for further observation and /or provocative cardiac testing.
#1215 - The utility of a modified heart score in chest pain patients with normal troponins in predicting need for further observation and /or provocative cardiac testing.

Background: The TRAPID-AMI study was a multicenter international trial evaluating the high sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTnT) assay in a rapid "rule-out" acute myocardial infarction (AMI) strategy in the Emergency Department (ED). We evaluated a modified HEART Score (MHS) using historical features (clinical suspicion), ECG, age and cardiac risk factors and a normal hs-cTnT to identify a low-risk patient population that might not require further observation and/or provocative cardiac testing. Each of the elements of the MHS is assigned a 0,1 or 2 with the composite score ranging from 0-8. Methods: There were 1,282 patienst studied in the ED for possible AMI from 10 European, 2 USA and 1 Australian Centers from August 2011 through June 2013. Patients were enrolled if the onset of their chest pain (or equivalent) was less than 6 hours from presentation and hs-cTnT (99%, 14 pg/L) was measured at baseline, 1,2 and 6 hours later. All patients were followed for 30 day adverse events (AEs) which included death and MI. Patients were considered low risk if they had hs-cTnT less than or equal to 14 pg/L at baseline and 6 hours and had a MHS less than or equal to 3. Results: There were 17% (217/1282) of patients that suffered an AE at 30 days overall: 8 deaths (0.6%) and 215 AMIs (17%). There were 40% of patients (514/1282) with normal hs-cTnT values and a MHS less than or equal to 3. The AE (all AMIs) rate in the patients with a MHS less than or equal to 3 was 0.2% (1/514) amd those with a MNS 4 or greater 1.8% (5/285) (p = 0.024) .Conclusions: Serial testing of hs-cTnT along with application of a MHS may identify a very low risk ED chest pain population that might be able to be directly discharged from the ED without further observation and/or provocative testing with outpatient follow up within 30 days. Further prospective trials are needed to verify these results.

Richard NOWAK (Detroit, USA), James MCCORD, Richard BODY, Evangelos GIANNITSIS, Peter DILBA, Michael CHRIST, Bertil LINDAHL, John FRENCH, Tomas JERNBERG, Christopher DEFILIPPI, Robert CHRISTENSON, Franck VERSCHUREN, Gordon JACOBSEN, Garnet BENDIG, Christian MUELLER
13:00 - 14:30 #1364 - #1364 - Development of a simplified risk score to assess the pre-test probability of acute aortic syndrome in the Emergency Department.
#1364 - Development of a simplified risk score to assess the pre-test probability of acute aortic syndrome in the Emergency Department.

Background. The diagnosis of acute aortic syndromes (AAS) is a challenge for Emergency Physicians due to lack of sensitive and specific signs and symptoms. Patient stratification according to pre-test probability of AAS is suggested to standardize both evaluation and diagnostic decisions on aortic imaging. The Aortic Dissection Detection (ADD) risk score, indicated by the 2010 American Heart Association and 2014 European Society of Cardiology guidelines, can be used to evaluate the pre-test probability of AAS according to the presence/absence of 12 risk factors. Accordingly, three risk categories of patients can be defined: low, medium, and high-risk of AAS. However, the ADD risk score is relatively complex and is not easy to routinely implement in the Emergency Department (ED). Aim of this study was to compare the predictive value of several risk factors for AAS and to develop a simplified score allowing more straightforward risk-stratification for AAS in the ED. 

Methods. Consecutive patients admitted to the ED with a clinical suspicion of AAS were enrolled in two EDs between 2008 and 2013. Patients were included in a registry if the following criteria were satisfied: (1) presence of chest pain, back pain, abdominal pain, syncope or signs/symptoms of perfusion deficit; (2) unclear diagnosis after initial medical evaluation; (3) order of an urgent aortic imaging exam by the attending physician to identify/exclude AAS. Trauma patients were excluded. The final diagnosis was based on computed tomography angiography results. For each patient, we retrospectively reviewed ED charts to calculate both the ADD risk score and a simplified score. Risk factors for the simplified score were identified based on their potential predictability, calculated using the modified Rho2 Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. We assessed the discriminatory ability of both scores using the c-index.

Results. 1,328 patients with suspected AAS were enrolled in the registry, and 291 (21.9%) had a final diagnosis of AAS. The ADD risk score was 0 (low-risk) in 439 (33.1%) patients, 1 (intermiediate-risk) in 646 (48.6%) patients and >1 (high-risk) in 243 (18.3%) patients. Based on Rho2 coefficient, we identified 5 highly predictive variables for AAS to be used in the simplified score: severe pain, abrupt onset of pain, pulse deficit, hypotension and focal neurologic deficit. Both the ADD risk score and the simplified score had a high c-index (0.73 and 0.72 respectively). Using the 5-variable model, we also built a nomogram for rapid evaluation of AAS risk in the ED. The agreement between expected and predicted scores for the simplified model was assessed by calibration analysis. The performance of the simplified model was similar to that of the ADD risk score, and the simplified score in particular showed a good predictive capacity amongst non-high risk patients.

Conclusion. This is first attempt to simplify a published scoring system for suspected AAS. Our 5-variable simplified risk score showed a discrimination power similar to the 12-variable ADD risk score. External validation of the simplified score is needed, and a new prospective study is currently recruiting.

Emanuele PIVETTA (Torino, Italy), Peiman NAZERIAN, Francesca GIACHINO, Simone VANNI, Corrado MOIRAGHI, Matteo CASTELLI, Milena MAULE, Stefano GRIFONI, Enrico LUPIA, Fulvio MORELLO
13:00 - 14:30 #1429 - #1429 - Hypothesis of correlation between hemoconcentration and paroxysms of supraventricular arrhythmias: prospective study in emergency department.
#1429 - Hypothesis of correlation between hemoconcentration and paroxysms of supraventricular arrhythmias: prospective study in emergency department.

Background. During a previous study performed in our emergency department (ED), about comparison between electrical and pharmacological cardioversion of paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation (AF), higher values of hematocrit were observed in patients with AF. A positive correlation between higher hematocrit and incidences of paroxysmal AF have already been reported in a small number of patients and in some studies of the 90s - early 2000s. It is still to be clarified if hemoconcentration itself is the cause of the arrhythmia, or, alternatively, is caused by Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) hypersecretion during the paroxysms of AF.

Objectives. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible proarrhythmic role, mostly for the AF, of the hemorheological abnormalities due to increased hematocrit.

Materials and methods. Between December 2014 and March 2015, a control case-control study was carried out on patients presenting to the ED complaining of “palpitations”. For all these patients, we asked all physicians of our ED to fill in a form reporting: medical history, medications, vital signs and ultrasound measurement of dynamic changes of inferior cava vein (IVC) diameter.

The patients with paroxysms of AF or supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) were reviewed after a month, in order to complete the same form, perform the ECG, and collect the same blood samples.

 

Results. We enrolled 167 patients: 98 patients were analyzed, 59 had sinus rhythm and 39 had supraventricular arrythmia (33 AF and 6 SVT); 69 patients were excluded. Incidence of recent profuse sweating (p=0.085) and polyuria (p=0.083), and assumption of antiarrhythmic agents (p=0.0003) or drugs that induce a decrease of hematocrit (p=0.015) were higher in patients with arrythmia. Mean + standard deviation values of hemoglobin (Hb) [151.20+12.55 vs 141.42+13.23 g/L (p=0.0004)], red blood cells (RBC) [8.29+1.97 vs 7.34+2.40 x10.12/L (p=0.01)] and white blood cell count (WBC) [5.14+0.46 vs 4.88+0.57 x10.9/L (p=0.01)], hematocrit (HCT) [0.465+0.034 vs 0.433+0.039 (p<0.0001)], urea [6.34+2.32 vs 5.22+1.55 mmol/L (p=0.003)], creatinine [88.71+21.53 vs 79.10+5.99 umol/L (p=0.007)], sodium [140.48+1.81 vs 139.72+1.73 mmol/L (p=0.04)], osmolality [292.05+4.48 vs 285.88+5.14 mOsm/Kg (p<0.0001)], Prohormone Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) [604.56+1143.45 vs 87.45+160.41 ng/L (p<0.0001)] and Erythropoietin (EPO) [13.11+7.36 vs 10.53+5.51 IU/L (p=0.015)], were higher among patients with arrhythmia. No difference was found between the two groups regarding platelets count, MCV, calcium, magnesium, TSH levels, blood pressure values and IVC diameter changes.

After 1 month, patients with arrythmia showed lower values of WBC (p<0.0001), RBC (p<0.0001), Hb (p<0.0001), HCT (p<0.0001) urea (p=0.02), creatinine (p=0.002), osmolality (p<0.0001) and NT-pro BNP (p=0.0009), while EPO slightly decreased (p=0.036) and IVC values did not change.

No difference were found between the lab values of the group with sinus rhythm and with supraventricular arrhythmias after 1 month, except lower values in calcium, potassium, osmolality, TSH and NT-proBNP.

 

Conclusion. Our study shows that hemoconcentration is common in patients presenting with paroxysms of supraventricular arrhythmias. These patients shows chronically higher EPO and NT-proBNP values. The hemorheological abnormalities in combination with fluid loss, apparently only in part induced by BNP hypersecretion on an atrium already mechanically stressed, can promote the occurrence of arrhythmias.

 

 

Sara GREGORI (Cattolica (RN), Italy), Chiara SANDONA', Roberta VOLPIN, Samuela BARTOLACCI, Monica MION, Francesco BORRELLI, Gianna VETTORE, Martina ZANINOTTO, Franco TOSATO, Mario PLEBANI
13:00 - 14:30 #1525 - #1525 - Patients with NSTEMI treated with non invasive procedures in an emergency department: a review of a case study.
#1525 - Patients with NSTEMI treated with non invasive procedures in an emergency department: a review of a case study.

Introduction                 

The use of invasive therapeutic treatments is still controversial and under debate for selective elderly patients presenting with  UA/NSTEMI. Age and several comorbidities lead to a difficult management of this kind of patients.

Objectives

Elderly patients are often underrepresented in clinical trials. The aim of this study is to analyze the treatment protocol, the mortality risk factors, the one-year mortality rate and the recurrence rate of MI in elderly patients presenting with  UA/NSTEMI and treated in our Unit.

Methods

This is a review of case study. From  2013 to  2014, 137 patients have been  admitted in the Department of Medicina Interna Area Critica of Policlinico in Modena for the management of acute myocardial infarction. For each patient we analyzed clinical presentation, past medical history (focusing on previous cardiac diseases, renal failure, advance tumour), therapeutic approach and outcomes (one year mortality, recurrence of myocardial infarction). We proceded with a univariated and multivariated analysis of the mortality risk factors and of the one-year overall survival, assessed with Cox regression analysis.

Results

The mean age was 84.2 ± 10.3 y.o. The therapeutic approach was conservative in 117 patients (85%) and invasive (PCI) in 20 patients (15%). The average follow up was 292 days. The overall mortality rate was 43.1% (59 patients). 21 of them (3.6%) died during hospitalization: they were considered “critical patients” since admission.
The population was divided in two groups: patients dead at the time of the analysis and patients still alive. We compared the two groups considering all the data collected. Concerning the survival, the univariated analysis pointed out as prognostic factors: age (p=0.001), urea (p=0.001), creatinine (p=0.003), glycemic decompensation (p=0.029), troponine risen (p=0.048), symptomatic heart failure (p=0.048), conservative approach indication (p=0.020), acute administration of Ace-inhibitors/Sartans (p=0.004), Statins (p=0.004), B-blockers (p=0.012) e Aspirin (p=0.039).
The multivariated analysis showed as independent mortality risk factors: age (Hazard Ratio 1.055, Confidence Interval at 95% 1.014-1.098, p=0.009), troponine risen (HR 1.026, CI95% 1.011-1.043, p=0.001), urea (HR 1.012, CI 95% 1.004-1.020, p=0.004), symptomatic heart failure (HR 1.76, CI 95% 1.01-3.06, p=0.046), glycemic decompensation (HR 1.004, CI 95% 1-1.007, p=0.054), acute administration of Statins (HR 0.43, CI 95%, p=0.015) and Aspirin (HR 0.43, CI 95% 0.22-0.85, p=0.015).

Conclusions

Elderly patients with MI are high mortality risk patients.
One-year mortality is higher in patients conservatively treated, compared to those receiving reperfusion therapies.  The mortality is higher in patients presenting with risen troponine, renal failure, heart failure and glycemic decompensation.
In patients not suitable for invasive treatments, acute administration of selected medications (Aspirin, Statin, Ace-inhibitor/Sartan and B-blocker) is the therapeutic approach to reduce mortality risk at one year

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brugioni LUCIO (Modena, Italy), Gozzi CRISTINA, Vivoli DANIELA, Cameli ANNAMARIA, Rossi ROSARIO
13:00 - 14:30 #1531 - #1531 - Anticoagulation therapy for patients with non valvular atrial fibrillation: evaluation of the oral anticoagulants prescription by emergency physicians.
#1531 - Anticoagulation therapy for patients with non valvular atrial fibrillation: evaluation of the oral anticoagulants prescription by emergency physicians.

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequently arrhythmia represented in Emergency department (ED). The risk of thromboembolic events is five times higher in patients with AF than those in sinus rhythm. The vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) are currently the most effective therapeutic class for the prevention of these events.

Objectives: To study the epidemiology of non-valvular AF (NVAF) in ED, assess VKAs prescription in eligible patients and to determine criteria associated with an under-prescription of this therapy.

Methods: Prospective, observational, over two years study. Inclusion criteria: age> 18 years, patients with NVAF eligible for anticoagulation. Non-inclusion criteria: AF treated by VKAs, contra-indications to VKAs. Collection of epidemiological and clinical parameters, classification of NVAF, calculation of ischemic risk (CHADS2 [Congestive heart failure (CHF), Hypertension (HTA), Age75 years, Diabetes(D), Stroke (S)] or CHA2DS2-VASc [CHF, HTA, Age75 years, DM, Stroke, Vascular disease, Age 65 -74 years, Sex category] and bleeding risk (HAS-BLED [HTA ,Abnormal renal/liver function, Stroke, Bleeding history or predisposition, Labile INR, Elderly, Drugs/alcohol concomitantly]) scores. Patients divided into two groups:  VKAs+ Group: patients received VKAs and VKAs- Group. An analytic study was done in order to know the parameters significantly and independently associated with under prescription of the VKAs.

Results: During study, 176 patients were enrolled. Mean age: 67±13 years. Sex-ratio=0.5. Cardiovascular comorbidities were present in 68% cases. FA classification: paroxysmal n=114, permanent n=47 and persistent n=15. The mean CHADS2 score was 1.5 ± 1.2, the mean CHA2DS2VASc score was 2.88 ± 1.55 and the mean HASBLED score was 1.52 ± 1.05. VKA prescription rate was 36%. In multivariate analysis, age >70 years (OR=1.59, 95%CI[1.11-2,21];p<0.001), creatinine level ≥110 µmol/l(OR=2,54;95%CI[1,20–5,37];p=0,01) and aspirine use (OR =1,7;95%CI[1,08-2,67];p=0,02) were independently associated with non-prescription VKAs. The main causes of VKAs underuse reported by the emergency physicians were: factors related to patient characteristics n=38, factors related to emergency physician n=62, factors related to the patient environment n=20 and factors related to the drug n=22.

Conclusions:  The prescription rate of VKAs was 36%. To optimize this rate, the prescription of VKAs must be in a socio-medical perspective taking account the socio-economic conditions of each patient. The goal is to aim for appropriate and rational management to improve the prognosis of this disease.

Hanen GHAZALI, Jihen ESSID (TUNISIE), Houssem AOUNI, Anware YAHMADI, Moez MOUGAIDA, Mahbouba CHKIR, Mohamed MGUIDICH, Sami SOUISSI
13:00 - 14:30 #837 - #837 - CLINICAL AND LABORATORY CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS PRESENTING TO THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT WITH HYPERTENSIVE URGENCY.
#837 - CLINICAL AND LABORATORY CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS PRESENTING TO THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT WITH HYPERTENSIVE URGENCY.

Background:  Clinical and laboratory characteristics of individuals presenting to the emergency department (ED) with hypertensive urgency (HU) are not well characterized. 

Methods:  In a retrospective chart review study, 150 consecutive patients admitted to a tertiary care center ED with HU (systolic blood pressure values >180 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure values > 110 mmHg without evidence of end organ involvement) were compared with 150 patients with normal blood pressure evaluated in the surgical ward of the same emergency room.  Demographic variables, co-morbidities and laboratory values were compared between the two groups. 

Results: HU patients were older (66±16.1 years vs. 61.7±19 years, p=0.04), had a greater prevalence of hypertension 90% vs. 64%, p=0.001), were treated with more anti-hypertensive medications (1.9±1.4 vs. 1±1.3, p=0.001) and had a higher prevalence of chronic kidney disease (10.6% vs. 4% p=0.044). Laboratory findings were similar in HU and normotensive individuals.

Conclusions:  HU in an ED setting is more prevalent among elderly, hypertensive individuals, particularly among those with chronic kidney disease  

 

Shachaf SHIBER (Tel aviv, Israel), Alon GROSSMAN

13:00-14:30
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OP2-11
Oral Paper 2
Geriatric Emergencies

Oral Paper 2
Geriatric Emergencies

Moderators: Gautam BODIWALA (Leicester, United Kingdom), Mehmet Akif KARAMERCAN (Chair of EuSEM Research Committee) (ANKARA, Turkey)
13:00 - 14:30 #1161 - #1161 - Treatment of acutely admitted elderly patients in a short stay unit vs. standard care. A randomised trial.
#1161 - Treatment of acutely admitted elderly patients in a short stay unit vs. standard care. A randomised trial.

Background: Short stay units (SSU) in conjunction to emergency departments (ED) are increasingly being implemented to provide accelerated care and shorter hospitalisation. However, it is not well studied, whether short stay hospitalisation is appropriate for elderly medical patients. In an audit, we have found that treatment of elderly patients in our SSU vs. standard treatment in a department of internal medicine (DIM) was associated with lower mortality (7 vs. 22 %, p=0.05), shorter length of stay (2.8 ± 2.0 days vs. 7.7 ± 7.5, p<0.001), fewer adverse events (5 % vs. 19 %, p=0.04), and lower re-admission rate (2 % vs. 23 %, p=0.001)[1]. These findings are promising, but we have now decided to conduct a randomised trial to examine this more rigorously. 

Methods: The ELDER trial is a randomised trial with 1:1 allocation between hospitalisation in a SSU (intervention) vs. a DIM (standard care). The study is conducted at Holbaek Hospital, a regional hospital and part of University of Copenhagen. Eligible participants are patients with age ≥ 75 years; in need of in-hospital treatment of an acute internal medical condition; which are stable on admission indicated by green tag triage in the ED. Patients are randomised by computer-generated block sequence with varying block size. Blinding participants or services to the allocation is not possible, but all outcome measures will be blinded for investigators until analyses are complete. The primary outcome is 90-day all cause mortality. Secondary outcomes are: length of stay in-hospital, the incidence of complications during hospitalisation, in-hospital mortality, number of ward transfers during hospitalisation, rate of readmission, change in instrumental activities of daily living, and change of living facility after hospitalisation.  We aim at recruiting 430 patients. All outcome measures will be assessed in an intention-to-treat analysis.

Results: Recruitment started in January 5th, 2015. An interim analysis will be performed after inclusion of 215 patients. By April 17th 2015, we have enrolled 78 patients (average inclusion rate: 0.76 participants/day). Therefore, we expect to complete inclusion by July 2016.

Conclusion: In the present study, we explore benefits and harms related to treatment in a short stay unit for elderly medical patients compared to standard hospitalisation.



[1] Strøm C, Rasmussen LS, Rasmussen SR, Schmidt TA. Fast track medical treatment of elderly patients (≥75 years) may be related to lower mortality. Abstract. Eusem 2014.

Dr Camilla STRØM (Copenhagen, Denmark), Lars Simon RASMUSSEN, Thomas Andersen SCHMIDT
13:00 - 14:30 #1513 - #1513 - The Identification of seniors at risk (ISAR) score to predict frequent returns in elderly discharged from emergency department.
#1513 - The Identification of seniors at risk (ISAR) score to predict frequent returns in elderly discharged from emergency department.

Introduction: At the emergency department (ED), tools are required to identify older people at high-risk of frequent returns so that appropriate services can be directed towards them. The Identification of Seniors at Risk (ISAR) score is a short self-report questionnaire that can quickly identify older patients in the ED at increased risk of several adverse health outcomes and those with current disability during the 6 months after the ED visit.

Objective: In this study, we investigated whether the ISAR tool can also predict frequent returns to ED in patients aged more than 65 years old.

Methods: Prospective and observational study.  Inclusion of all patients aged more than 65 years who were discharged from the ED on the index consultation (IC) from October 1st to October 31st. ISAR score calculation. Follow-up of 3 months. Frequent returns were defined as patients who consulted at any ED more than 2 times during the 90 days after the IC. The cut-off value of the ISAR score was determined by using the receiver-operator curve analysis to compare baseline ISAR to frequent returns at 90 days.

Results: Inclusion of 137 patients. Mean age 76 ± 7 years. Sex-: 0, 92. Co-morbidities: Hypertension 65%, Diabetes 37%, Coronaropathy 21%. Mean ISAR score: 2,66±1, 5. Frequent returns was observed in 29% (n=41) of patients. A score≥ 2 on the ISAR tool predicted frequent returns to the ED (area under the curve (AUC) = 0, 65, p=0, 02; 95% IC [0,46-0,59]). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of this cut-off were   84%, 32%, 44% and 86% respectively.

Conclusion: In elderly, frequent returns to the ED are common. The ISAR score, a simple tool, has a good predictive value to determine senior at high-need of care.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ines CHERMITI, Hanen GHAZALI, Najla EL HENI, Sami SOUISSI, Rania JABRI (Lyon), Mohamed MGUIDICH, Anware YAHMADI, Sami KOOLI
13:00 - 14:30 #1530 - #1530 - Comparison of emergency risk scoring systems in geriatric ED patients: results of a national study-TEDGES.
#1530 - Comparison of emergency risk scoring systems in geriatric ED patients: results of a national study-TEDGES.

 

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS), VitalPac Early Warning Score (VIEWS), and Rapid Emergency Medicine Score (REMS) score in predicting hospitalization and in-hospital mortality in geriatric emergency department (ED) patients.

Methods: This prospective, multi-centered observational study was conducted over one week at the EDs of 13 hospitals in patients 65 years old and older presented to ED. The following vital parameters of the patients measured on admission to ED were recorded. The scores were calculated using the recorded physiological parameters of the patients. Hospitalization and in-hospital mortality were used as the primary outcomes.

Results: A total of 1299 patients was included in this study.The mean age of the patients was 74.8±7.3 years and 619 (47.7%) were male. While 877 patients (67.5%) had been discharged from ED and 140 (10.8%) were admitted to intensive care unit. Overall in-hospital mortality rate was 5.8%. The MEWS is effective for discriminating patient groups that have been discharged from ED, admitted to a ward and admitted to ICU (1[1-2] vs. 2[1-3] vs. 2[1-4], respectively, p<0.001). The VIEWS is also effective for discriminating patient groups that have been discharged from ED, admitted to a ward and admitted to ICU (2[1-3] vs. 3[1-5] vs. 6[2-9], respectively, p<0.001). The REMS is also effective for discriminating patient groups that have been discharged from ED, admitted to a ward and admitted to ICU (6[5-8] vs. 7[6-9] vs. 8[7-11], respectively, p<0.001). The median MEWS of the non-survivors were statistically significantly higher than those of the survivors (3[2-5] vs. 1[1-2], p<0.001). The median VIEWS of the non-survivors were statistically significantly higher than those of the survivors (6[4-10] vs. 2[1-4], p<0.001). The median REMS of the non-survivors were statistically significantly higher than those of the survivors (8[6-11] vs. 6[5-8], p<0.001).The AUCs of MEWS, VIEWS, and REMS were 0.656, 0.668, and 0.627 in predicting hospitalization, respectively. The AUCs of MEWS, VIEWS, and REMS were 0.797, 0.802, and 0.711 in predicting in-hospital mortality, respectively.

Conclusions: The MEWS, VIEWS, and REMS are easy-to-use and less time consuming for predicting the hospitalization and in-hospital mortality of geriatric ED patients.

Zerrin Defne DUNDAR, Mehmet ERGIN, Mehmet AYRANCI, Yucel YAVUZ, Ozcan YAVASI, Mustafa SERINKEN, Tarik ACAR, Mucahit AVCIL, Behcet AL, Atif BAYRAMOGLU, Hasan Mansur DURGUN, Yalcin GOLCUK, Ibrahim ARZIMAN, Mehmet Akif KARAMERCAN (ANKARA, Turkey)
13:00 - 14:30 #1565 - #1565 - Validation of the Identification Seniors at Risk tool (ISAR) in acutely presenting older adults; the APOP study.
#1565 - Validation of the Identification Seniors at Risk tool (ISAR) in acutely presenting older adults; the APOP study.

Introduction: Acute medical illness in older adults is a major contributor to deterioration. Even a minor medical problem can result in a permanent change in daily life. Early identification of high-risk patients could be the first step to decrease adverse health outcomes. The Identification of Seniors At Risk (ISAR) tool has specifically been developed for older Emergency Department patients to predict negative outcomes. However, clinical usefulness is debated because of lack of accuracy and efficiency. In the present study we externally validated the ISAR tool with regard to mortality and functional decline.

Methods: We initiated the prospective Acutely Presenting Older Patient (APOP) study, in which we included all consecutive patients aged 70 and over 24h/7d presenting to the Emergency Department of an university teaching hospital (LUMC) in the Netherlands. The traditionally used ISAR cut-off score of 2 or higher (range 0-6) was used to analyse predictive performance for 90 day mortality and 90 day functional decline, which was defined as a 1 point increase in Katz ADL score and/or new institutionalisation.

Results: 757 patients were included from September 2014 until November 2014 with a mean age of 78.7 years. During the ninety day follow-up 72 patients (9.5%) deceased and 163 patients (21.5%) declined in functional status. A ISAR score of 2 or higher had a hazard ratio of 3.38 (95% CI 1.82-6.29) on mortality and an odds ratio of 4.18 (2.83-6.18) on functional decline. Predictive performance on mortality showed a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.41, a positive predicting value (PPV) of 0.13, a negative predicting value (NPV) of 0.96 and an area under receiver operating curve (AUROC) of 0.67 (95% CI 0.61-0.73) and on functional decline a sensitivity of 0.79, a specificity of 0.48, a PPV of 0.35 , NPV of 0.87 and an AUROC of 0.68 (95% CI 0.63-0.72).

Conclusion: In our study, the ISAR was able to stratify patients at risk for adverse outcomes with moderate accuracy. Positive predictive value was low, whereas negative predictive value was high, suggesting that ISAR more accurately identifies patients NOT at risk for negative outcomes. 

J. DE GELDER (LEIDEN, The Netherlands), J.a. LUCKE, B. DE GROOT, C. HERINGHAUS, A.j. FOGTELOO, G.j. BLAUW, S.p. MOOIJAART
13:00 - 14:30 #1595 - #1595 - Independent predictors of hospital admission in emergency department patients younger and older than 70 years of age.
#1595 - Independent predictors of hospital admission in emergency department patients younger and older than 70 years of age.

Background: Independent predictors of hospital admission have been investigated in patients on the Emergency Department, but it hasn’t been researched whether these predictors are different for patients above and below 70 years old. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare readily available patient characteristics between patients younger and older than 70 years and to investigate if independent predictors of hospital admission are different in ED patients younger and older than 70 years of age.

Material and methods: In this retrospective cohort study all ED visits in a tertiary hospital in 2012 were stratified in ED patients younger and older than 70 years of age. Readily available patient characteristics at ED presentation including way of arrival, presenting complaint and urgency of the complaint were analysed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of hospital admission. Discriminative performance of the models was quantified by receiver operator characteristics with area under the curve (AUC) analysis. Goodness of fit was tested with the Hosmer and Lemeshow test.

Results: 4255 patients older than 70 years and 17319 patients younger than 70 years of age were included. 45 % of the older patients were hospitalized as opposed to 25% of the younger patients. In the patients younger and older than 70 years of age exactly the same independent predictors were found, most of them reflecting illness severity. Only gender was not an independent predictor in the model of patients above 70 years. However the fit of the model was different in both groups. The prediction model for hospitalisation had had a higher discriminative performance in the young patients with an AUC of 0.85 (0.84-0.85), whereas the AUC of the prediction model in old patients had an AUC of 0.76 (0.75-0.78) with both models having good predicting capabilities.

Conclusion: Independent predictors of hospital admission are similar in patients younger and older than 70 years of age. However the discriminative performance of the prediction model for hospitalisation was higher in the younger patients, indicating that besides patient characteristics reflecting illness severity, other factors, such as cognitive and functional status, multimorbidity and polypharmacy, may play role in prediction of hospitalisation in older patients. In future studies these factors should be investigated.

Jacinta LUCKE (Haarlem, The Netherlands), Jelle DE GELDER, Fleur CLARIJS, Bas DE GROOT, Christian HERINGHAUS, Jaap FOGTELOO, Gerard-Jan BLAUW, Simon MOOIJAART
13:00 - 14:30 #1624 - #1624 - Early recognition of cognitive impairment in the ED.
#1624 - Early recognition of cognitive impairment in the ED.

Introduction:

Cognitive Impairment (CI) is present in up to 40% of older adults who use the services of the Emergency Department (ED), with acute delirium comprising a significant proportion of the spectrum of CI seen in the ED. Despite reports that acute delirium confers the same mortality rates as acute coronary syndromes, is still missed in up to 80% of cases by emergency physicians. Two main reasons for this have been hypothesized; a lack of adequate training for Emergency physicians and of validated screening tools which can be completed quickly and with minimal training in the ED. Failing to diagnose delirium delays diagnosis and timely management of underlying, potentially life-threatening conditions.  In previous audit at our trust, we found that only 54% of adults over 75 had cognitive screening and we sought a means to improve rate of screening across and to introduce a more simple screening tool to our department.

 

Methods:

We performed a prospective, point prevalence study of cognitive impairment in the ED of a London major trauma center.  All patients over the age of 16 were eligible for inclusion over a 24 period in the department. Screening was completed by all present emergency nurses, trainees and consultants, supported by allocated dementia nurses, using the 4AT screening tool. If an AMT10 had already been completed, this was accepted instead of the 4AT. We included all patients including those with a history of severe dementia or substance abuse.  Patients either too ill to be interrogated or unable to speak a language for which we had a reliable interpreter were excluded.

 

Results:

Of the 147 patients who visited our ED during the 24 hour study period who were eligible for inclusion 62(43%) had a cognitive assessment. The male/female ratio was 65/82 and the average age was 56.6 years. Out of the 51 patients who were assessed with the 4AT, 7 (14%) had cognitive impairment (cutoff ≥1). Of the 11 patients who had a AMT10 done 9(81.8%) had CI (cutoff <8). Overall we found that 16/147 (10.8%) patients who visited our department during the audit had signs of cognitive impairment in the first screening while only 6/147 (4%) had known previous dementia.

 

Conclusion:

Although adding Cognitive screening to usual clinical assessment in the ED may be seen as an additional burden to the assessment process in the ED, we found it to be a ‘high yield’ step with 10% of all those screened found to have impairment.  Our main purpose in conducting this study was to raise awareness about the prevalence of CI within our ED and encourage screening prior to our next audit cycle.

 

Acute cognitive impairment is a medical emergency and should have protocolled risk stratification and management, as is the case with other diseases with similar mortality rates, such as acute coronary syndrome and sepsis.

Serena ROVIDA (London, United Kingdom), Sarah DARCIS, Jonathan RITSON, Hannah DUNLOP, Rosa MCNAMARA
13:00 - 14:30 #1738 - #1738 - Population ageing in Verona district and its impacts on the Emergency and Hospital activities.
#1738 - Population ageing in Verona district and its impacts on the Emergency and Hospital activities.

Objective and Methods: We report presentation and outcome patterns of aged patients treated at the Accident and Emergency Department (AED) of Verona (Italy) during the period Jan 2002 - Dec 2014. Data are discussed in the framework of population demographics in the District of Verona and NHS acute hospital bed stocks trends. RESULTS: In the study period total of AED presentations decreased from 82,797 (2002) to 69,568 (2014) patients/year but aged patients admissions increased from 20,274 to 24,368. When dividing the patients in different groups of age the increase is more evident in the elder group: +74.1% with a mean yearly increase of 4.83% in the >85 years old population and +27.33% (2.08% of mean yearly increase) in the 76-85 years old group. Over two thirds of patients self-presented to AED without medical consultation (66-75 years old: 82.9% (Q1: 82%; Q2: 84%; IQ range: 2%); 76-85 years old: 79.4% (Q1: 78%; Q2: 82%; IQ range: 4%); >85 years old; 74.9% (Q1: 72%; Q2: 77%; IQ range: 5%). According to our triage criteria, we observed an increase of patients tagged at higher disease acuity: 66-75 years old: from 21.7% to 31.6%; 76-85 years old: from 27.1% to 32.3%; >85 years old: from 36% to 48.4%). Ward admissions dramatically increased in the eldest group (>85 years old: +48.57%) with a slight decrease in the 66-75 years old (-7.72%) and in the 76-85 years old (-2.99%) groups. Verona District demographics in the study period showed an increase of general population (from 827,328 to 921,717 inhabitants) and aged people in terms of figures (66-75 years old: +17.58% (mean year increase: 1.37%); 76-85 years old: +34.69% (mean year increase: 2.54); >85 years old: +49.03% (mean year increase: 3.48%) and of indexes (ageing index: +5.54%; old aged dependency ratio: +18.74%). Despite those figures mean bed stock availability in our hospital decreased from 899 in 2006 to765 in 2014 (medical department: -27.2%; surgery: -20.5%). On the other hand the ratio urgent/planned admissions increased from 0.5 to 1.52 (medical department: +327%; surgery:+176%). DISCUSSION: Accident and Emergency departments  overcrowding have been widely reported. One of the causes of patients' long staying in the emergency departments seems to be related to a lack of available beds in the hospital wards. In this study we report the impact of Verona District population ageing on AED activity during the last years. There has been an increase of aged AED and ward admissions. On the other hand Healthcare policy imposes reduction of bed stocks in NHS acute hospitals. First consequence is the heavy impact on planned hospital admissions to be delayed. Therefore an accurate gate control in terms of better targeted admissions is required to the emergency physician in order to avoid the risk of AED but also hospital paralysis.

Massimo ZANNONI (VERONA, Italy), Lucia ANTOLINI, Laura CRESTANI, Giulia BISOFFI, Giorgio RICCI

15:00
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A12
State of the Art
Cardiovascular Emergencies

State of the Art
Cardiovascular Emergencies

Moderators: Pr Rick BODY (Professor of Emergency Medicine) (Manchester), Louise CULLEN (Brisbane, Australia)
15:00 - 15:30 The burden of chest pain assessment: Is it time for change? Louise CULLEN (Brisbane, Australia)
15:30 - 16:00 Six years of the HEART score. Barbra BACKUS (Emergency Physician) (Rotterdam, The Netherlands)
16:00 - 16:30 Coronary CTA: Who, What and When? Judd HOLLANDER (USA)

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B12
Italy invites
Malattie infettive e BPCO

Italy invites
Malattie infettive e BPCO

Moderators: Giorgio CARBONE (Italy), Paolo GROFF (Director) (Perugia, Italy)
15:00 - 15:25 Vecchi batteri e nuove resistenze. La terapia empirica più appropriata. Silvio BORRE (Vercelli, Italy)
15:25 - 15:50 Tubercolosi e micobatteri atipici. Guido CALLERI (TORINO, Italy)
15:50 - 16:15 BPCO: nuovi farmaci, vecchi pazienti? Dr Rodolfo FERRARI (MD) (Bologna, Italy)
16:15 - 16:30 Polmoniti: guida ragionata alla diagnosi e terapia in PS. Giovanni PINELLI (Modena, Italy)

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C12
Clinical Questions: Controversies
Hot Controversies in EM

Clinical Questions: Controversies
Hot Controversies in EM

Moderators: Janos BAOMBE (manchester, United Kingdom), Mehmet Akif KARAMERCAN (Chair of EuSEM Research Committee) (ANKARA, Turkey)
15:00 - 16:30 Unstable pelvic trauma: contemporary management. Marco BAROZZI (Cesena, Italy)
15:30 - 16:00 How To Use Ketamine Fearlessly, For All Its Indications. Dr Reuben STRAYER (Emergency Physician) (Brooklyn, USA)
16:00 - 16:30 High flow oxygen in hypoxemic lung failure. To difficult to apply in the Emergency Department? Dr Abdo KHOURY (Senior attending Physician) (Besançon, France)

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D12
Clinical Questions: Controversies
Thrombosis

Clinical Questions: Controversies
Thrombosis

Moderators: Luis GARCIA-CASTRILLO (ED director) (Oruna, Spain), Anne-Maree KELLY (PHYSICIAN) (Melbourne, Australia)
15:00 - 15:30 Should patients with superficial vein thrombosis receive anticoagulation? Giuseppe CAMPORESE (Italy)
15:30 - 16:00 Is warfarin an outdated treatment? Jecko THACHIL (United Kingdom)
16:00 - 16:30 Should we give thrombolysis to patients with submassive pulmonary embolism? Franck VERSCHUREN (MD, PhD) (Brussels, Belgium)

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E12
Research
Pre-hospital EM

Research
Pre-hospital EM

Moderators: Patrick PLAISANCE (Head of Department) (Paris, France), Gregor PROSEN (EM Consultant) (MARIBOR, Slovenia)
15:00 - 15:30 Rescuer fatigue and energy expenditure during basic life support. Roman SKULEC (Head of research and science department) (Kladno, Czech Republic)
15:30 - 16:00 Helium in acute asthma patients. Patrick PLAISANCE (Head of Department) (Paris, France)
16:00 - 16:30 Cerebral saturation pre-hospital during cardiac arrest. Cathy DE DEYNE (Belgium)

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F12
YEMD
Joining the FOAM-party

YEMD
Joining the FOAM-party

Moderators: Riccardo LETO (Chief of ED) (Overpelt, Belgium), Chris NICKSON (South Yarra, Australia)
15:00 - 15:30 Social Media For Today's Learners: Medical Education on Steroids. Rob ROGERS (USA)
15:30 - 16:00 Social Media changed my life! Natalie MAY (Oxford, United Kingdom)
16:00 - 16:30 Data science for health: social media analytics, surveillance and interventions. Ciro CATTUTO (Italy)

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G12
UK Patient Safety Forum
Making emergency care safe: what is our role?

UK Patient Safety Forum
Making emergency care safe: what is our role?

Moderator: Ruth BROWN (Speaker) (London, United Kingdom)
15:00 - 15:30 Crowding and exit block. Sally-Anne WILSON (LEEDS, United Kingdom)
15:30 - 16:00 Designing departments for safety. Susan ROBINSON (Doctor) (Cambridge, United Kingdom)
16:00 - 16:30 Panel discussion.

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OP1-12
Oral Paper 1
Paediatric Emergencies I

Oral Paper 1
Paediatric Emergencies I

Moderators: Nikolas SBYRAKIS (Specialty doctor) (Brighton, United Kingdom), Itay SHAVIT (Pediatric Emergency Physician) (Haifa, Israel)
15:00 - 16:30 #1005 - #1005 - Development of a risk map in a pediatric emergency department of a teaching hospital.
#1005 - Development of a risk map in a pediatric emergency department of a teaching hospital.

BACKGROUND

Patient safety is an topic of particular concern in pediatrics. Developing a risk map in a Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) using proactive strategies (PS) and reactive strategies (RS) can help to identify risks and promote an improvement of health quality. However, to the best of our knowledge, no risk map has been developed in the Emergency setting combining these two strategies.

OBJECTIVE

To develop a risk map in a PED of a tertiary teaching hospital combining PS and RS.

METHODS

PS: After several meetings, a document identifying several risks was written and reviewed by external consultants.

RS: the incidents reported by professionals and caregivers of the children admitted in the PED from Nov´04-Dec´13 were analyzed.

Results obtained from both strategies were classified using the International Classification for Patient Safety from the World Health Organization and the degree of the risks was classified according to the official classification system of the Spanish Ministry of Health.

Finally, the map was created combining both strategies.

RESULTS

PS: 49 failures, 60 effects and 252 causes were identified. Most common failures were related with the discharge of the patient (mainly identification of the patient and delay of the process). Most common effects were related with complaints of the caregivers, prolonged length of stay in the PED, delay in diagnosis/treatment and unnecessary treatment. Most frequent causes were due to: not including the family in the process, shift change, incorrect identification of the patient and computer error.

RS: 1795 incidents were notified by nurses (33%), caregivers (25%), PED pediatricians (14%), director of the ED (13%), quality manager (9%) and others (6%). Most of them were related with medical equipment (38%), resources/organization of staff (17%), clinical process (15%), facilities (12%) and medication errors (5%).

PS identified risks in several phases of the clinical process: complementary tests, treatment and discharge. RS added risks about prehospitalary transportation, triage, medical care, complementary tests, treatment and discharge.

CONCLUSSION

The combination of PS and RS improves the quality of the risk map in a PED. The involvement of different professionals and caregivers enables the risk map to accurately reflect the real situation of the PED.

Elisa MOJICA, Estibaliz IZARZUGAZA, Maria GONZALEZ, Eider ASTOBIZA, Javier BENITO, Santiago MINTEGI (Bilbao, Spain)
15:00 - 16:30 #1189 - #1189 - Non-inferiority monocentric retrospective observational study about the efficacy of paracetamol in different pharmaceutical forms in reducing pain in children belonging to the Regina Margherita Children's Hospital Emergency Department.
#1189 - Non-inferiority monocentric retrospective observational study about the efficacy of paracetamol in different pharmaceutical forms in reducing pain in children belonging to the Regina Margherita Children's Hospital Emergency Department.

Background: Pain is a physical and psychological negative experience, often linked to suffering. It is therefore important to alleviate it as soon as possible using the most appropriate and pleasant medication for the patient.

Objective: To test the non-inferiority in terms of efficacy of buccal paracetamolvs syrup or tablet paracetamol in reducing pain in pediatric patients referred to the Emergency Department for headache, earache, nonspecific abdominal pain (NSAP).

Materials and Methods: we conducted a non-inferiority monocentric retrospective observational studyon children between 3 and 14 years, in which pain was assessed by Wong-Baker scale at entrance and 60 minutes after administration of analgesic therapy in triage. The data were collected using special data collection and processed by statistical analysis.

Results: We analyzed 200 patients (70 buccal vs 130 tablet or syrup), with mean entrance pain level of 4.77/10. Buccal paracetamol was found to be more effective to reduce pain (mean reduction: 2.37/10) vs tablet or syrup paracetamol(mean reduction: 1.95/10) (p<0.05), in particular for earache (2.32/10 vs 1.90/10, p<0.05) and NSAP (2.43/10 vs 1.93/10, p<0.05). In addition, there were statistically significant differences (p<0.05) depending on the intensity of pain, age, gender and nationality.

Conclusions: Buccal paracetamol was found to be more effective in reducing pain in certain conditions. It is therefore a specific pediatric nurse task to take into account the peculiarities of each patient in administration of paracetamol. Further similar studies are desirable on other painkillers.

Marta Lucia Celestina GOGLIO (Rivarolo Canavese (TO), Italy), Pierpaolo CHIALVO, Liliana VAGLIANO, Emanuele CASTAGNO, Fulvio RICCERI, Fulvio RICCERI, Antonio Francesco URBINO
15:00 - 16:30 #1355 - #1355 - Feverkidstool to reduce prescription of antibiotics in children suspected of community-acquired-pneumonia.
#1355 - Feverkidstool to reduce prescription of antibiotics in children suspected of community-acquired-pneumonia.

Background

Community acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is the most frequent serious infection among children with fever. The rate of antibiotic prescribing amongst children suspected of CAP is high, contributing to antibiotic resistance in the community. Diagnostic tools for guiding antibiotic prescribing in children with fever are needed.

Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic value of the Feverkidstool, a  validated decision rule using clinical features and CRP,  to safely identify children suspected of CAP who do not need antibiotics.

Methods

Patients: previously healthy children aged 1 – 60 months, with fever and cough  at risk of CAP, visiting the emergency department of ErasmusMC in 2013.

Outcome: children suspected of CAP recovering without antibiotics.

Prospective observational study with standardised data collection. Risk of CAP was calculated using the Feverkidstool, a validated prediction model for febrile children (www.erasmusmc.nl/feverkidstool).

Results:

In a population of 248 children (median age 14 mo (IQR 7-27), 51 children received  antibiotic treatment (21%), of whom 53% received amoxicillin; 55 (22%) were hospitalized. For both the frequency of antibiotic prescription and the predicted risk for CAP by the Feverkidstool, we observed a high association with the doctors decision to perform chest radiographs, but not for the result of the chest radiograph. The risk for CAP predicted by the Feverkidstool was significantly associated with increased antibiotic prescription, even after correcting for age, gender and performing a chest radiograph. The discriminative value of the Feverkidstool was 0.67 (0.60-0.74)  to identify children suspected of CAP not needing antibiotics. In a population with low antibiotic prescription rate, the Feverkidstool cutoff of 10% had specificity of 73% to correct identify children suspected of CAP not needing antibiotics; specificity increased to 89% using a 20% cutoff.  In children with predicted risks below these thresholds, a follow-up strategy to detect deterioration and to start delayed antibiotic treatment if necessary, was safe.

Conclusion:

The Feverkidstool safely identifies children suspected of CAP who do not need antibiotics. This adds to reducing unnecessary antibiotic prescription in febrile children. 

Michelle HORSTEN, Ruud NIJMAN, Yvonne VERGOUWE, Rianne OOSTENBRINK (Rotterdam, The Netherlands)
15:00 - 16:30 #1500 - #1500 - Management of febrile young infants with altered urine dipstick. A Spanish Pediatric Emergency Research Network’s (RISeuP-SPERG) substudy.
#1500 - Management of febrile young infants with altered urine dipstick. A Spanish Pediatric Emergency Research Network’s (RISeuP-SPERG) substudy.

Background

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common serious bacterial infection (SBI) in febrile infants. A primary diagnosis can be made in the emergency department if an altered urine dipstick test is obtained. Spanish guidelines recommend inpatient treatment in patients less than 90 days old with UTI suspected.

Objective

To describe the management of febrile young infants with in a urine disptick and analyze factors associated with an outpatient management.

Patients and methods

Subanalysis of a prospective multicentric study developed in 19 Spanish Pediatric Emergency Departments (PED) included in the Spanish Pediatric Emergency Research Network (RISEUP-SPERG), including febrile infants less or equal than 90 days old with fever without source (FWS) attended at the PED between October-2011 and September-2013.

An urine dipstick was considered altered whien either a leukocyte esterase test or nitrite test were positive.

Results

A total of 3,401 infants were included. Of them, 765 (22.5%) had an altered urine dipstick and 72 (9.4%) were managed as outpatient, 30 after an observation period shorter than 24 hours. After a multivariate analysis, variables that remained as independent factors for an outpatient management were: being well-appearing, being older than 60 days old and presenting a C-reactive protein (CRP) less than 20 mg/L and a procalcitonin (PCT) less than 0.5 ng/mL.

Among the 72 patients managed as outpatients, 51 received antibiotic treatment (70.8%; via oral in 27 and parenteral in 24). Overall, urine culture grew >50,000 cfu/ml in 36 (50%) of them, and 10000-50000 cfu/ml in other 3 (4.2%). None of them was admitted after receiving the results of the urine culture. Two patients had bacteremia, both of them received one dose of parenteral antibiotic in the emergency department prior to discharge. Both patients were afebrile when blood culture result was received.

 

Conclusions

A significant proportion of febrile young infants with a suspected UTI are managed as outpatients. Well appearing patients older than 60 days old with normal CRP and PCT values are more frequently managed as outpatients.

 

 

Dr Roberto VELASCO (Laguna de Duero, Spain), Helvia BENITO, Rebeca MOZUN, Borja GOMEZ, Mercedes DE LA TORRE, Santiago MINTEGI, Of The Riseup-Sperg Network GROUP FOR THE STUDY OF THE FEBRILE INFANT
15:00 - 16:30 #1806 - #1806 - Presentation and investigation of paediatric bone and joint infections in the paediatric emergency department.
#1806 - Presentation and investigation of paediatric bone and joint infections in the paediatric emergency department.

Bone and joint infections present a major diagnostic challenge in the paediatric emergency department (PED). The presenting features of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis in children can vary greatly and can be difficult to distinguish from other conditions.

 

Method

We performed a retrospective review of the medical notes and electronic patient records of children diagnosed with osteoarticular infections over a 12-year period at a Paediatric Emergency Department (PED) serving a diverse urban population. We compared the presenting features and investigations to the literature and current trends in practice.

 

Results

A total of 88 cases of osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis presented to the PED and were managed at the same hospital during the study period. Fever, pain, impaired function and localised changes were commonly reported at presentation but overall there was inconsistency in the incidence of these features among patients with osteoarticular infections.

 

Inflammatory makers were sensitive tools in identifying bone and joint infections, particularly when used in combination. When CRP, total white cell count and ESR were all abnormal, 98% of bone and joint infections were identified.

 

A positive microbiological diagnosis was only obtained in 38% of cases, the largest proportion being from cultures of synovial fluid and bone tissue. Streptococcal organisms were significantly more likely to be isolated in children under 5 years than in children over 5 years (p = <0.001). Conversely staphylococcal organisms were significantly more likely to be isolated in children over 5 years than in children under 5 years (p = <0.001).

 

It is of concern that virulent organisms such as PVL staphylococcus aureus and MRSA were identified in some of our cases. This should prompt review of antibiotic choices and broaden diagnostic techniques.

 

Overall, children under 5 years of age were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with septic arthritis than osteomyelitis (p = 0.006). Children over 12 years of age were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with osteomyelitis than septic arthritis (p = 0.019).

 

Conclusion

Our experience highlights the difficulty of differentiating osteoarticular infections from other conditions using clinical features alone. Diagnosis of bone and joint infections requires a combination of clinical suspicion and investigations. However, the differences we identified between the incidence of osteomyelitis and septic arthritis and the variation of causative organisms across age groups may be useful to consider at presentation and in cases of diagnostic uncertainty.

 

Olugbenga AKINKUGBE (London, United Kingdom), Charles STEWART, Caoimhe MCKENNA
15:00 - 16:30 #1963 - #1963 - Are healthcare professionals comfortable with parental presence during paediatric resuscitation?
#1963 - Are healthcare professionals comfortable with parental presence during paediatric resuscitation?

Introduction

 

The practice of family centred care within paediatric hospitals has continuously evolved over the past number of decades, with parents now considered essential participants in their child’s care. Parents are now routinely present during situations where they previously would have been asked to leave e.g. intravenous cannulation, lumbar puncture and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). However controversy remains around the presence of parents in the paediatric resuscitation room. There is a paucity of evidence to support the practice, few policies/guidelines and few established programmes which provide specific training.

 

 

Outcome Measures

 

 

The primary outcome measure was to identify healthcare professionals’ attitudes towards parental presence in the resuscitation room during paediatric resuscitation. Secondary outcome measures included:

1. Identification of barriers towards parental presence during paediatric resuscitation

2. Identification of methods to facilitate parental presence

3. Identification of methods of training suitable for clinicians involved

 

 

Methods

 

An anonymous questionnaire was created and distributed among healthcare professionals involved in paediatric resuscitation. The purpose of the audit was to gain perspective into the thoughts of the healthcare professionals involved in paediatric CPR and discover their views on what the best methods of training in dealing with parental presence are.

 

 

Results

 

There were 36 respondents to the questionnaire: 24 doctors and 12 nurses. Of the doctors, 12 were emergency physicians, 10 were paediatricians and 2 were anaesthetists. The majority of respondents (n=22, 61%) stated they were happy for parents to remain during a procedure/resuscitation. The majority of respondents (n=26, 72%) felt that parents/family members should be present in the resuscitation room during the resuscitation process. However they did not feel that they had adequate training in how to deal with family members during paediatric resuscitation (n=32, 89%). The majority of participants did not agree that their training had prepared them for any difficulties that could arise with having parents/family members present in the room during a resuscitation (n=29, 81%). Respondents were asked if their APLS or NRP training had dealt with the situation where relatives are present in the room during paediatric resuscitation. Of the 27 participants who were eligible to answer this question, the majority did not agree (n=19, 70%). All of the respondents said that they would welcome additional training in running a resuscitation with relatives present.

When asked to rank types of training a lecture followed by simulation of distressed relatives was the most popular method with 22 (61%) participants ranking it highest. The second most popular was training with simulation alone (n=14, 39%). No other method of training was given a highest ranking. The least popular method of training was a booklet with 26 respondents (72%) ranking it lowest. It was followed by computer/e-learning with 6 participants (17%) ranking it lowest.

 

 

Conclusions

 

Parental presence during paediatric resuscitation is increasing and guidelines should be developed to facilitate it. This small audit demonstrates that clinicians welcome relatives being present, but would welcome education in on how to facilitate parental presence during paediatric resuscitation. Simulated scenarios together wih formal instruction would be the preferred ecucation methods.

Nuala QUINN, Eimhear QUINN, Gavin STONE (Cork, Ireland), Paula MIDGLEY, Tom BEATTIE
15:00 - 16:30 #982 - #982 - PILOT CLINICAL TRIAL OF THE USE OF OXYGEN AT HIGH FLOW IN CHILDREN WITH ASTHMA IN THE PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT.
#982 - PILOT CLINICAL TRIAL OF THE USE OF OXYGEN AT HIGH FLOW IN CHILDREN WITH ASTHMA IN THE PEDIATRIC EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT.

Background:

High-flow oxygen (HFO) therapy has been shown to be efficacious and safe treatment in pediatric populations with acute respiratory processes. There are, however a lack of studies about its application in the ED.

 

Objective:

The aim of our study is to assess the feasibility of HFO treatment and assess its efficacy and safety given to children with asthma and moderate respiratory failure attended in the emergency department (ED).

 

Patients and method:

This was a prospective randomized trial of children (1 – 16 years) who presented to the ED with acute asthma. Patients with a Pulmonary Score (PS) ³ 6 or oxygen saturation < 90% with FiO2 40, despite initial treatment with nebulized salbutamol every 20 minutes during the first hour (at least 3 doses) were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. The experimental group received HFO therapy and the control group conventional oxygen therapy. Along with oxygen therapy the pharmacological treatment of acute asthma was left to the discretion of the attending physician.   

The PS, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and heart rate were recorded at 30 minutes, 1 hour 2 hours and then every 2 hours after initiation of therapy.

At the end of the study a satisfaction questionnaire was distributed among the PED staff.

 

Results: Duringa period of 24 months (Oct 2012 – Oct 2014), 52 patients met the inclusion criteria and 36 patients were studied (18 in each study group). Characteristics of patients at baseline did not showed differences except in the mean PS that was higher in HFO group (6.5 (1.29) in the HFO group vs. 6.05 (0.23) in control group; p<0.001). At two hours after initiation of therapy Pulmonary Score decreased more than 2 points in 11 patients (61.1%) in HFO group vs. 5 (27.8%) in control group (mean PS scores 4.77 (1.16) and 5.05 (1.05) respectively); p<0.05). No differences were found in oxygen saturation mean values at this time, 95.77 (1.76) and 97.81 (2.04) respectively. Eleven patients (51.1%) in HFO group were finally admitted in ward versus 7 (38.9%) in control group. The satisfaction questionnaire was answered by 42 professionals and 36 (85%) considered HFO treatment as a positive experience. No adverse effects were reported.   

 

Conclusions: HFO treatment is feasible and safe when given in the ED. HFO improves the overall respiratory status of children with acute asthma and moderate respiratory failure. Further studies are needed to prove its overall effectiveness in the management of patients with asthma and respiratory failure in the emergency department.

Yolanda BALLESTERO, Jimena DE PEDRO, Otilia MARTINEZ-MUJICA, Elisa MOJICA, Eunate ARANA, Javier BENITO (BILBAO, Spain)

15:00-16:30
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OP2-12
Oral Paper 2
Disasters and Psychosocial emergencies

Oral Paper 2
Disasters and Psychosocial emergencies

Moderators: Anna SPITERI (Consultant) (Malta, Malta), Robert WUNDERLICH (Scientific Assistant) (Tübingen, Germany)
15:00 - 16:30 #1018 - #1018 - Demographic Characteristics of the Patients Suffering from Mushroom Poisoning in Bolu.
#1018 - Demographic Characteristics of the Patients Suffering from Mushroom Poisoning in Bolu.

OBJECTIVE: City of Bolu has a lot of greenery places and it gets frequent rains. This frequent rains give rise to an increase in the diversity of mushrooms in a year. It can not be neglegted that this diversity is essential commercially. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the demographic characteristics of poisoning cases due to highly preferred mushrooms.
MATERIALS-METHODS: We evaluated the patients who had admitted to Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University Izzet Baysal Research and Education Hospital Emergency Department in the time period of 01/01/2007-31/12/2014. Patient characteristics such as age, gender, length of stay in hospital and the way of discharge from hospital were evaluated statistically.
RESULTS: There was 648 patients who were applied to Bolu AIBU Izzet Baysal Research and Education Hospital Emergency Department in the time period of 01/01/2007-31/12/2014 with mushroom poisoning. 257 (39.7%) of the patients were male (mean age 41,32 ± 19,44), and 391 (60.3%) of them were female (mean age 39,6854 ± 18,7). Most of the patients are in the age range below 40 (351 patients, 53.4%). The most common application complaint was abdominal pain (288 patients, 44.4%), and the remaining ones are diarrhea (198 patients, 30.6%), nausea (60 patients, 9.3%), lack of apetite (60 patients, 9.3%), severe vomiting (36 patients, 5.6%) and weakness (6 patients, 0.9%) respectively. Most common applications were in the evening hours (16-24 time interveal: 53.7%) and in the months of November (15.6%) and June (14.8%). In the season of autumn (51.4%) and in the years of 2014 (29.3%) and 2010 (25.3%), registrations in the emergency department are higher than the remaining time periods. Most discharges were from the observation room of emergency department (64%), and the remaining part from the intensive care units (51 patients, 7.9%) and inpatient clinics (182 patients, 28.1%). 26 of the patients in intensive care units were sent to other medical centers. 
CONCLUSION: It is obviously seen that poisoning from the mushrooms are increasing in the seasons of high mushroom growing. Most of the patients require hospitalization. If the intensive care unit observation is not enough and there is a necessity of liver transplantation, patients are sent to other medical centers.

Arif DURAN, Mansur Kürşad ERKURAN, Bülent YILMAZ (Bolu, Turkey), Tarık OCAK, Musab Medeni ZORLU
15:00 - 16:30 #1029 - #1029 - Impact of 2012 Olympic and Paralympic games on a Large Central London Emergency Department.
#1029 - Impact of 2012 Olympic and Paralympic games on a Large Central London Emergency Department.

Background

 

In 2012, London hosted the International Olympic and Paralympic games. To date, there has been minimal research on the impact of the games on local hospitals. 

 

Methodology:

 

This was a retrospective analysis comparing Emergency Department (ED) attendances during the Olympic (OG) and Paralympic Games (POG) to a corresponding period in the previous year.  

 

Results:

Over the Olympic and Paralympic period, there was no significant change in attendances, gender or age. 

(Attendances: OG:2012=6069 2011=6558. POG 2012=4716 2011=4710)

(Females: OG:2012=46.5%,2011=53.5%.p=0.114. POG:2012=50.6%,2011=49.4%p=0.146) 

(Age: OG: (I.Q.R):2012=36.04,(23-49),2011=36.59,(22-50),p=0.149. POG: (I.Q.R):2012=34,(23-51),2011=33,(23-49),p=0.065). 

There were reduced numbers of patients from our catchment area with slight increase in patients from London/UK. There was no significant change in number of British nationals compared to overseas patients.

(Catchment area: OG: 2012=83.08%, 2011=84.96% p=0.001. POG 2012=59.2% 2011=69.5% p=0.001)

(Non EU; OG: 2012=2.59%, 2011=2.82%, p=0.407. POG: 2012=1.3%, 2011=0.9% p=0.112) 

Admission rates were similar between both years.

(Admissions: OG: 2012=25.97%, 2011=28.07, p=0.008%. POG: 2012=29.3%, 2011=29.3%, p=0.982)

Despite minor differences in patient demographics, there were changes in presentations. During the games, there were increases in chest, respiratory, and abdominal problems. 

(OG p=0.001, POG p=0.016; OG p=0.093, POG p=0.003; OG p=0.020, POG p=0.029)

There were fewer presentations of alcohol intoxication, assault and trauma. 

(OG p=0.863 POG p=0.042, OG p=0.172 POG p=0.795, OG p=0.321 POG p=0.671)

 

Conclusion:

In our study more people presented with chest, respiratory, and abdominal problems. This conflicts other studies which suggest there may not be a difference in pathology during sporting events.  However; these studies reviewed a definitive diagnosis (ie acute myocardial infarction) rather than a patients’ presenting complaint (ie. chest pain). Our study population is large (22,053 patients) and despite our results showing there is no increase in admissions, there may need to be extra provision for outpatient investigations. Furthermore, the data shows a decrease in the number of patients presenting with alcohol intoxication, assault and trauma. 

This project has shown there were minimal changes in the number of attendances and patient demographics. In addition; the rates of hospital admission were not affected. Such information is exceptionally useful for future workforce and event planning. It is the first of its kind to solely review a large tertiary non-designated hospital for two major international sporting events. Furthermore, by reviewing patients’ presentations rather than diagnosis, it gives a focus for where future service provision may need to be directed. 

Sarah EL-SHEIKHA, Sarah EL-SHEIKHA (Liverpool, United Kingdom), Tony BOLTON, Joseph EL-SHEIKHA, Rebecca SAMUELS, Yusuf BEEBEEJAUN, Francesca GARNHAM
15:00 - 16:30 #1166 - #1166 - Homeless patients in the emergency department: a multicenter case-control prospective study in France.
#1166 - Homeless patients in the emergency department: a multicenter case-control prospective study in France.

Study objectives

Homeless people represent a vulnerable population. Their access to health care is limited and they have a higher mortality rate. Public hospitals and their emergency departments (EDs) are known to be used frequently by these patients. They can be seen as difficult to treat, and have an increased incidence of substance abuse and risk of violence in the ED. We tested the hypothesis that homeless patients experience suboptimal care by the provision of fewer healthcare resources.

 Methods: We conducted a prospective multicenter case-control study in 31 EDs in France. Our Institutional Review Board authorized the study without the need for signed informed consent. We defined a homeless patient as a patient that currently lives on the street or in a shelter. During 72 hours from March 3th 2015, all homeless patients that visited the participating EDs were included in the study. One control patient was prospectively recruited after each case was included: the next patient that visited the ED with similar severity triage level (on a one to four scale), similar age (+/- ten years) and same sex.  The primary outcome measures were length of stay, number of investigations per patient and treatment in the ED.

Results:

A total of 212 homeless patients and 212 control patients were included in the study. Mean age was 44 (standard deviation SD 13) years in both groups, and 87% were male. Homeless patients were more likely to have visited the ED in the past 28 days than other patients (47% vs 10%, p<0.001). They presented with similar rates and types of comorbidities than control patients, except for a more frequent history of substance abuse.

Heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, capillary blood glucose and Glasgow Coma Scale score were similar in both groups.  Chief complaint was “housing demand” for 30 (14%) homeless patients. After excluding them, we found no difference in the type of chief complaint except for alcohol abuse, more frequent in homeless patients (20% vs 4%, p<0.001). We found a similar median waiting time to physician assessment in the two groups (58 min for both), although mean length of stay was longer for homeless patients than for control patients (6.2 vs 3.9 hours, p<0.001). We found no significant difference in the rate of radiological or biological investigations between the two groups. Similarly, we found no significant difference for the rate of oral or parenteral treatment administration, and admission rate was similar in the two groups (9% vs 7%, p=0.6)

Amongst the 182 analyzed homeless patients that visit the ED beside a housing demand, 53 (29%) were uninsured.

Conclusion:

We did not find a difference in the level of medical care delivered in French ED to homeless patients when compared to matched control. Resource consumption was similar for both groups, as was the admission rate. Nevertheless, homeless patients visit ED more often for an alcohol related complaint, are often uninsured and have higher rates of return visit.

Anne-Laure FERAL (, ), Adeline AUBRY, Jennifer TRUCHOT, Pierre-Alexis RAYNAL, Alice HUTIN, Geraud DEBRUYNE, Luc-Marie JOLY, Juvin PHILIPPE, Agathe LELEU, Bruno RIOU, Pr Yonathan FREUND
15:00 - 16:30 #1196 - #1196 - Weapon related injuries in cairo during a turn of civilian violence in 2013: an overview.
#1196 - Weapon related injuries in cairo during a turn of civilian violence in 2013: an overview.

 Background: Violence in Egypt during the recent years of political turmoil has involved civilians. The use of armed weapons among opposing groups (armed demonstrators, extremists and security forces) has resulted in extensive injuries causing pain, disabilities and when severe, death. 

  Methods: During an episode of civilian violence (3 months in 2013) a total of 841 hospital files of firearm - wounded victims were analyzed. The hospitals were near Tahrir Square and Cairo City Center where chaos was at a maximum. Some of the victims were clinically examined. Emphasis on medical neutrality, the rights of the wounded and the need for social and psychiatric support to the victims is implied.

  Results: Seventy two percent of the wounded victims were young males (mean age 30.54 ± 10.22 years). Wounds were mostly inflicted by locally made crude arms having low-energy clout and involved the lower extremity in 29.8 %, upper extremity in 22.6%, eye zone in 19.0% and trunk in 4.4%. All shootings were from a short distance, but a minority , probably by snipers, were from a long distance. In some cases of gunshot wounds (13.08%) affected more than one anatomical region of the body:  4 regions in 2.38%, 3 in 3.92 % and 2 in 6.78%.

Conclusion: Handguns were the most common weapons inflicting civilian injuries in Cairo during armed demonstrations. Young males were injured the most, having wounds distributed randomly over their body, but significantly focused on the extremities causing severe morbidity. Social and psychotraumatic support to the injured were inadequate, but positive steps are being taken and improvement is anticipated.

Gamal SAIED (Cairo, Egypt), Karim MOUSTAFA
15:00 - 16:30 #1395 - #1395 - Effects of large public outdoor events on attendances in an Emergency Department.
#1395 - Effects of large public outdoor events on attendances in an Emergency Department.

Introduction:

Brighton & Hove is a large cosmopolitan city with a population of nearly 300,000. It is the most populous sea side resort in England. Its economy has a strong emphasis on creative, electronic and digital technology. There are two large universities in the city (University of Brighton and Sussex University) with over 35,000 students in total. Brighton & Hove is unusual in that large proportion of its population (42%) is aged between 20-44.

Emergency Department at Royal Sussex County Hospital is the only department in the 14 mile radius and is a Level 1 trauma centre. It has annual attendances in excess of 110,000. There is a separate Children's Emergency Department with an annual attendance of 36,000. As Brighton & Hove is a seaside resort, there is also a large transit population of tourist coming on holidays, who would not necessarily have knowledge of how to access primary care services in the city.

There are several large outdoor public events that take place in the city (all take places on a Sunday). These include:

•Half Marathon

•Brighton Marathon

•London to Brighton Bike Ride

•Pride

•Shakedown

•5th November Bonfire Night

•Ney year’s Eve

We wanted to see whether these events increase number of attendances to our Emergency Department.

 

Methods:

Data from Emergency Department (Symphony) was used. Attendances for Sunday one week prior and one week post event were used to compare to those on the day of the event. Both Adults and Children Emergency Department attendances were included.

Results:

Out of all events mentioned above, the only two that clearly impacted on the Emergency Department were the Pride (August) and New Year’s Eve (December). Both increased attendances by 10-14% when compared to the attendances same day a week before and a week after.

Other events mentioned have a well-established medical management team which organises and runs prehospital support for the participants and the audience. The medical team consists of Emergency Medicine Consultants, Emergency Medicine Nurses and other advanced health care practitioners. They are able to treat multitude of presentations on scene thereby preventing unnecessary attendances in the Emergency Department. They operate to clear clinical protocols and have an open line of communication with the Department in relation to the patients they feel need transfer to the hospital.

Conclusion:

Emergency Departments should be aware of the large events that take place in the region and which can increase their attendances. Staffing should be increased to allow for a busy department. Also, there should be a real drive to have medical cover of these events prehospitally as it has been shown that having a medical team at events decreases attendances.

Natasza LENTNER, Maria FINN (Brighton, United Kingdom)
15:00 - 16:30 #1978 - #1978 - Emergency Department physician’s perceptions of difficulties during the treatment of psychological/psychiatric emergencies: a pilot study.
#1978 - Emergency Department physician’s perceptions of difficulties during the treatment of psychological/psychiatric emergencies: a pilot study.

Background: Psychological andpsychiatric diseases in acute phases largely access to the hospital emergency department (ED). Knowledge about ED physician’s perceptions of difficulties during the treatment of psychological/psychiatric emergencies is limited. A pilot study was used to assess factors associated to the perception of difficulties of medical staff working in two EDs.

Methods: Two EDs (Santa Croce and Carle Hospital in Cuneo and Regina Montis Regalis Hospital in Mondovì in Northwestern Italy), approximately 80,000 and 30,000 patients per year respectively, were selected as convenience samples.  A semi-structured questionnaire was conducted with closed and open-ended questions. The survey was conducted using questionnaire having: (i) background and demographic data of the physicians; (ii) physician’s perception of difficulties in the treatment of psychological/psychiatric patients was evaluated by a 10-point numerical rating scale (0 = no difficulties, 10 = extreme difficulties). A cut-off ≥ 7 was used to determine a high level of difficulty. (iii) Personal satisfaction in treating psychological/psychiatric emergencies with respect to other types emergencies; (iv) prescribing behaviour; (v) physicians’ emotions mostly associated to psychological/psychiatric patients (considering positive feelings like empathy and wonder, anxious emotions like anxiety, alarm, concern, discomfort, or depressive emotions like boredom, impotence, anger, frustration; (vi) physicians’ perception about the principal causes of difficulties with psychological/psychiatric patients; (vii) physicians’ perception about factors that could ameliorate the treatment of psychological/psychiatric emergencies.

Descriptive statistics of percentages, means, standard deviations and correlations were used to analyse the data.

Results: Forty-eight out of fifty-four eligible emergency doctors (89%) gave their consent to participate. Twenty-eight males and twenty women had completed the questionnaires. Participants’ mean age was 40,3 years (SD = 8,5). Psychological/psychiatric emergencies showed physicians’ lower degree of preference with respect to other hospital emergencies (like cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory, toxicological, trauma, infectious, hematologic and gastroenterology emergencies). Physicians’ perception of difficulties with psychological/psychiatric patients had a mean level of 6,5 (SD = 1,8). Thirty-one physicians evaluated their difficulties with a numerical rate ≥ 7.

Univariate analysis indicated that the lack of specific psychological/psychiatric training (84.3% vs 15,7%, OR=5,7 CI 95% 1,3-23,9; p=0.01) was significantly associated with physicians’ perceived difficulties with those patients. Physicians’ difficulties resulted not significantly associated with a specific emotional cluster (positive, anxious or depressive cluster), but a trend was noticed between difficulty perception and anxious emotions.

Conclusions: Several factors potentially involved in the physicians’ perception of difficulties in the treatment of psychological/psychiatric patients have been analysed, but the sole significant values were associated to the lack of specific psychological/psychiatric training for the ED medical staff. Data collection was arduous and a larger study will require strategies to improve recruitment. On the whole this pilot study indicated that a deeper knowledge of physicians’ perceptions and emotions is useful both to identify and act on the principal causes of their difficulties with psychological/psychiatric patients, in order to ameliorate assessment procedures and clinical treatment.

Attilio ALLIONE, Ketty LETO (Cuneo, Italy), Bartolomeo LORENZATI, Emanuele BERNARDI, Letizia BARUTTA, Elisa PIZZOLATO, Elena MAGGIO, Luca DUTTO, Giuseppe LAURIA, Bruno Maria TARTAGLINO
15:00 - 16:30 #2010 - #2010 - INTERCONNECTION BETWEEN HOSPITAL EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT AND HOME CARE IN THE UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL MARQUÉS DE VALDECILLA.
#2010 - INTERCONNECTION BETWEEN HOSPITAL EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT AND HOME CARE IN THE UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL MARQUÉS DE VALDECILLA.

Introduction: Hospital emergency departments (ED) are overwhelmed by the high workload and the inability of the hospital to reduce waiting times for the transfer of patients already hospitalized from the emergency to inpatient facilities. An alternative to conventional hospitalization is the Hospitalization at Home (HaH), in which patients would enter under some criteria, thus avoiding hospitalization and reducing the collapse of emergency departments.

Objective: To evaluate the healthcare model of HaH, on the basis of cost-effectiveness in patients with infectious diseases who are admitted from the emergency room.

Patients-Methods: A descriptive study of 654 incidents of patients receiving OPAT (Outpatient Parenteral Antibiotic Therapy) between April 2013 and April 2014, sent from the ED. Each patient was diagnosed in the emergency department before being included in the HaH programme. Demographic details, comorbidity, location of infection, isolated microorganisms and HIAT duration were recorded. The effectiveness through cure / recovery rate, deaths and readmissions (during OPAT and within 30 days). We evaluate the cost of stay in the HaH and in conventional hospital and the average stay in both.

Results: Average age: 66.39 years. Women: 49%. Average Charlson index: 2.21. Most frequent types of infection: respiratory (42%), urinary (34%), skin and soft tissue (11%). Causal microorganism known in 30% of cases. Most frequent germs: Escherichia Coli: 35%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa: 17%, Klebsiella spp: 9%, Staphylococcus spp: 7%. OPAT average duration: 8.3 days. Cure / recovery rate: 94%. Deaths: 1%. Readmissions during OPAT: 5%. Readmissions within 30 days: 7%. The estimated cost per HaH stay was €166 per day, and the average cost in hospital was €630 per day.

Discussion: Thanks to the use of this healthcare model, some serious infections have been treated at the patient’s home, thus avoiding hospital admission and the consequent vacancy of boxes in the ED. Comparing the cost of staying one day in the HaH (166 euros) and in hospital (630 euros), we can state that this model is linked to significant cost savings to the National Health Service.

Giusi SGARAMELLA (santander, Spain), Maria LARA, Zuany SONEIRA, Maria ANDRES, Ana AGUILERA, Luis Gerardo GARCIA-CASTRILLO, Emilio PARIENTE, Pedro SANROMA
15:00 - 16:30 #2068 - #2068 - The demographics and clinical data for domestic violence patients in the emergency department.
#2068 - The demographics and clinical data for domestic violence patients in the emergency department.

Introduction:

Victims of domestic violence (DV) appeal to the health care system through emergency room visits for injuries related to violent episodes. Health professionals must acknowledge DV as a possible cause of injuries and other health disorders in emergency patients. Knowing the demographics, epidemiological and clinical data of DV patients can enhance the quality of care for these victims.

 

Objective:

To identify demographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of victims of DV in emergency department and to deduce the possible deleterious consequences of DV.

Methods:  

A prospective observational study was conducted over one year. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they reported being a victim of DV. A domestic violence questionnaire was used. The demographics, co-morbidities, clinical data and in-hospital procedures were collected. Gravity was estimated according to the clinical classification of patients in emergency department (CCMU, Rea Urg 1994)

 

Results:

Inclusion of 169 patients. 2 men and 167 women. The average age of abused women was 35 +/ - 9 years and the average age of the abuser was 40 + - 9 years. The emergency visit was the same day (64%) and the second day (25%). The frequency of DV was daily in 60% cases. Women have filed a complaint in 45% of cases and sanctioned partner became more aggressive in 33% of cases. The topics of quarrel were (%): money and leisure (74%), alcohol (48%), children's education (47%), jealousy and infidelity (40%), family relationship (38%), sex (15% ) Friends relationship (11%),  related to work (8%). The nature of the abuse was physical in 100% cases, psychological (99%), economic (65%) and sexual (29%). The abusers had a history of alcohol use in 48% of cases, 47% had completed primary education and 64% were unemployed.

The damage was generally mild, class 1 of CCMU classification was found in 75% of cases. One hundred forty eight patients were discharged home, 21 victims of VC were addressed to a specialized service: 7 cases in orthopedics, 2 in ophthalmology, 2 in neurology and 10 in gynecology.

Conclusion:

Domestic violence affects female victims and has the characteristics of a gender-based violence. It is occurring at an alarming rate, is under-reported, and often not recognized by physicians and nurses. Screening of DV in emergency department can enhance the quality of care for these victims.

Rania JEBRI (Lyon), Sami SOUISSI, Najla HENI, Mohamed MGUIDICH, Wifek BEN HMIDA, Soumaya MAHDHAOUI, Wided BOUSSLIMI, Hanane GHAZALI
15:00 - 16:30 #2082 - #2082 - How does countertransference (CT) affect medical decision-making? A resident survey.
#2082 - How does countertransference (CT) affect medical decision-making? A resident survey.

Background: Medical decision-making is not an objective process, despite the presence of medical algorithms for work-up and diagnosis of most conditions. Bias in medical decision making can cause costly mistakes in treatment, and has been linked to race, gender, socio-economic status. However, the real reasons for bias are not well understood, nor are the mechanisms by which bias affects decision-making. Countertransference, the psychodynamic concept representing feelings of providers towards patients, has been reported anecdotally to affect decision-making, but never formally studied in this setting. Modern countertransference representations have operationalized those feelings into eight dimensions: overwhelmed/disorganized, helpless/inadequate, positive, special/overinvolved, sexualized, disengaged, parental/protective, and criticized/mistreated. In this study, we explore how countertransference affects medical decision making in typical patient encounters, with the overarching hypothesis that CT feelings impact decision-making in everyday patient encounters, not exclusively in psychiatric settings.

Methods: Five patient encounters eliciting one to two CT dimensions each were filmed. The vignettes were as follows: 1- a likeable nurse presenting with chest pain, 2- young man with a history of drug addiction and chest pain, inability to walk more than a few steps, patient is covered win tattoos and marginally cooperative 3- young woman with borderline, histrionic personality c/o chest pain and palpitations (has pulmonary embolism), 4-Entitled patient with acute cholecystitis who repeatedly belittles, refuses to talk to housestaff  & 5- young man presenting with sleepiness- has an overbearing, overly controlling mother- patient has a knife in his belt buckle; presents very differently when interviewed with his mother versus alone.

  Residents in emergency medicine were shown the vignettes, asked what workup they would order for the patient, their top three differential diagnoses, then asked to fill out the therapist response questionnaire, a countertransference questionnaire. Participants were given 5-6 minutes per questionnaire, aiming at instinctive, rapid answers.

Results: Twenty-eight residents in emergency medicine participated in the survey. CT Feelings elicited by patient vignettes were similar across levels of training, and consistent with projected hypotheses. CT influenced medical decision making in cases combining psychiatric and medical components.  Two kinds of effects were detected: patients eliciting positive CT were less likely to get tested for drug use, whereas patients eliciting negative CT were more likely to be dismissed with minimal workup, more likely to get tested for drug use (even when drug use is reported in already available history) and be subject to a higher suspicion of malingering.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study linking countertransference to how resident providers in emergency medicine made decisions to order tests: CT seems to affect adherence to ACEP-recommended algorithms. The effect is most prominent when the criticized/mistreated, helpless/inadequate dimensions are activated. The effect is less pronounced when a diagnostic dilemma is absent, as in the case of the patient with gastrointestinal symptoms.  When providers had positive CT for a patient, less testing for substance use was performed. Lack of awareness of one’s own feelings towards patients could cause significant changes in treatment, potentially missing serious conditions.

Nidal MOUKADDAM (Houston, USA), Asim SHAH, Larry LAUFMAN, Jim LOMAX, Veronica TUCCI

16:40
16:40-18:10
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A13
State of the Art
Pre-hospital EM

State of the Art
Pre-hospital EM

Moderators: Eric REVUE (Chef de Service) (Paris, France), Dr Jana SEBLOVA (Emergency Physician) (PRAGUE, Czech Republic)
16:40 - 17:10 Difficult airways in prehospital care – up-to-date. Stefan TRENKLER (Košice, Slovakia)
17:10 - 17:40 Sonography during cardiac arrest – state of the art and new opportunities. Roman SKULEC (Head of research and science department) (Kladno, Czech Republic)
17:40 - 18:10 LEAN way of thinking in the process of acute care. Maaret CASTREN (Professor) (HELSINKI, Finland)

16:40-18:10
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B13
Italy invites
Organizzazione dei Dipartimenti d'Emergenza

Italy invites
Organizzazione dei Dipartimenti d'Emergenza

Moderators: Salvatore MANCA (Italy), Francesco PUGLIESE (Rome, Italy)
16:40 - 17:00 L'architettura ideale per una buona organizzazione. Annamaria FERRARI (Reggio Emilia, Italy)
17:00 - 17:20 Gestione delle risorse e percorsi appropriati per garantire il diritto alle 6 ore. Bruno TARTAGLINO (Cuneo, Italy)
17:20 - 17:40 Responsabilità nelle disfunzioni organizzative in area d'emergenza. Michele ZAGRA (Messina, Italy)
17:40 - 18:00 Il punto di vista del cittadino sulle strategie organizzative. Alessio TERZI (Italy)

16:40-18:10
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C13
Clinical Questions: Controversies
Cardiovascular Emergencies

Clinical Questions: Controversies
Cardiovascular Emergencies

Moderators: Pr Rick BODY (Professor of Emergency Medicine) (Manchester), Polat DURUKAN (Turkey)
16:40 - 17:10 High sensitivity troponin: friend or foe? Louise CULLEN (Brisbane, Australia), Pr Rick BODY (Professor of Emergency Medicine) (Manchester)
17:10 - 17:40 Is there any point in taking a history from a patient with chest pain? Pr Edd CARLTON (Emergency Medicine Consultant) (Bristol, United Kingdom), Barbra BACKUS (Emergency Physician) (Rotterdam, The Netherlands)
17:40 - 18:10 Ruling out ACS: Getting It Done. Judd HOLLANDER (USA)

16:40-18:10
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D13
Administration / Management
Patient Safety & Risk Management

Administration / Management
Patient Safety & Risk Management

Moderators: Janos BAOMBE (manchester, United Kingdom), Christian HOHENSTEIN (PHYSICIAN) (Madgeburg, Germany)
16:40 - 17:10 You can't fix what you don't measure: Improving care in the ED and beyond. Susan ROBINSON (Doctor) (Cambridge, United Kingdom)
17:10 - 17:40 Pitfalls in behaviour that can take you to court - soft skills that satisfy patients and make them your friend. Christian HOHENSTEIN (PHYSICIAN) (Madgeburg, Germany)
17:40 - 18:10 The IFEM Quality and Safety Framework for Emergency Medicine. Fiona LECKY (Professor of Emergency Medicine) (Sheffield, United Kingdom)

16:40-18:10
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E13
Research
Education

Research
Education

Moderators: Katrin HRUSKA (Emergency Physician) (Stockholm, Sweden), Pr Cem OKTAY (FACULTY) (ANTALYA, Turkey)
16:40 - 17:10 The iTeachEM approach to medical education. Rob ROGERS (USA)
17:10 - 17:40 The European Board Examination in Emergency Medicine (EBEEM). Cornelia HÄRTEL (Medical Director of the ED, Consultant in EM, Director of Medical Education in EM) (STOCKHOLM, Sweden)
17:40 - 18:10 Medical Education in 2015: the Swedish perspective. Katrin HRUSKA (Emergency Physician) (Stockholm, Sweden)

16:40-18:10
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F13
YEMD
Sim Session #2

YEMD
Sim Session #2

Moderators: Luca CARENZO (SIMULATION COMPETITION ONLY) (NOVARA, Italy), Roberta PETRINO (Head of department) (Italie, Italy)
16:40 - 17:10 Simulation Clinical Case 1. Luca CARENZO (SIMULATION COMPETITION ONLY) (NOVARA, Italy), Roberto COSENTINI (Head of Emergency Medicine) (BERGAMO, Italy)
17:10 - 17:40 Simulation Clinical Case 2. Chris NICKSON (South Yarra, Australia)
17:40 - 18:10 Simulation Clinical Case 3. Riccardo LETO (Chief of ED) (Overpelt, Belgium), Mikkel MALBY SCHOOS (Copenhagen, Denmark)

16:40-18:10
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G13
EuSEM meets
China

EuSEM meets
China

Moderators: Giorgio CARBONE (Italy), Gian CIBINEL (Torino, Italy)
16:40 - 17:10 The Developing Trend of Chinese Emergency Medicine. Zhong Qiu LU (vice president) (Wenzhou, China)
17:10 - 17:40 The Professional Quality Control Indicator of Chinese Emergency Medicine. Wei JIE (Wuhan, China)
17:40 - 18:10 The Standardized Training of Emergency Medicine Residency in China. Wei JIE (Wuhan, China)

16:40-18:10
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OP1-13
Oral Paper 1
Imaging and Ultrasound I

Oral Paper 1
Imaging and Ultrasound I

Moderators: Ammar ALANI (United Kingdom), Paolo PRINETTO (Italy)
16:40 - 18:10 #1033 - #1033 - REAL-TIME ULTRASOUND-GUIDED THORACENTESIS USING A LONGITUDINAL AXIS APPROACH IN THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT.
#1033 - REAL-TIME ULTRASOUND-GUIDED THORACENTESIS USING A LONGITUDINAL AXIS APPROACH IN THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT.

BACKGROUND: Real-time ultrasound guidance has demonstrated to improve the success and to reduce the incidence of adverse events during medical procedures. Ultrasound-guidance during thoracentesis has decreased the likelihood of pneumothorax by 19% --thereby improving the overall outcomes. Since the needle orientation in a longitudinal axis provides better precision and decreases the rate of adverse events during ultrasound-guided vascular access, we hypothesized that ultrasound-guided thoracentesis performed with a longitudinal axis approach could also have better outcomes. To our knowledge, this technique and its potential benefits have not been yet reported in the literature. We aimed to describe the real-time ultrasound-guided thoracentesis using longitudinal axis approach.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcomes of ultrasound-guided thoracentesis using a longitudinal axis approach in an Emergency Department in Bogotá-Colombia.

METHODOLOGY: We described two different techniques of ultrasound-guided thoracentesis: 1) the conventional (out of plane) and 2) the longitudinal axis (in-plane), in the Emergency Department of Fundación Cardioinfantil - Instituto de Cardiología, from October 1, 2013 to September 10, 2014. The measured variables were: difference between pleural effusion depth at the puncture site, success rate in pleural fluid removal, and adverse events.

RESULTS:  We performed 47 ultrasound-guided thoracentesis using the conventional approach and 26 ultrasound-guided thoracentesis using the longitudinal axis approach. Pleural effusion depth median  at the puncture site was 32.5 mm in the longitudinal axis group, compared to 47 mm in the conventional technique group (p = 0.0225), with a lowest pleural effusion depth of 15 mm and 20 mm respectively. Success rate in fluid removal was 100% in thoracentesis performed with longitudinal axis approach, compared to 93% (44 out of 47 procedures) with the conventional approach. One pneumothorax occurred in the conventional technique group. Thoracentesis was performed in the first attempt in all cases when longitudinal axis was used. Six thoracentesis required more than one attempt of puncture in the conventional technique group.

CONCLUSION: Longitudinal axis approach during ultrasound-guided thoracentesis is a feasible and safe technique that could potentially improve the success rate in pleural fluid removal while reducing the likelihood of adverse events. Additional clinical studies are needed to support our findings.

Luis Arcadio CORTES-PUENTES (BOGOTA, Colombia), Gustavo Andres CORTES-PUENTES, Gerardo LINARES-MENDOZA
16:40 - 18:10 #1209 - #1209 - THROMBUS (THROMbosis detection by Bedside UltraSound). A prospective, multicentre study: Diagnostic concordance of emergency doctor-performed bedside US vs radiologist echo-doppler US in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis of lower limbs.
#1209 - THROMBUS (THROMbosis detection by Bedside UltraSound). A prospective, multicentre study: Diagnostic concordance of emergency doctor-performed bedside US vs radiologist echo-doppler US in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis of lower limbs.

INTRODUCTION:

Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is an increasing major cause of mortality and morbidity. There is a need for quick, easy, inexpensive, convenient, and reliable diagnostic tools.

 

OBJECTIVES:

To ascertain the diagnostic concordance of emergency doctor-performed ultrasound (EDUS) of the lower extremities with specialist doctor-performed echo doppler (SDED) in the diagnosis of DVT.

 

METHODS:

In this prospective, multicenter study, adult patients (>18 years old) with clinical suspicion of DVT, with high or moderate risk (on Wells scoring) or low risk with increased D-dimer levels, were eligible.

From September 2013 to September 2014, 328 patients were enrolled. Fifty-one investigators from seven hospitals performed the EDUS. Each patient had the EDUS and SDED both in femoral and popliteal areas.

The final result was considered non-concordant if one or both of the EDUS did not match with the SDED. For inter-rater agreement analysis, we used the Kappa statistic,12 and confidence intervals (CIs) of 95% were computed using a jack-knife re-sampling procedure.

 

RESULTS:

Of 328 pairs of US studies, 37 were non-concordant between EDUS and SDED. Two EDUS were incomplete; therefore, the concordance analysis was performed with 326 ultrasound studies, with 35 discordant.

The percentage of agreement between EDUS and SDED was 89%. The kappa index was 0.76 (95% CI = 0.69–0.84), which means a “substantial agreement.”

 

CONCLUSIONS:

There is substantial agreement between the EDUS and SDED in the diagnosis of DVT in routine clinical practice.

 

WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS:

What is already known on this subject

           Current available evidence suggest that emergency doctors can perform bedside ultrasonography to diagnose or to rule out DVT, in a quick, inexpensive, and accurate way in comparison with “gold standard” studies by the Radiology department.

           Nonetheless, important concerns have been raised about the interpretation of the data: small sample sizes and methodological issues (very different experience of the emergency doctors performing bedside ultrasound, lack of details involving patient enrollment)

 

Section 2: What this study adds

           There is a “substantial agreement” between bedside ultrasound performed by a homogeneous sample of novice in bedside ultrasound management emergency doctors, and Doppler ultrasound performed by the Registrar radiologist in the diagnosis of DVT of lower limbs.

           The diagnostic concordance will escalate from 89% to 95% if the emergency doctor is shadowed in the first five performances, when the most mistakes are made.

Roberto PENEDO ALONSO, Mario SÁNCHEZ PEREZ, Fernando ROLDAN MOLL, Domingo LY-PEN (Westcliff on Sea, United Kingdom), Miguel ZAMORANO SERRANO, Luis DÍAZ VIDAL, Soledad JUSTO
16:40 - 18:10 #1238 - #1238 - Implementing the national institute for health and clinical excellence head injury 2014 guidelines in a children’s major trauma centre.
#1238 - Implementing the national institute for health and clinical excellence head injury 2014 guidelines in a children’s major trauma centre.

Background/Introduction

Head injury is a common paediatric Emergency Department presentation1. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) updated its guidance in January 2014 regarding imaging required for adults and children following a head injury1. This study looked at compliance rates pre-guideline and post-guideline implementation.

 

Participants and methods

A single-centre, retrospective cohort study was carried out, examining imaging practice in children with head injuries pre-guideline and post-guideline implementation. Extraction was from patients’ records and radiology department imaging registers. The new guidelines were implemented formally in August 2014 to the new trainee doctors. The pre-implementation data collection consisted of a 2-month period between and including November 2013 to December 2013 and the post-implementation stage consisted of 2-month period between and including September 2014 to October 2014. The primary outcome measured was compliance with the 2014 NICE guidelines. As the data was binary, 95% confidence intervals were used for comparison.

 

Results

1797 patients were identified as having a head injury, of which 62.7% were male. There was a positive skew of ages with a median of 50 months. Pre-guideline implementation, 4.8% (95% CI 3.3% and 6.2%) had a CT head scan performed. Post-guideline implementation, there was a reduction to 2.4% (95% CI 1.4% and 3.4%). Implementation at The Sheffield’s Children NHS Foundation Trust (SCFT) resulted in a statistically significant increase in guideline compliance from 79.2% (95% CI 76.4% and 81.9%) to 85.0% (95% CI 82.8% and 87.3%). The greatest increase in compliance was found in CT head scans, from 95.8% (95% CI 94.5% and 97.2%) to 97.7% (95% CI 96.7% and 98.6%). The compliance for CT C-spine scanning was hard to assess due to few patients having clinical indications for this.

 

Discussion/Conclusion

The implementation at the SCFT was successful in satisfying the aim of the NICE Head Injury 2014 guidelines by increasing compliance and decreasing CT head scans1. The increase in compliance is contrary to previous studies, indicating a former reluctance to adhere to NICE guidelines for imaging children2.

 

References

  1. National Institute for health and care excellence. Head Injury: Triage, assessment, investigation and early management of head injury in children, young people and adults. Methods, evidence and recommendations. CG176. 2014.
  2. Mooney JS, Yates A, Sellar L, Shipway T, Roberts C, Parris R, et al. Emergency head injury imaging: implementing NICE 2007 in a tertiary neurosciences centre and a busy district general hospital. Emergency medicine journal. 2011;28(9):778-82.

 

 

Acknowledgements

Thank you to the Sheffield Children’s Foundation Trust for data access. 

Natalie RAMJEEAWON (London, United Kingdom), Fiona LECKY, Derek BURKE, Shammi RAMLAKHAN
16:40 - 18:10 #1299 - #1299 - Pre-hospital Vscan® echoscopy : influence on orientation and management. A prospective pilot study (SMURSCOPE).
#1299 - Pre-hospital Vscan® echoscopy : influence on orientation and management. A prospective pilot study (SMURSCOPE).

Introduction

The ultrasound-guided management in pre-hospital emergency medicine has come out as an emerging subject of clinical research and publication over the last decade. But it does not seem to have become common practice amongst SMUR (mobile intensive care units) yet [1]. Nonetheless it remains a tool that has proven its efficiency for diagnostic certitude improvement [2] and that could also modify pre-hospital medical management [3].

The use of a compact, light, hand-held ultrasound device with an optimized ergonomy such as the V-Scan ® seems to be the best option in our practice.

Prospective studies are lacking. We wish to assess the influence of the use of echoscopy in the pre-hospital setting: diagnostic certitude, length of intervention, patient’s treatment and orientation.

 

 

Material and methods

  • Prospective mono-centric interventional pilot study in current care setting.
  • Inclusion criteria: any patient over 18 years old, that are managed in the pre-hospital setting, for one targeted motive amongst a few (related to  traumatology, haemodynamic failures, cardio-respiratory distress…).
  • Medical management is completed with a VScan® echoscopy, according to a procedural sequence. Non-experienced physicians are given a 16-hour training in emergency ultrasound examination before participating to the study.
  • We mainly assess modifications of orientation that are attributable to echoscopy. Secondary judgement criteria are: modifications of diagnosis, diagnostic certitude before and after echoscopy (according to a numeric auto-assessment on a scale from 0 to 10), therapeutic changes that are attributable to echoscopy, and stratification of those results according to the doctor’s experience (experienced versus minimal training).

 

Results

  • 114 patients are included over 8 months by 14 physicians: 8 junior doctors who received the minimal training (60% of investigated patients), and 6 doctors who are experienced (specific training and qualification in ultrasound scan with over 3 years of experience). Main motives of intervention are chest pain (54%), shortness of breath (15%), or severe traumatology (10%).
  • The mean duration of echoscopy is 5.7 minutes and is not influenced by the experience of the investigator.
  • A change of orientation occurs in 17% (CI95%; 11-25%), with a trend toward superiority of experienced doctors (23 versus 13%; no significant difference).
  • After echoscopy, main diagnostic hypothesis does change in 21% of cases, and therapeutic management in 15%.
  • Diagnostic certitude is mostly increased when it is initially scored between 3 and 7 over 10.

 

Discussion:

This pilot study already shows the usefulness of ultrasound examination with an ultraportable device in the pre-hospital setting. It seems to have an influence on orientation decision and therapeutic management. This improvement does not have a significant duration cost. A targeted training over 2 days is enough to show positive results, and advanced training improves even more those results. A minimal training should particularly target focused echocardiography skills. A study on a larger scale is currently being conducted.

References:

[1] Ann  Fr Anesth Reanim. 2014 ; 33(3):29-33

[2] Am J Em Med 2006; 24, 237–242

[3] Congrès Urgences 2012; CP 158

Adeline CHARDIN (le kremlin bicetre), Sylvain BENENATI, François-Xavier LABORNE, Roger KADJI, Joël CHENAL, David SAPIR, Karim TAZAROURTE, Jacques DURANTEAU, Nicolas BRIOLE
16:40 - 18:10 #1728 - #1728 - CAN SPLANCHNIC ARTERY DUPLEX ULTRASOUND PREDICT ACUTE MESENTERIC ISCHEMIA? A LONGITUDNAL MULTICENTRIC STUDY.
#1728 - CAN SPLANCHNIC ARTERY DUPLEX ULTRASOUND PREDICT ACUTE MESENTERIC ISCHEMIA? A LONGITUDNAL MULTICENTRIC STUDY.

INTRODUCTION: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is considered a vascular emergency and mortality is time dependent. Early diagnose is challenging as presenting symptoms are non-specific. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of duplex ultrasound (DUS) of the splanchnic vessels to detect AMI against the reference standard of multi-detector computer tomography (MDCT) abdomen scan  in patients presenting to the Emergency Department with abdominal pain and no clear diagnosis after early standard assessment.METHODSThis observational prospective study was performed in two hospitals between October 2012 and April 2014. All patients underwent to MDCT of the abdomen using arterial, venous and portal acquisition. A single operator recruited and performed the DUS blind to MDCT reports. Inclusion criteria were: age >18; acute abdominal pain with onset <24h and/or altered bowel habit; history of atrial fibrillation and/or atherosclerosis in any vascular territory; no diagnosis after standard tests. Duplex assessment was performed of the coeliac arthery (CA) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) taking a sample of the peak systolic velocity (PSV). We considered normal PSV values between 90-190 cm/sec for the CA and between 80-200 cm/sec for the SMA. Statistical analysis was performed using Student t test, χ2 test, Fisher exact test, whenever appropriate, to assess differences among AMI and non-AMI groups.RESULTS:49 patients were eligible for the study: two withdrew consent and DUS not feasible in two patients leaving 45 for analysis, among this MDCT diagnosed 15 AMI cases. DUS revealed a median SMA PSV of 276.3cm/sec (SD:149,6) and of 188,3 (SD:140,5) in AMI and non-AMI groups respectively (p=0.01). The median CA PSV values were 241,7cm/sec (SD:191,5) and 196,7cm/sec (SD:155,3) in AMI and non-AMI groups respectively (p>0,05). Considering both SMA and CA, abnormal PVS values were found in 27 patients, 12 of them had AMI. Of the remaining 18 patients with normal values, just three had AMI.  PSV reached a 80% (95%CI:51.91-95.43) sensitivity, 50% (95% CI: 31.31-68.69) specificity, 44,44%(95%CI: 25.50-64.66) PPV, 83,33%(95%CI: 58.56-96.23) NPV.CONCLUSION:The investigator achieved PSV readings of the SMA in 45/47 (96%) and of the CA in 44/47 (94%) of patients. A normal PSV has a high NPV for AMI (83,33%) suggesting the diagnosis is unlikely. However the PPV of an abnormal PSV is 44% and so suggests but does not confirm the diagnosis. MDCT angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of AMI, although DUS PSV values could be a feasible and reliable tool that can reasonably rule it out in high risk population. REFERENCES: 1)AbuRahma AF et al. Mesenteric/celiac duplex ultrasound interpretation criteria revisited, J Vasc Surg 2012; 55(2): 428–436; 2)Reginelli EA Genovese EA,et al. Intestinal Ischemia: US-CT findings correlations, Critical Ultrasound Journal 2013; 5(1):S7. Acknowledgements: No funding or conflict of interest. 

Stefano SARTINI, Marcello PASTORELLI, Carolina GRANAI, Guido CALOSI, Tim HARRIS, Fulvio BRUNI, Dr Stefano SARTINI (Genova, Italy)
16:40 - 18:10 #1987 - #1987 - Role of bedside videocapillaroscopy in the study of microcirculatory alterations in septic patients in the emergency department: a preliminary study.
#1987 - Role of bedside videocapillaroscopy in the study of microcirculatory alterations in septic patients in the emergency department: a preliminary study.

Introduction: Videocapillaroscopy (VCS) is a non-invasive diagnostic tool used to assess structure and haemodynamic of microcirculation. VCS is an important tool in the diagnostic management of rheumatologic diseases, but nowadays this technique is also being used in critical care to evaluate microcirculatory changes in sick patients: the rationale beyond this idea is that the primum movens of a number of diseases could be found in microcirculation and studying its alterations could identify early signs and this could help to prevent the progression of the disease. For example, macrocirculatory alterations in sepsis are tardive and often related with a poor prognosis: having the chance to find early signs of microcirculatory failure could help to identify those patients at risk for a worse outcome.

Scope of the study: primary endpoint was to assess quantitative and qualitative microcirculatory alterations in septic patients in the Emergency Department; secondary endpoint was to assess correlations between videocapillaroscopic quantitative parameters and laboratory tests (CRP, lactates, procalcitonin).

Materials and methods: we enrolled 26 non consecutive patients (80  ± 12 years old) with positive SIRS criteria + clinical suspicion of sepsis while 30 healthy individuals were enrolled in the control group. As per our standard diagnostic workup, all patients underwent vital signs evaluation (heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, body temperature) and blood samples were taken for lab tests (procalcitonin, c reactive protein, lactates, blood gas analysis, full blood count, u&e, mioglobin and ck). All the enrolled patients were assessed with VCS by an expert indipendent operator: periungual bed and bulbar conjunctiva were the anatomical sites chosen for videocapillaroscopic evaluation. All the images were recorded and analyzed for qualitative (flow velocity, hyperemia, background paleness, loop orientation, wall abnormalities, tortuosity, transparency, visibility, capillary distrophy) and quantitative (lenght and diameter of the afferent, middle and efferent loop) parameters. The final diagnosis was made by the emergency physician after the full work up and compared with capillaroscopic findings.

Results: septic patients had significative qualitative and quantitative alterations if compared to healthy subjects (ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc test). Statistical signifitivity was found for flow alterations, hyperemia, background paleness, loop orientation, wall abnormalities, tortuosity, trasparency, visibility and capillary distrophy; also, we found that middle loop is stretched in septic patients if compared with controls. To assess the secondary endpoint we used Pearson's score to correlate quantitative parameters to procalcitonin, c reactive protein and lactates: we found that the lenght of the afferent and efferent loop were related to all these three parameters. 

Conclusions: VCS is a reliable tool for an early diagnosis of sepsis and its use in an Emergency Department is feasible. This is still a preliminary study and the enrollment is still ongoing to increase the statistical power of the study. A further step will be made comparing clinical scoring systems with serial VCS recordings to assess prognostic value of this methodic.

Matteo CAPECCHI, Matteo BORSELLI, Savino MINERVA, Fulvio BRUNI, Veronica GIALLI, Marcello PASTORELLI (Asciano, Italy)
16:40 - 18:10 #2032 - #2032 - Ultrasound guided chest compressions during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.
#2032 - Ultrasound guided chest compressions during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

Ultrasound guided chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

P. Benato MD; M. Zanatta MD; A. Barchitta MD; C. Pirozzi MD; V. Cianci MD.

 

Early and effective chest compressions have a well known pivot role in cardiopulmunary resuscitation (CPR) and 2010 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) have strongly reinforced its importance.

The efficacy of chest compressions depends on hands position and on compression technique (frequency and depth).

Medical education and training can easily improve chest compression technique, while the choice of thoracic landmark is always blind even if 2010 consensus indicated that it is reasonable to place the hands in the lower half of the sternum.

Critical care ultrasound (CCUS) has changed the approach of critical ill patient, transforming blind medicine into visual medicine and can identify potential reversible causes of cardiac arrest during CPR.

Our challenge is to use CCUS to locate the most appropriate site for chest compressions.

We planned a pilot study (in progress) to evaluate the capability of critical echocardiography to improve the quality of chest compressions with a subcostal view while CPR is taking place.

We presented data of a small case series from 6 non traumatic cardiac arrests who had been treated both in-hospital and in pre-hospital settings.

In 3 out of 6 patients compressions were correctly performed and passive left ventricle contractility was guarantied. In the other 3 cases partials left ventricle compression or the narrowing of the base of the heart and aorta was observed. Ultrasound guided changes in hands position improved passive left ventricle contractility in the 3 incorrect CPR.

Our study doesn’t permit to estimate if the changes made in hands position would have affected the outcome of CPR.

Anyway we think that the possibility to focus the power of the hands over the real position of left ventricle certainly improves the quality of our chest compressions.

Piero BENATO (arzignano, Italy), Mirko ZANATTA, Agata BARCHITTA, Concetta PIROZZI, Vito CIANCI

16:40-18:10
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OP2-13
Oral Paper 2
CPR / Resuscitation

Oral Paper 2
CPR / Resuscitation

Moderators: Mohammad Ashraf BUTT (Consultant in Emergency Medicine) (Cavan, Ireland), Timothy HUDSON RAINER (Cardiff, United Kingdom)
16:40 - 18:10 #1021 - #1021 - Bispectral index EEG monitoring reliably detects epileptic activity in post-cardiac arrest patients.
#1021 - Bispectral index EEG monitoring reliably detects epileptic activity in post-cardiac arrest patients.

Bispectral index EEG monitoring reliably detects epileptic activity in post-cardiac arrest patients.

J. Vundelinckx2;  J. Haesen 1,2; L. Desteghe 1,2; I. Meex 1,2; C. Genbrugge 1,2; J. Demeestere 2;
 L. Ernon 2;  J. Dens 1,2; C. De Deyne 1,2

1 Hasselt University, Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, Diepenbeek, Belgium

 2 Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg, Genk, Belgium

 

Introduction: Assessment of prognosis in post–cardiac arrest (CA) patients became challenging since the introduction of therapeutic hypothermia (TH). Continuous EEG monitoring has been proposed to improve prognostication; however, its use is limited due to difficulties in readily interpretation. This emerges the need for a simple EEG montage. The bispectral index (BIS) monitor is a simplified EEG system, mainly calculating an index ranging from 0 (isoelectric EEG) to 100 (full consciousness) to provide information on hypnotic depth of anaesthesia. The aim of the study was to validate the accuracy of simplified EEG monitoring in a CA - setting.

 

Methods: BIS monitoring (BIS VISTATM) was applied to collect frontotemporal data in TH-treated CA patients. A standard 19 – channel EEG was performed after return to normothermia. Afterwards, small EEG frames coincident with the time of full EEG registration were extracted from the BIS monitor. We asked 2 neurophysiologists to indicate the presence of status epilepticus (SE), cerebral inactivity (CI), burst suppression (BS), Periodic epileptiformic discharges (PED) or a diffuse slowing pattern (DS). In addition, these samples were analyzed by 2 inexperienced physicians, who were asked to indicate the presence of SE.

 

Results: Thirty-four simplified EEG samples were analyzed. According to standard EEG, 11 patients showed a DS pattern, 3 had CI, 6 showed BS, 4 showed PEDs and 10 had an SE. Neurophysiologists interpreted all samples with a high accuracy (table 1). Only 1 SE was missed by 1 neurophysiologist. Unfortunately, only 1 PED was confirmed by both neurophysiologists. Interobserver reliability was high (kappa=0.843). High correlations were found for the comparison of full and simplified EEG for both neurophysiologists (r=0.809). Further, the 2 inexperienced physicians identified SE with a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 98%.

 

 

Conclusion: Simplified EEG monitoring, using BIS, resulted in high accuracy of a simple classification system in post – CA patients. Not only neurophysiologists, but also treating physicians were capable to identify SE, which may play an important role in the early detection of SE. We suggest using BIS as a screening tool in post – CA patients to save valuable time in the detection of SE, without replacing the need of full EEG monitoring for confirmation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table I: Validation of simplified EEG

 

                Full EEG

Simplified EEG

 

 

I

II

Consensus

Slow diffuse (n)

11

10

11

11

Burst suppression (n)

6

6

4

5

Cerebral inactivity (n)

3

3

3

3

PEDs (n)

4

1

1

1

Status epilepticus (n)

10

10

9

10

Total

34

30

28

30

Statistics

Sensitivity (%)

 

86.96

77.27

86.96

Specificity (%)

 

90.00

93.75

100.00

Sensitivity disregarding PED (%)

100.00

89.47

100.00

Specificity disregarding PED (%)

90.00

93.75

100.00

Interobserver variability (kappa)

0.843

0.843

 

Abbreviations: EEG: Electroencephalogram; PED: periodic epileptiform discharges; Sensitivity – PED: sensitivity calculated disregarding PEDs; Specificity – PEDs: sensitivity calculated disregarding PEDs;

           

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Joris VUNDELINCKX (Genk, Belgium), Jolien HAESEN, Lien DESTEGHE, Ingrid MEEX, Cornelia GENBRUGGE, Luc ERNON, Jo DENS, Cathy DEDEYNE
16:40 - 18:10 #1411 - #1411 - Association between Proportions of Highly Educated Neighborhood with Provision of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.
#1411 - Association between Proportions of Highly Educated Neighborhood with Provision of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

Background

Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (BCPR) is one of crucial community factor for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We studied the association between the education level of neighborhood and provision of BCPR.

Methods

Emergency medical service (EMS)-treated OHCA with presumed cardiac etiology in Korea were enrolled from January 2012 through December 2013, excluding cases that were witnessed by EMS providers or have unknown outcome. Exposure was proportion of highly educated (more than bachelor) neighborhood in community, categorized in four groups from Q1 (low) to Q4 (high). Endpoints were provision of BCPR for study population and short time interval (

Results

Total of 26,073 OHCAs were included, 41.0% were witnessed and 36.9% had BCPR. BCPR was provided for 31.3% in Q1, 33.6% in Q2, 35.6% in Q3, and 41.8% in Q4 group. Among witnessed patients, 24.4% had short AIC in Q1, 29.3% in Q2, 29.9% in Q3, and 35.8% in Q4 (p<0.01). The AORs (95% CIs) compared with Q1 for BCPR were 1.01 (0.91-1.12) in Q2, 1.08 (0.98-1.18) in Q3, and 1.29 (1.17-1.43) in Q4. For short AIC, the AORs were 1.19 (0.99-1.44) in Q2, 1.21 (1.01-1.45) in Q3, and 1.45 (1.20-1.75) in Q4 for witnessed OHCA.

Conclusion

Proportion of highly educated neighborhood in incident site of OHCA is associated with receiving BCPR and short AIC. Targeted public intervention may be needed for community with relatively low education level.

Sun Young LEE (seoul, Korea, Republic of), Young Sun RO, Sang Do SHIN, Kyoung Jun SONG
16:40 - 18:10 #1770 - #1770 - Mechanical Positive Pressure Ventilation during Resuscitation: Influence of Chest Compression Synchronized Ventilation (CCSV) and Intermitted Positive Pressure Ventilation (IPPV) on Cerebral Oxygenation in a Pig Model.
#1770 - Mechanical Positive Pressure Ventilation during Resuscitation: Influence of Chest Compression Synchronized Ventilation (CCSV) and Intermitted Positive Pressure Ventilation (IPPV) on Cerebral Oxygenation in a Pig Model.

Objective:

A major goal of resuscitation is the oxygenation of the brain to prevent hypoxic damage. The ILCOR-Guidelines recommend mechanical ventilation with pure oxygen and Intermitted Positive Pressure Ventilation during resuscitation [1]. We investigated the influence of the novel resuscitation ventilation mode Chest Compression Synchronized Ventilation (CCSV) compared with Intermitted Positive Pressure Ventilation (IPPV) on cerebral tissue oxygenation in a pig model [2].  

Methods:

After approval by local authorities 32 pigs underwent anaesthesia with intubation. The probes for the micro-lightguide spectrophotometer O2C were implanted in the cortex via two burr holes with a distance of 15mm at a depth of 10 mm for white light tissue spectrometry. Ventricular fibrillation was induced and after 3 min continuous chest compressions followed. Pigs were mechanical ventilated with IPPV in a volume controlled mode (FiO2 1.0, tidalvolumes 7ml/kgKG, respiratory rate 10/min, PEEP=0mbar) or Chest Compression Synchronized Ventilation (CCSV), a pressure-controlled and with each chest compression synchronized breathing pattern (FiO2 1.0, Pinsp=60mbar, inspiratory time 205ms). CCSV is designed to insufflate a very short oxygen flow in time with the start of each chest compression, each inspiration is stopped before decompression begins to allow expiration and unhampered venous blood flow into the right heart. Interventions: Epinephrine 1mg iv at t=7min, vasopressin 0.8IU/kg at t=11min. Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (ScO2[%]) was recorded, analysis was performed using U-test, results are presented as median (25%/75%percentiles).

Results:

ScO2 baseline before cardiac arrest (FiO2 0.21): IPPV  49% (47/53), CCSV 50% (47/54), p=0.8. ScO2 during CPR at t=6min: IPPV 38% (30/45), CCSV 46% (36/49), p=0.037; at t=10min: IPPV 43% (36/50), CCSV 51% (37/62), p=0.28; at t=12min: IPPV 54% (43/60), CCSV 59% (36/74), p=0.4.

 

Conclusions:

The cerebral tissue oxygen saturation does not reach baseline values during resuscitation even when mechanical ventilation was performed with pure oxygen. Chest Compression Synchronized Ventilation (CCSV) improves tissue oxygenation compared to IPPV. Once vasopressors were given, the cerebral tissue oxygenation increases slightly above baseline values.

 

References:

[1] Deakin CD et al.:Resuscitation 2010; 81:1319

[2] Kill C et al Care Med. 2014; 42(2):e89-95.

 

Clemens KILL (Marburg, Germany), Rebecca THONKE, Oliver HAHN, Pascal WALLOT, Karl KESPER, Hinnerk WULF, Wolfgang DERSCH
16:40 - 18:10 #1813 - #1813 - Comparison of Quality of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation between Conventional versus Dispatch-assisted Basic Life Support Training Program; a Randomized Simulation Study.
#1813 - Comparison of Quality of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation between Conventional versus Dispatch-assisted Basic Life Support Training Program; a Randomized Simulation Study.

Comparison of Quality of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation between Conventional versus Dispatch-assisted Basic Life Support Training Program; a Randomized Simulation Study Tae Han Kim*, Sang Do Shin*, Yu Jin Lee*, Hanga Park**, Eui Jung Lee*, Dayea Beatrice Jang**, Hyeona Lee**, Kyoung Jun Song*, Young Sun Ro** *Department of emergency medicine, Seoul National University College of Emergency Medicine **Laboratory of Emergency Medical Services Seoul National University Hospital Biomedical Research Institute Background: Home bystanders such as elderly or women who have lesser chance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training and less competency nor retention of skill and knowledge. We developed the dispatch-assisted-basic life support(DA-BLS) training program to improve the quality of CPR performed by home bystanders. Objectives: We compared the quality of CPR of bystanders educated with new DA-BLS training program to conventional BLS training program. Methods: This is a randomized simulation study. 24 elderly or housewives without previous CPR education were enrolled. Participants were randomized into 2 groups of BLS training programs(Conventional vs. DA-BLS). The DA-BLS, video-based 60-min. training program, included current dispatch-assisted BLS protocols, dispatcher instructions, BLS skill session and debriefing session. The conventional BLS training was the American Heart Association BLS provider course. After completing each education program, participants performed 5 minutes of CPR as bystanders in a simulated environment. Quality of CPR was measured and recorded by simulation manikins . Primary outcome was no flow time in 5 minutes of CPR. Results: Among 24 participants, 2 participants(8.3%) with mechanical failure of simulation manikin and 1 participant(4.2%) with simulation protocol violation were excluded. Mean no flow time was 83.2±19.5 seconds for DA-CPR program group and 148.7±38.1 seconds for conventional education group (p<0.01). Mean percentages of adequate rate of chest compression and adequate depth of chest compressions for each groups(DA-BLS vs. conventional) were 70.0±20.7% vs 56.0±30.5%(p=0.23) and 12.1±23.8% vs 23.7±38.6%(p=0.41) respectively. Conclusion: Bystanders educated with the new DA-BLS training program were shown to perform better bystander CPR in simulated OHCA.
Tae Han KIM (Seoul, Korea, Republic of), Sang Do SHIN, Yu Jin LEE, Hang A PARK, Eui Jung LEE, Dayea Beatrice JANG, Hyeona LEE, Kyoung Jun SONG
16:40 - 18:10 #1897 - #1897 - The Effect of Resuscitation Position on Cerebral and Coronary Perfusion Pressure during Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Porcine Cardiac Arrest Model.
#1897 - The Effect of Resuscitation Position on Cerebral and Coronary Perfusion Pressure during Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Porcine Cardiac Arrest Model.

Background: Mechanical compression devices can allow us to select a positon during transport with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in a small space (like elevator) to reduce the length of stretcher cart.

Objective: To evaluate whether resuscitation position is associated with cerebral perfusion pressure (CePP) or coronary perfusion pressure (CoPP).

Methods: This is a randomized crossover experimental trial using female farm pigs (n=12) (42 ± 3kg) sedated, intubated, and paralyzed on a tilt table. After surgical preparation, 6 minutes of untreated ventricular fibrillation was induced followed by 3 minutes in 0° supine position as a stabilization period with mechanical CPR device, Lucas-2 (L) and an impedance threshold device (ITD). Then, 5 minutes of L-CPR+ITD was performed in a position randomly assigned to either head-up tilt at 30°, 45°, or 60° or head-down tilt at 30°, 45°, or 60° followed by 5 minutes of L-CPR+ITD in crossover position to the other. We measured and compared the CePPs and CoPPs at the positions using ANOVA with Duncan post-hoc test.

Results: Baseline hemodynamic parameters among pigs were not different. From head-down to head-up by elevation of angle, mean aortic pressures slightly decreased and intracranial pressure significantly decreased. With 60°, 45°, 30° head-down, 0°(supine), and 30°, 45°, 60° head-up positioning, CePPs increased linearly as follows: 2.4± 3.1, 9.3±3.9, 16.5±5.0, 27.0±2.3, 35.1±1.2, 39.4±12, 39.9±1.5mmHg respectively (p<0.001 by ANOVA and all significant for post-hoc test). CoPPs was peak in head-up 30 °: 12.9± 4.2, 13.3±5.0, 12.8±2.9, 18.1±2.0, 30.3±1.5, 24.1±1.7, 26.5±1.9 mmHg respectively (p<0.001 by ANOVA post-hoc test except between head-down -30° and -65°).

Conclusion: Mechanical CPR position was associated with different cerebral perfusion pressure by head-up angles. The head-up 30° showed the peak coronary perfusion pressure.

Yongjoo PARK (Seoul, Korea, Republic of), Taeyum KIM, Sand Do SHIN, Kyoung Jun SONG, Dayea Beatrice JANG, Hwansun MOON, Jihyun KIM, Sung Wook SONG, Soo Jin KIM
16:40 - 18:10 #1992 - #1992 - The rate and types of complications on performing extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR).
#1992 - The rate and types of complications on performing extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR).

Introduction: Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is now becoming to be more widely implemented as an option for resuscitating cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA).  However, there are very scarce data reporting its complication rate.

Purpose: To report the rate and types of complication on performing ECPR and discuss tips to prevent such events.

Methods: Retrospective search was done on ECPR database in single tertiary hospital between April 2010 and March 2015.  Inclusion criteria for the search were out of hospital cardiac arrest and age greater than 18 years old.  An exclusion criterion was traumatic arrest.  Extensive chart review was done after extracting eligible cases and the rate and types of hazardous events complicated by ECPR was analyzed.

Result: Eighty-two cases were identified during the study period.  There were 3 cases (3.7%) of cannulation failure in which two were failure to insert cannulas and one was misplacement of cannulas, veno-venous instead of veno-arterial.  There was 1 case (1.2%) of liver injury, and 2 cases (2.4%) of vessel injury in which one lead to iatrogenic aortic dissection.  There were 3 cases (3.7%) of uncontrollable hemorrhage requiring surgical intervention.  There were 2 cases (2.4%) of lower extremity compartment syndrome.  There was no thromboembolic event.

Discussion: Although ECPR yields better survival rate compared to that of conventional CPR, there are several hazardous events that can occur during and after the procedure.  Every effort should be made to prevent hazardous event, even in knowing the fact that in this population there is minimal chance of recovery if not for ECPR.  The safest way to prevent mechanical complication during insertion of cannulas is to perform it under fluoroscopic guidance.  Ultrasound guided puncture and cannulation is also recommended to prevent posterior wall injury of the vessels and ease of hitting the vessels in the first attempt.  Uncontrollable hemorrhage is usually caused by the leak from the slit between cannula and heavily calcified vessel and need to be repaired surgically.  Lower extremity compartment syndrome can be avoided by placing a bypass line to superficial femoral artery distal to the cannula insertion site via arterial ECMO circuit.  Full anticoagulation is necessary to prevent thromboembolic event.

Conclusion: The overall complication rate of ECPR was approximately 10%.  Some of these complications can be avoided by knowing tips on performing ECPR.

Ryusuke MIKI, Ryusuke MIKI (Kobe, Japan), Nobuaki IGARASHI, Haruki NAKAYAMA, Akihiko INOUE, Shigenari MATSUYAMA, Tetsunori KAWASE, Satoshi ISHIHARA, Shinichi NAKAYAMA
16:40 - 18:10 #938 - #938 - Impact of early chest compression on heart rate detected by semi-automatic defibrillator during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
#938 - Impact of early chest compression on heart rate detected by semi-automatic defibrillator during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

Introduction: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest remains a public health problem worldwide. Prognosis depends on a real chain of survival. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that early chest compression (CC) by a non professional bystander could increase the rate of ventricular fibrillation (VF) when pre-hospital emergency team turn on the semi-automatic defibrillator (SAED), which is necessary for a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC).

Method: Prospective cohort observational study. Inclusion criteria were: patient over than 18 with non traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Epidemiological and electrocardiographic data were collected (first heart rate at SAED, post-shock rhythm at 5 and 60 seconds).

The primary endpoint was having a first VF when turning on the SAED used by emergency medical service personnel.  The secondary endpoints were: heart rhythm observed at 5 and 60 seconds after SAED shock, secondary FV rate, ROSC rate, rate of transport to hospital with a beating heart.

Results: The analysis involved 280 SAED traces over two 15-day periods respectively in 2012 and 2013. Median age was 69.5 [55-83] years with a predominance of males (n = 151, 53.9%). In 2012 nearly three-quarters (73.1%) of victims had a bystander, who, in one of three cases performed CC, while in 2013, half of the victims had a bystander (57.3%), who, in of two cases, performed CC. The rate of first VF was significantly higher when the bystander had previously performed CC compared to the absence of CC (OR = 8.9 [1.2-60.4], p = 0.029). This CC had no effect on immediate post SAED shock rhythm, and rather tended to develop a secondary VF (p = 0.07), and transportation with a beating heart (OR = 2.5 [0.71-8.84]. Nevertheless, CC shows a disadvantage for ROSC before arrival of the pre-hospital medical team (OR = 0.04 [0.003-0.46], p = 0.01).

Discussion: Early CC seems to maintain myocardial excitability, increasing the rate of first VF at SAED. The reduction of  ROSC reported in patients undergoing CC could be explained by a less frequent search for palpable pulse due to performing chest compressions.

Conclusion: The positive effect of a bystander should boost efforts to train the general population on CC.

 

Mylene DESROZIERS, Benoit FRATTINI, Laurence SZTULMAN (PARIS), Daniel JOST, Pascal DANG MINH, * GT CPR, Michel BIGNAND, Jean Pierre TOURTIER

Monday 12 October
Time Auditorium Agnelli Room 500 Room Londra Room Istanbul Room Madrid Room Parigi Room Roma Room Atene Room Dublino Room Lisbona
08:30
08:30-09:00
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KS1
Keynote Session 1

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Moderator: Pr Rick BODY (Professor of Emergency Medicine) (Manchester)
08:30 - 09:00 Goal directed medical education - creativity meets discipline. Victoria BRAZIL (Australia)

09:10
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State of the Art
Neurological Emergencies

State of the Art
Neurological Emergencies

Moderators: Stefano GRIFONI (Firenze, Italy), Andy JAGODA (USA)
09:10 - 09:40 Dizziness : a new evidence-based approach I. Jonathan EDLOW (USA)
09:40 - 10:10 Dizziness : a new evidence-based approach II. Jonathan EDLOW (USA)
10:10 - 10:40 Reversal of novel oral anticoagulants: what are the current options? Giancarlo AGNELLI (Perugia, Italy)

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Italy invites
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Competenze del team dell'urgenza

Moderators: Marilena CELANO (MILAN, Italy), Juricich ZORA (Italy)
09:10 - 09:30 Nuove strategie per la gestione dell'attesa. Luca GELATI (Modena, Italy)
09:30 - 09:50 Le competenze infermieristiche in area critica. Elena MANA (Pinerolo, Italy)
09:50 - 10:10 Le emergenze sociali in pronto Soccorso. Paolo MOSCATELLI (Genova, Italy)
10:10 - 10:30 Metodologie mediche non convenzionali nell'urgenza. Mario RAVAGLIA (Lugo, Italy)

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Clinical Questions: Controversies
Disaster Medicine & Biohazards

Clinical Questions: Controversies
Disaster Medicine & Biohazards

Moderators: Pr Francesco DELLA CORTE (Speaker) (Novara, Italy), Dr Abdo KHOURY (Senior attending Physician) (Besançon, France)
09:10 - 09:40 Are we prepared to face emerging diseases: The Ebola case. Laurie MAZURIK (TORONTO, Canada)
09:40 - 10:10 A multitude of volunteers in disaster response: Resource or problem? Patrick DREWS (research associate) (Stuttgart, Germany)
10:10 - 10:40 Hospital triage in mass casualty incidents: A gain or loss of time? Pr Pinchas HALPERN (department chair) (Tel Aviv, Israel, Israel)

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Moderators: Maaret CASTREN (Professor) (HELSINKI, Finland), Marc SABBE (Medical staff member) (Leuven, Belgium)
09:10 - 10:40 What is ERC? Maaret CASTREN (Professor) (HELSINKI, Finland)
09:10 - 10:40 Resuscitation academy. Maaret CASTREN (Professor) (HELSINKI, Finland)
09:10 - 10:40 Resuscitation registries. Ian MACONOCHIE (United Kingdom)
09:10 - 10:40 How long should we resuscitate? Marc SABBE (Medical staff member) (Leuven, Belgium)

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Administration / Management
Women in Emergency Medicine

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09:10 - 09:20 Introduction. Dr Barbara HOGAN (Past President of the European Society for Emergency Medicine, EuSEM) (HAMBURG, Germany)
09:20 - 09:45 Women leaders in EM. Judith TINTINALLI (Professor) (Chapel Hill NC, USA)
09:45 - 10:15 Computer-aided female intuition. Tiziana MARGARIA STEFFEN (Ireland)
10:15 - 10:40 The politics of managing emergency departments. Clara WU (N.T., Hong Kong)

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Sim Wars

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Moderators: Pier Luigi INGRASSIA (Novara, Italy), François LECOMTE (PH) (Paris, France)
Coordinators: Dr Abdo KHOURY (Senior attending Physician) (Besançon, France), Youri YORDANOV (Médecin) (Paris, France)

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Paediatric Track
Paediatric Biomarkers and Vital Signs

Paediatric Track
Paediatric Biomarkers and Vital Signs

Moderators: Ian MACONOCHIE (United Kingdom), Pr Yehezkel WAISMAN (Director, Dept. of Emergency Medicine) (Petach-Tikva, Israel)
09:10 - 09:40 Are biomarkers useful in the management in children with fever at the ED? Alain GERVAIX (Geneva, Switzerland)
09:40 - 10:10 The value of routine vital signs in children at the Emergency Department. Henriette MOLL (paediatrician) (rotterdam, The Netherlands)
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OP1-21
Oral Paper 1
Cardiovascular Emergencies II

Oral Paper 1
Cardiovascular Emergencies II

Moderators: Veli Pekka HARJOLA (Head of Department) (Helsinki, Finland), Timothy HUDSON RAINER (Cardiff, United Kingdom)
09:10 - 10:40 #1081 - #1081 - Revascularization strategy for acute coronary syndrome with ST-segment elevation: accessibility to angiography room and mortality.
#1081 - Revascularization strategy for acute coronary syndrome with ST-segment elevation: accessibility to angiography room and mortality.

Introduction: European Society of Cardiology advocate the period and management of coronary reperfusion, primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) or thrombolysis, according to the interval between the beginning of chest pain (symptoms onset) and the first medical contact (CP-FMC) and the availability of pPCI. The objective of the study was to investigate the mortality of acute coronary syndromes with ST-segment elevation (STEMI) according to the recommended time and availability of pPCI.

Materials and methods: Data collected on a regional level through a retrospective study managed by 8 out-of-hospital emergency medical services (EMS) and 40 mobile intensive care units (MICU). Inclusion criteria: data collected from 2003 to 2013, all uncomplicated STEMI with symptom onset < 12h, with a pre-hospital decision taken for direct pPCI, arriving alive at the hospital. The area was divided into three concentric zones: city, inner and outer suburb. Availability of PCI was defined as the concentration of cath lab per 100 km2. Time intervals were defined in three categories according to the guidelines: target time (pPCI < 60min if CP-FMC < 2h or < 90min if CP-FMC between 2h-12h), reasonable time (pPCI between 60 and 120 min if CP-FMC < 2h or between 90 and 120 min if CP-FMC between 2h-12h) and out of time in the other cases. Chi-2 test was used for testing the trends, statistical significance p < 0.05.

Results: Data on 10,210 patients were recorded in 10 years, 2,454 (24%) received thrombolysis and 7,756 (76%) pPCI. Availability of PCI was 9.5 per 100km² in city, 2 in inner suburb and 0.1 in outer suburb. A significant increase of out of time PCI was found when access to PCI decreased (city 6% < inner suburb 9% < outer suburb 14%). Time delay to PCI were in target time for 16% (n=1,619), in reasonable time for 49% (n=5,026) and out of time for 11% (n=1,111). Mortality was significantly (p<0.0001) related to increased reperfusion period: in “target time” mortality was 1.8% (n=28), in “reasonable time” 1.9% (n=94) and in “out of time” 4.3% (n=46). Data were missing or uninterpretable in 3% of cases.

Discussion: Management of STEMI reperfusion is in target time for 16% of patients and 65% within acceptable time. PPCI-related “out of time” delay increased when availability of pPCI decreased. The clinical impact of non-compliance with time intervals is a major significant increase in mortality. These objectives legitimized by international guidelines must be implemented and respected.

Laurent REBILLARD, Alexandre ALLONNEAU, Hugues LEFORT (Metz), Lionel LAMHAUT, Aurélie LOYEAU, Sophie BATAILLE, François-Xavier LABORNE, Amandine ABRIAT, Yves LAMBERT, Jean-Michel JULIARD, Frédéric LAPOSTOLLE
09:10 - 10:40 #1116 - #1116 - Is the management of ST–segment elevation myocardial infarction in patient aged over 80 optimal?
#1116 - Is the management of ST–segment elevation myocardial infarction in patient aged over 80 optimal?

Introduction : The Acute Coronary Syndrome with ST- segment elevation (STEMI) is a priority in emergency medicine. Do patients >= 80 years benefit from a management comparable to that of younger patients?

Objectives: Compare the characteristics of management of STEMI patients >= 80 years and

Methods: Data are derived from a prospective registry that lists all STEMI managed within 24 hours by 8 out-of-hospital emergency medical services (SAMU) and 40 mobile intensive care units (MICU) in a region of France. Secondary transfers were excluded from the analysis. Statistical analysis: Chi-2 test and Wilcoxon test were used. Multivariate analysis with reference group patients over 80 years old.

Results: 18,093 STEMI were included from 2003 to 2013 with 2,502 (14%) being >= 80 years. The proportion of elderly patients is stable since 2003. There was a majority of women (51% were over 80 years). The call to SAMU is delayed after the beginning of pain, since this call is made on average after 93 minutes for those aged over 80 as opposed to 57 minutes. Given these delays, the occurrence of at least one criterion of gravity was more common in those aged more than 80 years (29% against 18% in those aged less than 80 years). During the treatment, the decision of an unclogging was less frequent in patients >= 80 years of age 83% against 97% in patients aged less than 80 years, but when the decision was taken to unclog, primary angioplasty was carried out similarly in both groups. After adjusting for sex, age < 80 years remains an independent criterion for decision-making of an unclogging (OR = 3.5 [3.1 to 4.0], p <0.0001). Pre-hospital mortality was therefore greater for those above 80 years (1.3% against 0.5%), similarly, in-hospital mortality (15.7% against 3.8% in those under 80 years).

Discussion: The management of STEMI patients >= 80 years was associated with less reperfusion decisions than in younger people. However, to call to SAMU allowed to take the decision of unclogging in 83% of cases. The lack of decision-making certainly contributes to the excess mortality among those aged >= 80 years.

Julian MORO, Isabelle KLEIN, Hugues LEFORT (Metz), Sophie BATAILLE, Aurélie LOYEAU, François-Xavier LABORNE, Yann-Laurent VIOLIN, François DUPAS, Yves LAMBERT, Thévy BOCHE, Jean-Michel JULIARD
09:10 - 10:40 #1148 - #1148 - Pulmonary and venous ultrasonography improve the diagnostic accuracy of the Wells score in patients with pulmonary embolism.
#1148 - Pulmonary and venous ultrasonography improve the diagnostic accuracy of the Wells score in patients with pulmonary embolism.

Objective

Pulmonary embolism (PE) has a heterogeneous clinical presentation and international guidelines recommend the use of validated clinical scores to estimate the pre-test probability of PE. Recently, point-of-care ultrasonography has been widely used, proving to be accurate and useful in the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and of many acute pulmonary pathologies. The aim of this multicentric prospective study is to compare the diagnostic accuracy of a clinical-ultrasonographic score (US-WS) with a clinical score as Wells score (WS).

Methods

We calculated the dichotomized WS (“PE likely” if >4 points, “PE unlikely” if ≤4) in consecutive adult patients suspected of PE presenting to four italian hospitals. In each patient lung and venous ultrasonography were performed by a physician blinded to clinical data. The US-WS differs from traditional WS in the following items: “signs and symptoms of DVT”, replaced by “evidence of DVT at venous lower limbs ultrasonography” and ”alternative diagnosis less likely than PE” replaced by ”alternative diagnosis less likely than PE after lung ultrasonography”. The last item was considered positive in presence of at least one subpleural infarct; in absence of lung infarcts and in case of an alternative echographic diagnosis such as pneumonia, pleural effusion or diffuse interstitial syndrome, the item was considered negative. Finally, in case of a normal lung US examination, the item had the same point assigned to the same item in the WS. Final diagnosis of was obtained by multidetector CT pulmonary angiography or when not feasible by lung scintigraphy and a 30 days clinical follow-up.

Results

Among the 339 enrolled patients, PE was finally diagnosed in 96 (28.3%). Two-hundred (59%) patients had a WS ≤4, and among them PE was present in 41 (20.5%). In the 139 patients (41%) with WS >4, PE was diagnosed in 55 (39.6%).  Lung and venous ultrasonography was performed in 7±3 minutes. US-WS was ≤4 in 247 patients (72.9%, p<0.05 vs WS), of which 30 (12.1%) had PE as final diagnosis. In the 92 patients with US-WS >4 (27.1%, p<0.05 vs WS), 66 (71.7%, p<0.05 vs WS) had PE as final diagnosis. US-WS reallocated 85 patient (25.1%), moving 66 patients from PE likely to PE unlikely (only 7 had PE) and 19 patients from PE unlikely to PE likely (18 had PE). Sensitivity (68.8%, 95% CI 58.5-77.8) and specificity (89.3%, 95%CI 84.7-92.9) of US-WS where significantly superior to sensitivity (57.3%, 95%CI 46.8-67.3) and specificity (65.4%, 95%CI 59.1-71.4) of Wells score (p<0.05 for both). The area under the curve of US-WS (86.6%, 95% CI 81.9-91.4) was significantly superior to that of WS (64.5%, 95% CI 57.7-71.2)  (p<0.05).

 Conclusion

The US-WS is rapidly feasible at the bedside, increases the proportion of low-risk patients with a better global accuracy compared to traditional WS.

Peiman NAZERIAN, Marco VITTORINI (Firenze, Italy), Chiara GIGLI, Emanuela GAMBETTA, Francesco Giuseppe SFERLAZZA, Baioni MICHELE, Valentina SALVATORI, Andrea NENCIONI, Simone VANNI, Stefano GRIFONI
09:10 - 10:40 #1260 - #1260 - Impact of off-hour presentation on process performances and outcomes in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.
#1260 - Impact of off-hour presentation on process performances and outcomes in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

Background: Several studies examined the impact of off-hour presentation (cath lab staff available on call) on both the processing time of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and the resulting outcomes. There is general agreement in the literature with regard to the importance of the processing timing of the patients, although data regarding increase in mortality as a function of processing timing are conflicting.

Objective: To evaluate the association between off-hour presentation, door-to-balloon time (D2B), first medical contact-to-device (FMC2D), total ischemic time (TIT) and in-hospital and 30 day mortality in patients with STEMI.

Methods and results: Through a retrospective analysis, we examined the medical records of patients admitted for STEMI documented within 12 hours from symptoms onset, who underwent an emergency PCI in a hub hospital in the period spanning from 01/01/11 to 12/31/14.

A total of 525 patients were included in the study; 352 of them (67%) reached to hospital in a moment of inactivity of the cath-lab (off-hour) with all or part of the staff not physically present, while 173 (33%) presented themselves during the hours of service of the cath-lab (on -hour).

The two groups were homogeneous for sex, age ≥75 years, cardiogenic shock, and bradycardia. The delay in seeking relief was similar in the two groups, significant differences emerged with regard to D2B, FMC2D and TIT; patients who arrived during off-hours showed longer D2B (median 65 'vs. 49', p<0.001), FMC2D (median 95.5 'vs 84 ', p<0.001): reperfusion was achieved less frequently in a time interval consistent with guidelines (≤ 90% FMC2D': 45.5% vs 56.2%, p=0.036, OR 0.65, 95 % CI 0.43 to 0.97); TIT was similar in the two groups (median 200 'vs 185', p=0.348).

These differences in time of reperfusion are confirmed after adjustment for age, sex, and access modality (emergency service vs self-presentation).

The in-hospital mortality was higher in patients presenting during off-hours (7.1% vs 2.3%, p=0.024, OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.11 to 9.46): 30 day mortality was also different although it did not reach the statistical significance (7.7% vs 3.4%, p=0.06, OR 2.33, 95% CI 0.94 to 5.74).

Conclusions: In our working setting patients with STEMI presenting during off-hours had revascularization times significantly higher: this data are associated with a significantly higher in-hospital mortality. These data highlight the need of improving the cath-labs organization as well as rationalize the allocation of resources in order to ensure adequate revascularization times to all patients with STEMI to improve significantly both clinical outcomes and survival.

Giovanni PERALTA (QUARTU SANT ELENA, Italy), Nicola GLORIOSO, Fabrizio POLO, Umberto PISANO, Maurizio PORCU
09:10 - 10:40 #1269 - #1269 - Initial elevated blood glucose in acute heart failure syndrome: a prognostic factor.
#1269 - Initial elevated blood glucose in acute heart failure syndrome: a prognostic factor.

Background: Several biological prognostic indicators were analyzed in the acute heart failure syndrome (SICA) such as: hemoglobin, serum sodium, troponin levels…Initial hyperglycemia appears among these prognostic indicators (1).

Purpose: The objective of this work was to investigate the prognostic impact of the initial elevated blood glucose on mortality among patients with SICA admitted to the emergency department.

 Participants and methods: We conducted a single- center, prospective, observational study. Inclusion of patients with SICA. Standardization of treatment according to clinical scenario (CS). Hyperglycemia was defined as:

- Diabetic known patient or unknown but with HbA1C ≥ 6.5%:  hyperglycemia if glucose level ≥ 11mmol /L.

- No diabetes with HbA1C < 6.5%: hyperglycemia if glucose level ≥ 7mmol /L.

Results: One hundred eighty patients were included. Mean age= 66 ± 11 years [22-94]. Sex ratio= 1.27. Clinical history N (%): Hypertension 147 (81.7), known diabetes 124 (68.9). The distribution by clinical scenario N (%)   : CS1: 121 (67.2), CS2: 14 (7.8), CS4: 44 (24.4), and CS5: 1 (0.6). Twenty three patients had an HbA1C test which allowed tracking 8 unrecognized diabetes (HbA1C ≥ 6.5%). Average blood glucose concentration at admission was 15.65± 8.4 mmol/L [3.3 - 44]. The initial hyperglycemia was noted in 128 patients (71. 1%): 96 diabetic, 32 without diabetes. Overall 21 patients (11, 7%) died during 30 days of follow-up, 24 patients (13, 3%) died during 90 days of follow up. Mortality at one month was significantly elevated in patients with initial hyperglycemia [14, 8% (n= 19) vs 3, 8% (n=2); p = 0,041]. The same difference was demonstrated at 90 days follow –up [17,1% (n=22) vs 3,8 % (n =2 ); p = 0,016).

Conclusion: Elevated blood glucose concentrations at presentation are associated with one month and  three months mortality in acute heart failure syndrome admitted in emergency department.

 

(1): Mebazaa  and al . J Am Coll Cardiol 2013; xx: 1-10

 

Hela MANAI (Tunis, Tunisia), Sarra JOUINI, Kehna BOUZID GHOZZI, Dorra CHTOUROU, Rym HAMED, Imene BOUKHALFA, Khaled SAIDI, Bechir BOUHAJJA

09:10-10:40
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OP2-21
Oral Paper 2
Pain Management I

Oral Paper 2
Pain Management I

Moderators: Andrea FABBRI (Chief of Emergency Unit) (Forli, Italy), Sabine LEMOYNE (Clinical Head-Operational Lead) (Antwerp, Belgium)
09:10 - 10:40 #1150 - #1150 - Femoral block with dexmedtomidine reduces postoperative opioid requirement in femoral shaft fracture.
#1150 - Femoral block with dexmedtomidine reduces postoperative opioid requirement in femoral shaft fracture.

Dexmedetomidin is a novel selective α-2 adrenoreceptor agonist with anxiolytic, sedative and analgesic properties that prolongs analgesia and decreases opioid related side effects when used in perineural as a local anesthetics adjuvant. The goal of this study was to test whether it has any effect on pain intensity and opioid requirements when injected perineurally alone.This prospective and double-blind study was conducted in 60 American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) class I–II patients undergoing femoral fracture shafts surgery. Based on block permuted randomization, the patients were randomly divided into two groups: D and C, with and without PNB respectively.In the group D ,dexmedtomidine 100 µg, was injected to surround the femoral nerve completely using US guidance. In both groups total postoperative opioid consumption,visual analogue score (VAS) for pain were compared. There was a significant different in postoperative narcotic required in the group D in comparison to the group C. No significant adverse effects were encountered among groups. The mean VAS scores showed a significant different immediately postoperatively and at6,12and 24 hours postoperatively in the group D in comparison to the group C (< 0.05)For overall patient satisfaction, patients in the group D reported significantly higher mean satisfaction scores than those in the group C .In conclusion perineural administration of dexmedtomidine significantly decreased postoperative pain intensity in the patients undergoing femoral surgery.

 

 

 

 

 

Elham MEMARY (Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran), Alireza MIRKHESHTI, Sadegh SHIRIAN, Ali ARHAMI, Aida KHADEMPOUR
09:10 - 10:40 #1283 - #1283 - Acute renal colic: appropriate clinical management in the emergency department ?
#1283 - Acute renal colic: appropriate clinical management in the emergency department ?

INTRODUCTION: acute renal colic (ARC) represents one of the most common causes of abdominal-lumbar pains (2.9%), and nontraumatic diagnosis (1.5 %) of emergency medical conditions. But ARC heterogenic management and inadequate analgesia are frequents. The goals of this study were (1) to evaluate emergency department (ED) practices concerning the use of analgesic drugs for optimal pain control or relief, urine diagnostic tests, and medical imaging techniques in patients with ARC; and (2) to compare this clinical assessment with national recommendations. METHODS: we performed a retrospective study of patients admitted in the ED from January 2012 to December 2013 with a final diagnosis of acute renal colic. RESULTS: during this period 440 ARC in 317patients were enrolled, of whom 213 men (71%), with an average age of 39 years. Sixty-five patients (20.5%) developed ARC recurrence (a total of 123 times) during this period. Concerning the pain intensity, 83% of patients had a score ≥ 5 on admission, using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS: 0-10) or the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS: 0-10). The meantime to pain acute care was 1 hour; but it was < 45 minutes if pain score ≥ 6. Paracetamol was the most commonly used drug for pain relief. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), especially ketoprofen, were prescribed in 49.5% of patients. Morphine as the first choice of strong painkillers was used in only 18% of patients with pain score ≥ 8 on admission, but in 27% of them with score= 10. A NSAIDs-morphine combination therapy was prescribed as first-line drugs of choice in only 11 patients. A urine dipstick test for hematuria was negative in 20.5% of cases. A urine culture was performed in 89% of cases with positive urine dipstick test for white blood cells and/or nitrites: only 16% of them were positives. In spite of the absence of severity criteria, 73% of patients with first-episode ARC had at least one ED imaging test: sonography (42% of patients; ureteric calculi detection: 22%); noncontrast abdominal computed tomography (47%; ureteric calculi detection: 73%). Hospitalization was indicated for 74% of patients with ARC severity criteria. DISCUSSION: the application rate of ARC national recommendations was superior to 80% for almost of them. On the contrary, this rate was inferior to 70% concerning the prescription of NSAIDs (54%) and morphine (36%), and imaging indication in young people. CONCLUSION: The first priority in ARC is to ensure quick and effective relief of pain, but progress still has to be made on this matter. The respect of recommendations would improve the ARC management and diagnosis, and reduce costs and ED stay delay, critical challenges in emergency medicine. 

Paul GAYOL (Strasbourg), Samuel OUDINECHE, Eric BAYLE, Fadi KHALIL, Manana POTOCNIK, Cecile ROUSSEAU, Ruxandra COJOCARU, Benjamin LEHR, Pascal BILBAULT
09:10 - 10:40 #1408 - #1408 - Effect of local Ketamine added to Lidocaine gel on perceived pain of men during urethral catheterization.
#1408 - Effect of local Ketamine added to Lidocaine gel on perceived pain of men during urethral catheterization.

Background and Objectives

Inserting foley catheter in male urethra is one of most annoying procedures in the emergency departments. Although most of the physicians use Lidocaine gel for alleviating pain and discomfort of this procedure, there are numerous of patients who need foley catheter complaining of its pain and discomfort

This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of local ketamine along with Lidocaine gel for instillation in the male urethra for easiness of urethral catheterization, as compared with using Lidocaine gel alone.

Method

A total of seventy four male patients who were scheduled to undergo urethral catheterization were randomly assigned to receive either 10mL of 2% Lidocaine gel mixed with 1mL normal saline (Lidocaine only group), or 10mL of 2% Lidocaine gel combined with 1mL Ketamine (50mg) (Lidocaine plus Ketamine group). Up to 8 mL of prepared mixture instilled directly into the urethra. Three minutes later by using sterile and standard technique and lubricating the appropriate catheter with whatever remained from the mixture, procedure was done

Baseline characteristics and hemodynamic variables of all patients including pulse rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure were measured before and after insertion of Foley catheter. Level of pain perception of patients at the baseline and after every procedure in both groups was recorded by using the numeric rating scale (from Zero to 10).

Result

There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics and hemodynamic changes between two groups of the patients, before and after the procedure. Although pain of urethral catheterization of “Lidocaine only” group were at tolerable level (NRS= 3.8), it was significantly decreased in “Lidocaine plus Ketamine” group (NRS=1.4)

Conclusion

Instillation of Lidocaine gel in conjunction with Ketamine locally in the urethra could decrease perceived pain and would make men undergoing urethral catheterization more comfortable during the procedure. 

Amir NEJATI, Pegah LOTFABADI (Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran), Behtash KHANIABAD
09:10 - 10:40 #1413 - #1413 - Evaluation of pain management for adult sickle cell patients in a emergency department.
#1413 - Evaluation of pain management for adult sickle cell patients in a emergency department.

Background: Pain is the main cause of presentation in an emergency department (ED) for patients with sickle cell disease. Due to the atypical presentation of those patients and the high doses of opioids needed to treat them, they are often misunderstood, under evaluated and under treated by the staff. For all those reasons we have written, in collaboration with the hematology department, a protocol including hyper-hydration and high dose of morphine.

Aims: The primary objectives were to evaluate  the management of those patients and the adequacy of this treatment with the written protocol and the pain score defined by the use of an analogic visual scale(AVS) by the patients and by the nurses. The secondary endpoints were an evaluation of the satisfaction of the patients with a questionnaire, measuring an estimated time by the patients between the first contact and the administration of the first dose of analgesic drugs and finally the total dose of opioid given.

Methods: In partnership with the department of hematology, we realized an observational prospective monocentric study, after submission to the ethical committee, concerning the treatment of adult sickle cell disease patients in our ED. This study was performed during two years (from February 2013 until February 2015) . Informed consent was obtained previously during routine visit or in the emergency department when the patients were admitted for vaso-occlusive crisis. Both nurses and patients realized a pain evaluation on admission, with AVS, and the treatment was started using the written protocol. Before leaving the ED, patients received a satisfaction questionnaire  to evaluate their degree of satisfaction. The questionnaire was graded from 1 (very bad) to 5 (very good).

Results: During this period, we registered 70679 consultations in our ED, where we recruited 104 observations (0.15%), reparsed on 51 patients. Mean waiting time was 18,6 minutes between first contact and first dose of analgesic drugs, but the received doses of morphine were significantly lower than those recommend on our protocol. The mean satisfaction score of patient was 3,8.

Discussion: Due to the presence of a protocol, we have noticed that the ED staff was more attentive and reactive to sickle cell disease patients, with a quick evaluation of the pain and a short delay between the first contact and the first dose of analgesic drugs. We also noticed a respect of the hydration program, but an underutilization of opioids,  despite the presence of a specific protocol. However, we obtained a good global satisfaction of the patients concerning their management.

Conclusion: Despite the presence of a specific protocol, we can observe that the management of vaso-occlusive crisis is quite difficult and depends on the partiality of the staff in pain evaluation and the fear to entertain a opioid addiction by those patients. The presence of a written protocol is nevertheless a good point to sensibilize the team about this quite rare affection and formations given to the staff about this rare pathology help to improve the satisfaction of the patients.

My Quyen TRAN THI, Marie Agnes AZERAD, Sana BELHAJ, Coralie CHAN, Blanche DOHET, Dr Thierry PRESEAU (Brussels, Belgium)
09:10 - 10:40 #1830 - #1830 - How to improve documentation of pain management.
#1830 - How to improve documentation of pain management.

 

RN Helle Ipsen, RN Christina Ørsted Rasmussen, RN Marianne Barylak. Emergency Department the Hospital of Nykobing Falster,

Introduction and purpose

Pain is a frequent cause leading to admission in the Emergency Department (ED,) and pain relief has importance for patient satisfaction. Surveys have shown that patient satisfaction is high, but audits in patient’s journals didn´t reflect this. Therefore, we have studied the gap between patient satisfaction, staff performance and documentation of pain management, to find the basic reason for the disagreement, which have led us to develop and implement a local guideline. The hypothesis was that the documentation only described a minor part of the efforts to treat the patient`s pain, and an altered approach to documentation of pain management would embrace the clinical efforts, and be shown in the patient files.

 

Materials and methodology

A validated semi structured questionnaire of ED nurses experience and attitude to pain management and their documentation is compared to patient satisfaction. A regional standard demands that all patients with a score > 3 on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) have a documented plan and follow up of the effectiveness of treatment. Baseline data are results from the national investigation of patient satisfaction and standardized audit on the use of VAS in 77 cases. In the study, 20 nurses from the ED working 2 consecutive days had a questionnaire with 11 questions about how they document and perform pain treatment, and their experience of the barriers to follow the regional standards. In parallel, 20 acute patients were interviewed, and afterwards the documentation of their pain treatment was analyzed. After implementing a local guideline for pain management a follow up audit was carried out. Results are analysed with a mixed qualitative and quantitative analysis and presented as tables. 

 

Results

Baseline data: 82-87% of the patients in the ED are satisfied with the pain management, and audit shows that 85% of all patients (n=77) have been asked about pain at arrival to the ED.  Of 20 patients with a VAS > 3, audit showed less than 15% of the files contained a plan and follow up procedures for pain treatment. The nurses express a holistic approach to pain treatment using medication as well as non-pharmaceutical skills, but they experience lack of time, uncertainty about their skills in pain management and weak IT support as the main course of their insufficient documentation. Giving the nurses new opportunities to manage the patient’s pain at arrival, and instructions to use the available IT system in an easier way, the quality of documentation of pain management and follow up of the effectiveness of treatment are improved from 15% to 90%.

 

Conclusion

The study shows that the procedures nurses use to give pain relief might have importance for the patient satisfaction, although it is not demonstrated in their documentation. Giving the nurses policy options for pain management and demonstrating how to use the IT system in a simple way, can reduce the gap between documentation and the performed clinical skills.

Helle IPSEN (Nykøbing F., Denmark), Christina ØRSTED RASMUSSEN, Marianne BARYLAK
09:10 - 10:40 #1990 - #1990 - Comparison of topical lidocaine and ketamine in reducing nasogastric tube insertion pain: a double blinded randomized clinical trial.
#1990 - Comparison of topical lidocaine and ketamine in reducing nasogastric tube insertion pain: a double blinded randomized clinical trial.

Introduction: Nasogastric tube insertion is one of the routine and painful procedures in emergency department. Lidocaine gel is routinely used for analgesia before nasogastric tube insertion. There are growing evidences on local effect of sub anesthesia doses of ketamine in reducing procedures pain without developing systemic effects. This study was designed and performed for comparison of routine nasogastric tube insertion with lidocaine and nasogastric tube insertion using ketamine.

Methods: This prospective double blinded randomized clinical trial was performed on emergency department's patients who were above 18 and without serious concurrent disease. Patients were divided into two groups. We administered 3ml (50mg) intranasal ketamine 5minutes before nasogastric tube insertion in one group and other group patients just received 3ml of distilled water in the same way. Nasogastric tube insertion was done by using lubricant gel in former and lidocaine 2% gel in latter group.

Results: Seventy four patients were enrolled in the study (equally distributed). There were not any significant differences between demographic data in two groups. Pain was significantly lower in ketamine group (visual analogue scale: 38.162 ± 8.398 vs. 57.417 ± 11.193); however there was not any significant difference on difficulty of tube insertion (mean 5 point Likert scale: 2.879 ± 0.451 vs. 2.680 ± 0.500). Complications were nearly same in two groups.

Conclusion: Nasogastric tube insertion using intranasal ketamine produces less pain than using intranasal lidocaine. Ketamine is a safe drug for nasogastric tube insertion in patients without serious concurrent illness. However, nasogastric tube insertion using ketamine is no way easier than insertion using lidocaine.

Arash SAFAIE (Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran), Amir NEJATI, Reza SHARIAT MOHARARI, Ali ARDALAN, Seyedeh Roghieh LARIMI
09:10 - 10:40 #914 - #914 - Oral ketamine versus oral midazolam for sedation of children during laceration repair.
#914 - Oral ketamine versus oral midazolam for sedation of children during laceration repair.

Background: Children referred to the pediatric emergency department  for suturing a laceration often require sedation in order to lower anxiety and  pain and to induce amnesia.

Objective: To assess the efficacy of oral Ketamine vs oral Midazolam for sedation in laceration repair at the pediatric emergency department

Methods: Children aged 1-10 years with  laceration requiring suturing were recruited at the pediatric emergency department. After obtaining consent from the legal guardian, children were randomly assigned using a computer-generated sequence to one of two groups. One group was treated with oral ketamine 5 mg/kg (maximal dose 70 mg)  and the other was treated with oral midazolam 0.7mg/kg (maximal dose 20 mg). Parents and investigators were blinded to randomization until statistical analysis of the study was completed.

Main outcome measures were level of pain during local anesthesia, as assessed by VAS (visual analog scale) by the parent, and the number of children who failed oral  sedation. Secondary outcomes were VAS by investigator, level of sedation using the UMSS (University of Michigan Sedation Scale), parents and physician satisfaction, length of stay and adverse effects.

The analysis of the data was done by intention to treat and per protocol. Groups were compared  by t-test or Mann Whitney for continuous variables and by Fisher exact test  for categorical variables. The estimated sample size was 26 children in each group.

Results: Eighty six eligible patients were approached and  68 children were recruited. Thirty seven children were allocated for treatment with Ketamine and 31 for Midazolam. Mean age was 5.6 + 2.1 years in children treated with ketamine and 4.5 + 2.1 years in children treated with midazolam (mean difference 1.1, 95% CI 0.05 to 2.1).There were no other differences between groups in the demographic characteristics. Failure to achieve adequate sedation was more common among children treated with ketamine. Twelve (32% ) of the children treated with ketamine required IV sedation compared with only two children (6%) of the children treated with midazolam (p=0.014). Twenty five children treated with ketamine and 29 children treated with midazolam completed the study. VAS by a parent during local anesthesia was 4.8 +3.3  in children treated with ketamine and 3.8 +3 in children treated with midazolam (mean difference 0.96, 95% CI -0.74 to 2.67). Average UMSS in children treated with ketamine and midazolam was  1.6+0.84 and 1.7+0.65  respectively. Average recovery time was 105.08+29.09 minutes in children treated with midazolam  and 98.78+30.63 in children treated with ketamine. There was no significant difference between groups in the physician satisfaction from the procedure  as assessed on VAS.  No serious adverse effects were noted.

Conclusions: In children requiring sedation for laceration repair treatment with 5mg/kg of oral ketamine compared with 0.7mg/kg of oral midazolam resulted in higher proportion of sedation failure. In the doses tested, oral midazolam provide better sedation.

Orit RUBINSTEIN, Shiri BARKAN, Rachel BRITEBRAT, Sofi BERKOVITCH, Michal TOLEDANO, Natali KARADI, Anat NASSI, Eran KOZER (Zerifin, Israel)

11:10
11:10-12:40
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A22
State of the Art
Pulmonary Emergencies

State of the Art
Pulmonary Emergencies

Moderators: Barbra BACKUS (Emergency Physician) (Rotterdam, The Netherlands), Said LARIBI (PU-PH, chef de pôle) (Tours, France)
11:10 - 11:40 Assessment of suspected venous thromboembolism in 2015. Franck VERSCHUREN (MD, PhD) (Brussels, Belgium)
11:40 - 12:10 V&A in the ED: A blood gas masterclass. Anne-Maree KELLY (PHYSICIAN) (Melbourne, Australia)
12:10 - 12:40 Non-invasive ventilation in the ED. Roberto COSENTINI (Head of Emergency Medicine) (BERGAMO, Italy)

11:10-12:40
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B22
Italy invites
La Sofferenza in pronto Soccorso

Italy invites
La Sofferenza in pronto Soccorso

Moderators: Agostino GERACI (Italy), Mario GUARINO (NAPLES, Italy)
11:10 - 11:30 Il dolore acuto in pronto Soccorso: riusciremo a gestirlo adeguatamente? Fabio DE IACO (Chief) (Imperia, Italy)
11:30 - 11:50 Il dolore nel fine vita: progetto SIMEU per le cure palliative. Alessio BERTINI (Pisa, Italy)
11:50 - 12:10 Comunicare le cattive notizie: il contenimento della sofferenza. Roberto RECUPERO (Cirie, Italy)
12:10 - 12:30 La cura del "dolore" : quali ripercussioni sull' equipe di PS ? Carla OLIVETTI (Italy)

11:10-12:40
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C22
Clinical Questions: Controversies
Neurological Emergencies

Clinical Questions: Controversies
Neurological Emergencies

Moderators: Giancarlo AGNELLI (Perugia, Italy), Martin WIESE (Consultant) (Leicester, United Kingdom)
11:10 - 11:40 How and where should TIA patients be evaluated? Andy JAGODA (USA)
838:5 - 12:10 Which patients with acute headache should be imaged? Vincent BOUNES (CHEF DE SERVICE) (Toulouse, France)
12:10 - 12:40 Which patients with back pain need emergent MRI? Jonathan EDLOW (USA)

11:10-12:40
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E22
Research
Cardiovascular Emergencies

Research
Cardiovascular Emergencies

Moderators: Pr Rick BODY (Professor of Emergency Medicine) (Manchester), Eric REVUE (Chef de Service) (Paris, France)
11:10 - 11:40 Do we need another hero? Tomorrow's cardiac biomarkers. Pr Rick BODY (Professor of Emergency Medicine) (Manchester)
11:40 - 12:10 Aortic Catastrophes. Rob ROGERS (USA)
12:10 - 12:40 Advances in the pre-hospital diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes. Jacob SORENSEN (Denmark)

11:10-12:40
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F22
YEDM
Sim Wars

YEDM
Sim Wars

Moderators: Pier Luigi INGRASSIA (Novara, Italy), François LECOMTE (PH) (Paris, France)
Coordinators: Dr Abdo KHOURY (Senior attending Physician) (Besançon, France), Youri YORDANOV (Médecin) (Paris, France)

11:10-12:40
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G22
Paediatric Track
Paediatric Infectious Disease

Paediatric Track
Paediatric Infectious Disease

Moderators: Ian MACONOCHIE (United Kingdom), Pr Yehezkel WAISMAN (Director, Dept. of Emergency Medicine) (Petach-Tikva, Israel)
11:10 - 11:40 Paediatric Infectious Disease. Javier BENITO FERNANDEZ (DIRECTOR) (BILBAO, Spain)
11:40 - 12:10 Sport and Exercise Medicine in the Paediatric ED. Dr Thomas BEATTIE (Senior lecturer) (Edinburgh)
12:10 - 12:40 Panel discussion.

11:10-12:40
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OP1-22
Oral Paper 1
Management / ED Organisation I

Oral Paper 1
Management / ED Organisation I

Moderators: Lars Petter BJORNSEN (Emergency Physician) (Trondheim, Norway), Susan ROBINSON (Doctor) (Cambridge, United Kingdom)
11:10 - 12:40 #1107 - #1107 - An experienced nurse as Flow Processing Manager in the Emergency Department to overcome overcrowding-related risks.
#1107 - An experienced nurse as Flow Processing Manager in the Emergency Department to overcome overcrowding-related risks.

INTRODUCTION / BACKGROUND

Emergency Departments (EDs) are struggling with crowding and its associated morbidity, mortality, and decreased patient and health-care worker satisfaction

In an era of ED overcrowding, an efficient triage system is essential because it allows the emergency team to treat patients according to the urgency of their condition

 

AIMS, MATERIALS / METHODS

A triage liaison provider may be a way to improve ED throughput, when additional staff resources are available, in an effort to improve patient satisfaction, decrease waiting time (WT), improve clinical care and decrease lost revenue from patients leaving without treatment.

A senior experienced nurse, with known both technical and non-technical skills, was added in the ED, during daily shifts (h 8-14 and 14-20) in working days, acting after the usual nurse triage protocol, and before the Medical Doctor (MD) taking charge of the patient.

His tasks, as a Flow Processing Manager (FPM), were:

- to upgrade triage evaluation process and improve throughput efficiency in a timely manner,

- to early identify time-dependent situations (by clinical or welfare conditions) and outliers,

- to redirect and address (according to the instant picture of the ED) the specific patient (according to his acuteness, frailty and complexity), to a specific route (according to the need for less or more intensive care), and to a specific MD (according to his expertise, and being more or less busy).

We performed a prospective “before and after” cohort study, in the ED of a University Teaching Hospital, from 08/4/2012 to 07/4/2013, and from 08/4/2013 to 7/4/2014, to assess the impact of FPM in terms of WT, rate of outliers, patients Left Without being Seen (LWS), and MD performances.

 

RESULTS

We compared “before” (control group) and “after” (intervention group) data (respectively):

the number of triaged patients augmented (67400 “before” versus 70922 “after”);

waiting times (media; in minutes.seconds) slightly changed depending on “triage code” (red 7.04 versus 7.02; yellow 15.32 vs 21.25, green 84.10 vs 88.07, white 88.55 vs 78.04);

total time spent in the ED (media; in minutes) dramatically changed depending on “triage code” (red 221 versus 940; yellow 988 vs 1159, green 218 vs 699, white 161 vs 177);

the number of patients admitted slightly increased (24687 versus 24759);

LWS rate decreased (1135 versus 741).

 

CONCLUSIONS

In the ED the introduction of an additional experienced nurse provider as FPM showed the ability to ameliorate patient throughput, waiting times and LWS rates, improving both safety and quality of care, even coping with the dramatic increase in length of staying due to overcrowding and shortage of beds.

ED waiting rooms are high liability areas for hospitals: opposite to trends towards overall increasing risks, the addiction of a FPM can actually reduce risks in individual patients

 

Chiara LANZARINI, Dr Rodolfo FERRARI (Bologna, Italy), Sauro CANOVI, Gianni VITALE, Mario CAVAZZA
11:10 - 12:40 #1134 - #1134 - Critically ill patients in the shock room: We must improve !
#1134 - Critically ill patients in the shock room: We must improve !

Introduction: patients in the resuscitate room (or shock room) are considered the most critically ill patients and correspond to 4-5% of vital distresses in an ED according to literature. Our main objective is to optimize its use and thus provide a better quality of care.

Materials and Methods: A retrospective comparative analysis of patients treated in the shock room during 3 years (2012-2014) in a General Hospital ED since the implementation of a 24 hours/day dedicated resuscitate Team composed by the prehospital EMT (senior Emergency Physician, nurse and nurse aide). Patients’ demographic data, diagnoses and outcomes were accessed. Comparison of patients chief complaints to Nurse and Physician Triage, analyze of Waiting Time (WT), Length of Stay (LOS).

Results: In the last 3 years among 41000 visits / year in the ED, the absolute rates of emergency room utilization rose, the rate of unstable patients demanding urgent intensive care regularly increase with a mean number of 445 patients / year (4% of all admissions) in 2014. Sex Ratio 60 Male /40 % Female. Average age 62.7 years. Most important activity on Monday 16.5% vs 11.5% on Saturday, hourly peak 11-12 AM 7.1% vs 3% 9 / 10am activity increased in winter 34.6% vs 27.5% in summer. Neuro-vascular disorders (18%) multiple trauma (15.6%) and respiratory distress 12.4% . Before their admission in the ED, 39 % of patients were managed by prehospital EMS . A majority of these patients had severe Triage level (1-2) but 52% of patients were initially in the general ED ward and not in the shock room. The LOS in the resuscitate room is 2 hours for 66% of patients and remains stable despite the increasing activity of ED visits. Patients were oriented to the intensive care unit (31%), Observation Unit (26%) or transferred (10%) in other centers.

Discussion: our study highlights essential points for the initial triage and the impact of a LOS on morbidity /mortality for critically ill patients .Optimal management of the shock room with regular training of multidisciplinary medical team to determine whether subjects need immediate admission to the shock room. Risk management precautions dictate that under no circumstances would an unstable patient remain in the open triage section of the emergency room under inferior surveillance and need to stay immediately in the shock room. A new protocol with the Triage Team is in progress to evaluate the impact on the management of the shock room.

Conclusion: management of the shock room is an important part of the treatment chain of the severely injured patients in the Emergency Department. Successful management in the resuscitate room requires a reliable and effective tailored guidelines for evaluation and decision protocol of Triage and regular evaluation of patients in the ED.

Eric REVUE, Alexandre HENNIART (Paris), Akim SADDAR, Perrine MEGRET, Delphine CASENAVE, Melinda PERCHERON
11:10 - 12:40 #1444 - #1444 - A New Model of Urgent Care Centre in the Emergency Department of the United Kingdom.
#1444 - A New Model of Urgent Care Centre in the Emergency Department of the United Kingdom.

A New Model of Urgent Care Centre in the

Emergency Departments of the United Kingdom

 

Abstract

 

Introduction:  Primary Care patients in the accident and emergency departments have been the topic of discussion since 1998 in the United Kingdom.  Numerous studies have analysed attendances retrospectively and suggest that at least one third to two thirds of patients attending the emergency department with problems which could be managed appropriately in General Practice.  The pattern of emergency department usage seems to be international.  Outside the United Kingdom in Australia and many departments in the United States include walk in facilities.  Staffed by Physicians on family practice residency programme.  It clearly appears in the United Kingdom that emergency departments have to accept that such patients with primary care problems will attend the emergency department and facilities will have to be provided to provided services to these patients. 

 

Urgent care centres were developed near the accident and emergency departments to reduce the pressure on the emergency departments.  Unfortunately this has not happened.  It has been noticed that when more patients are seen in Urgent Care Centres the number of attendances in emergency departments increase as well. 

 

Objective:  We started a new model of Urgent care centres where the urgent care centre was located in the emergency department and is staffed by a General Practitioner and a Senior Doctor in the department.

 

Method:  We studied the number of patients, type of patients and the time it took for the patients to be seen in the Urgent Care Centre. 

 

Results:  Our Urgent Care Centre has been running for the last six months and we have seen a gradual increase in the number of patients being seen from 6.89% to 46.85% now.  Most of these patients were in the category 4 and 5 according to the Manchester Triage System. 

 

Discussion:  It has been recognised that primary care patients in the Emergency Department are a major part of attendances of the Department and unless the patients are seen in Urgent Care Centres, overcrowding and long waits in the Emergency Department could not be avoided.  It has been shown that employing Primary Care Physicians in the Emergency Department reduce the costs of Emergency Departments because Primary Care Physicians do not carry out as many investigations as by the junior doctors in the Emergency Department and the number of admissions are reduced as well.

 

Conclusion:  None of the patients had to wait for more than two hours to be seen in the Urgent Care Centre and we feel that the care provided to the patients by the Urgent Care Centre is highly effective, reduces costs and is satisfying for the patient.

Mohammad ANSARI (Solihull, United Kingdom), David FOROUGHI, Ahmed ISMAIL, Aslam R TABANI, Muhammad ARFAN
11:10 - 12:40 #1482 - #1482 - The impact of ramadan on emergency department attendances in a tertiary care hospital of middle east.
#1482 - The impact of ramadan on emergency department attendances in a tertiary care hospital of middle east.

Background:

Emergency Department (ED) patient attendances have an inherent variability during certain periods of the day and month to month1. Predictability of this pattern helps in planning adequate staffing ratios and allocating resources. During the month of Fasting (Ramadan), healthy adult Muslims do not eat or drink from dawn to dusk2. During this month, in the Middle East, there is a significant change in the sleep-wake pattern of the society3.  It is not known, if these social and cultural factors affect the ED attendance pattern.

Objectives:

This is a retrospective study of ED patient attendance variability in the day and night shift during Ramadan, in a tertiary care hospital of a country with a predominantly Muslim population. This will improve understanding of patient presentation patterns and will assist managers to align resources with the patient care presentation.

Method:

The data was retrieved from the Hospital’s integrated clinical information system (ICIS). All ED visits during the Islamic calendar year of 1432 (December 7, 2010 - November 25, 2011) were included. Direct admissions to the hospital are excluded. Descriptive statistics for the continuous variables are reported as mean± standard deviation and categorical variables are summarized as frequencies and percentages. Continuous variables are compared by Student’s independent t-test or ANOVA as appropriate; while categorical variables are compared by Chi-square test. The level of statistical significance is set at p<0.05. The statistical analysis of data was done by using the software package SAS version 9.3 (Statistical Analysis System).

Result:

A total of 58,859 patients presented to ED, 33,602 (57.09%) were during the day shift (0700 to 1900 hrs.) and 25,257(42.91%) during the night shift (1901 to 0659 hrs.). A total of 50,470 patients (85.75%) were discharged home and 5,142 (8.73%) were admitted to the hospital. Average monthly patient visits during the day were 2,800 (57%) and 2,105 (42%) during the night shift. There was a statistically significant difference in the arrival time of the patients during Ramadan and the attendance pattern was reversed; 1614 (39%) patient during the day and 2,568 (61%) during the night shift (p<0.0001) (Table 1). However, there was no statistical difference in patient admissions and discharges (p>0.1).

Conclusion:

ED patient attendance pattern changed during Ramadan with greater number of patients presenting during the night. Therefore, allocation of resources in ED of tertiary care Hospitals of predominantly Muslim populations, should match the nocturnal arrival pattern of the patients.

Taimur BUTT (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia), Israr AHMED, Abdelmoneim ELDALI, Hameed Ullah KHAN
11:10 - 12:40 #1494 - #1494 - CEM books- A facebook for emergency department.
#1494 - CEM books- A facebook for emergency department.

I am Dr Anantha Nag Kadiyala, an Emergency medicine Consultant working in United Kingdom at Bradford Royal Infirmary. I would like to present this excellent software tool which would benefit Emergency departments to maintain and monitor safety. College of Emergency Medicine (CEM) books is a suite of mobile & web applications designed by NHS consultants and managers being used in emergency departments (ED) to better understand the demands on their systems, share information and make intelligent informed decisions. Users quickly enter logs and situation reports with live metrics of personalised performance indicators. These are analysed to give an overall visual status of a department and predict performance. Status and issues are escalated to key individuals able to enact immediate responses. In app access to key documents, phone numbers and web links promotes real time consistent adherence to current trust policies.

 

Features: 

1. Situation Reports: Structured assessments of your department’s key performance indicators could be quickly entered to create a comprehensive understanding of departmental status.

 

2. Handover: Capture departmental handovers in an accessible, retrievable and searchable format. It uses the Royal College approved ABCDE handover structure with added personalised features specific to the department.

 

3. Log Book: Quickly enter structured situation, background, assessment & recommendation (SBAR) logs detailing important events and interactions. This would help sharing the experiences and difficulties by the staff working in the department. These logs can be tagged to categorise and identify the themes targeting important issues.

 

4. Escalation & Sharing: Relevant Information is escalated vertically and shared horizontally across the organisation allowing team members to see and respond in real time.

 

5. Analysis: Key Performance Indicators could be visualised by hour, day, week & month. Recurrent themes could be searched by using tags. The status of the Emergency department could be divided into three categories (red, amber and green) depending on the safety. For e.g. Indicators of emergency department of Bradford Royal Infirmary are as follows.

  1. Patient Vs doctor ratio
  2. Ambulance hand over time
  3. Time to triage 
  4. Capacity of resuscitation room, paediatric, majors and minors cubicles
  5. Average time to see a patient in each area of the department 
  6. Number of senior doctors, Nursing staff
  7. Number of patients awaiting beds
  8. Specialist review time in ED

 

6. Notifications: Notifications can be sent as in app push messages, emails or text messages. Notifications could be tailored according to the personal need.

 

7. Feedback: Staff requested friends and family feedback ensures local ownership and control. Feedback is anonymously linked to staff members, teams, and live departmental performance. Paper and administration free system promotes personal, team and business values.

 

8. Rule Book: Immediate access to all relevant departmental documents. Built in governance structure to ensure only approved current guidance with clear ownership & expiration dates will be available.

 

9. Phone Book: Immediate access to all relevant departmental phone numbers. It foregoes the need for landlines and calls to switchboard operators. Personalised favourites lists could be created if necessary.

 

Anantha Nag KADIYALA (Bradford, United Kingdom), Brad WILSON
11:10 - 12:40 #1507 - #1507 - Capacity modelling of an emergency department observation unit by discrete event modelling.
#1507 - Capacity modelling of an emergency department observation unit by discrete event modelling.

April 2015 we have moved to a new emergency department (ED) with less treating positions while there is a steady increase in the yearly number of patients.  Because in the former ED we were already facing flow problems with an increasing length of stays (LOS) we decided to change policies in order to accelerate flow in the ED and between the ED and the hospital.  A previous study showed that the introduction of an observation unit (OU) could help to guarantee patient flow in the ED. Therefore a 30-bed OU is deployed in the new hospital.  The aim of this preparatory study was to estimate the required number of beds in the OU. The number of beds needed was calculated by discrete event simulation using Arena Software (Rockwell Software). The model maps the patient flow in the ED and between the ED and hospital wards like the OU. Input in the model were admission pattern, interval times for clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic ED interventions, LOS in both the ED and the hospital of a representative sample of 4734 patients, admitted to the ED between October, 1st 2012 and September, 30th 2013. The model allows to estimate the number of observational beds needed for several scenarios. In all scenarios, it was assumed that all patients first are transferred to the OU before they eventually are admitted to another hospital ward, except for 33% of the patients in need of special care  like intensive care, obstetrics, psychiatry or paediatrics. Another basic rule was a maximal LOS in the OU of 48h. In order to get a grip on the capacity range of the OU, we introduced different what-if scenarios with variability in the LOS of the ED and the OU. For the ED the values for LOS were not truncated (no maximum) or truncated at a maximum of 8h, 6h and 4h in four different scenarios. For the OU the maximal LOS was 48u but the peak of the triangle distribution of LOS was set at 24, 30 or 36h. Combination of different scenarios for the LOS at the two levels of the ED and the OU induce differences in the needed capacity of  the OU. The results of the study show that the P75 of required bed positions in the OU range between 26 (no maximal LOS in ED combined with peak LOS in OU of 24h) and 34 (LOS in ED maximal 4h, peak LOS in the OU of 36h). Discrete event simulation, if based on a representative database, allows to map patient flow revealing bottlenecks and to perform what-if scenarios for capacity without disturbing the real life practice.  This approach helps to choose the best  scenario to optimize  the  patient flow in the future ED to the OU with 30 positions. The model shows that the OU cannot handle all admitted ED patients and therefore some ED patients will still have to be admitted directly at the correct hospitalisation ward bypassing the OU.


 

Diederik VAN SASSENBROECK (Ghent, Belgium), Tim DEBACKER, Paul GEMMEL, Paul CALLE
11:10 - 12:40 #1594 - #1594 - A protocol-driven organisation in Observation Units Services reduces admission and increases appropriateness: an Italian comparative study.
#1594 - A protocol-driven organisation in Observation Units Services reduces admission and increases appropriateness: an Italian comparative study.

 Background

 The health care reform of the last years in Italy brought to a significant reduction of hospital beds for acute admission and the Emergency Departments (ED) have to intervene on the organisation of more structured Observation Units (OU) in order to observe and treat patients with a high probability of early discharge, who need a management longer than 6 hours (limit for a simple ED visit). In general, the maximum length of day in the OU is 30 hours.

In many regions of Italy the OUs have been structured with dedicated beds and organised with specific protocols for some pathological conditions. In the Piedmont region such protocols have some defined outcome indicators, previously established and reviewed periodically. In other regions such process is in progress and specific protocols are not yet available.

Methods

In this study we have compared the performance of the EDs of two secondary hospitals: the first, in Piedmont region (S. Andrea hospital, Vercelli), with a structured OU and defined protocols and the second, in Marche region (S. Lucia Hospital, Macerata), without a structured OU. We have focused the attention in the management of 4 specific conditions-atrial fibrillation (AF), hypoglycaemia, epilepsy/seizures, head injury-to assess the adherence to such indicators. The results of Macerata hospital have been evaluated according to the indicators of Vercelli.

Results

In Vercelli hospital the ED visits were 30348 from January to December 2013; the overall admission rate was 12.5% of the admissions; 3893 pts were kept in the OU (12,8%) and among them 751 were admitted after the observation period (18,8%).

In Macerata hospital the 2013 ED visits were 29686 and the overall admission rate was 20.2%; 1451 patients were kept in the OU (4,89%) and the admissions were 596 (41,1%).

The mean length of stay in the OUs was around 18 hours in both hospitals.

The outcome indicators for the 4 protocols considered were: AF <5% admissions, Hypoglycaemia <10% admissions, Epilepsy/seizures <30% admissions, head trauma 100% CT scan in anti coagulated patients.

All the outcome indicators have been respected by the Vercelli OU, while the admission rate for AF in Macerata was 14%, for Hypoglycaemia 60%, for Epilepsy 46%. The head trauma indicator was met in both hospitals

Conclusions

A structured OU allows to increase the number of patients observed and to decrease the total number of admissions, improving the appropriateness with a rational use of hospital beds.

The presence of specific protocols allows to better categorize patients and to evaluate the appropriateness of the interventions according to the relative outcome indicators.

Aldo TUA, Barbara GABRIELLI (VERCELLI, Italy), Roberta PETRINO, Tamara MARIANI, Domenico BORRUSO, Michele SALVATORI, Roberta TERRIBILE

11:10-12:40
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OP2-22
Oral Paper 2
Pre-hospital and transportation

Oral Paper 2
Pre-hospital and transportation

Moderators: Joost BIERENS (Thesis Coordinator EMDM) (Brussel, Belgium), Gregor PROSEN (EM Consultant) (MARIBOR, Slovenia)
11:10 - 12:40 #1063 - #1063 - From chest-pain onset to the angioplasty, observation of delays in different stages of pre-hospital management of acute coronary syndrome with ST-segment elevation: prospective study.
#1063 - From chest-pain onset to the angioplasty, observation of delays in different stages of pre-hospital management of acute coronary syndrome with ST-segment elevation: prospective study.

Introduction: In the strategy of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) management, response time of a mobile intensive care unit (MICU) may be influenced by urban population density, and accessibility to the catheterization laboratory (cath-lab).

Objective: Evaluate delays in STEMI management, for each stage, from onset chest-pain to the catheterization.

Method: Data derived from a prospective register including non-complicated STEMI having primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), managed by 6 medical care intensive units (MICU) of a French city: 3 in town (T) and 3 in suburb (S). The observed variables were the place of management (T or S), the time delays of the various stages: time delay from chest-pain onset to the first medical contact (FMC) by the patient to the pre-hospital despatching emergency medical service – time delay FMC to MICU arrival – cath-lab door (cath-lab) – needle – catheterization (KT). We compared delays between MICU T and S using the Wilcowon test (p value < 0,05).

Results: In 2012, 137 STEMI have been included, T= 62 (45%), S= 75 (55%). Charts reports time delays of various stages. Global median time delays of management were T= 113 [110; 130] min vs S= 112 [101; 125] min (p= 0.8906). Median time delays from the 15-call to FMC were T= 20 [13; 35] min vs S= 22 [14; 36.5] min (p=0.4122) with a higher dispersion for the MICU S. Median time delays from FMC to the cath-lab were T= 49.5 [40.3; 60] min vs S= 53 [45.3; 61.8] min (p= 0.1365) with a higher dispersion for the MICU T in this case. The MICU did not influence anymore the time delays of management since they have confided the patient to the cath-lab team. Median time delays from the cath-Lab to needle were T= 20 [10; 30] min vs S= 19 [11.5; 26] min (p= 0.8546). Finally, median delays needle to KT were T= 13.5 [7.5; 15] min vs S= 13 [10; 20] min (p= 0.2707). By stage, there was no significant statistical difference for a patient managed by a MICU in suburb or in town. The MICU S came later but took less time to dispatch the patient to cath-lab.

Discussion: the distribution of cath-lab more scattered in suburb, but more easily accessible that in town does not seem to influence time delays of management by the MICU, and thus doesn’t affect the management of STEMI patients. There is therefore no loss of opportunity for a patient in our region managed by a MICU in town or in suburb respectively. Other factors must be studied on a more important sample of patients.

Hugues LEFORT (Metz), Alain COURTIOL, Aurélie LOYEAU, Laurence SZTULMAN, Yann-Laurent VIOLIN, Amandine ABRIAT, Jonathan GONZVA, Olivier YAVARI-SARTAKHTI, Isabelle KLEIN, Michel BIGNAND, Jean-Pierre TOURTIER
11:10 - 12:40 #1083 - #1083 - A prospective registry: best performance for prehospital reperfusion decisions in case of high volume of managed ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)?
#1083 - A prospective registry: best performance for prehospital reperfusion decisions in case of high volume of managed ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)?

Introduction: Amount of reperfusion therapy (primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) or fibrinolysis) performed is a determinant of mortality in STEMI patients. The decision to propose reperfusion therapy is a cornerstone of STEMI patient management in the pre-hospital setting, and the 2012 European Society of Cardiology guidelines suggest that the frequency of reperfusion decisions represents a marker of quality of care.

Objective: To determine whether the number of STEMI managed by Mobile Intensive Care Units (MICU) and Emergency Medical System services (SAMU: Service d'Aide Médicale Urgente) is a determinant of the frequency of prehospital reperfusion decisions. 

Methods: The eMust registry was set-up by the regional health authority of the 12-million-population of Paris region in France to prospectively collect data on all STEMI patients transported by the physician-staffed SAMU ambulances. The registry has been ongoing since 2003 and all data gathered up till 2013 were used for the present analysis. Emergency physicians from MICU initiate treatment in the prehospital setting and take the initial decision of reperfusion (primary PCI or fibrinolysis).  Results were statistically significant if p< 0.05.

Results: During the 11-year study period, 18,294 STEMI patients were included by 8 SAMU and 41 MICU were dispatched on site. The mean number of STEMI managed by each SAMU was 2,287, with a minimum of 139 and a maximum of 300; and a mean number of those managed by each MICU of 457 with a minimum of 7 to a maximum of 152 inclusive. Decisions made by each MICU to send the patients for reperfusion therapy ranged from 73% to 97%. Total decisions were pPCI: 76% and fibrinolysis: 24%. Decisions by each SAMU to send the patients for reperfusion therapy ranged from 90% to 95%. There was a significant difference in the frequency of reperfusion decision between SAMU and MICU (Chi2 test, p < 0.0001) in the region, between 2003 and 2013: 18% of prehospital thrombolysis, 74% of direct referral to the Cath Lab, 7% of non-decision.  However, this frequency of decision was not correlated (R= 0.1264) to the volume of managed STEMI (SAMU or SMUR) without being significant (T-distribution, p= 0.4371).

Gilles LENOIR, Jonathan GONZVA, Hugues LEFORT (Metz), Yves LAMBERT, Aurélie LOYEAU, Nicolas DANCHIN, Thévy BOCHE, François DUPAS, Sophie BATAILLE, Frédéric LAPOSTOLLE
11:10 - 12:40 #1146 - #1146 - Presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus in Danish ambulances. A cross-sectional study.
#1146 - Presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus in Danish ambulances. A cross-sectional study.

Background

Every year approximately one out of ten Danish patients contract an healthcare associated infection (HAI). Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus are, among others, known as prominent in the group of pathogenic bacteria that underlies HAI, causing the patients unnecessary genes and prolonging their hospitalization. Bacterial colonization often occurs due to indirect patient-to-patient transmission, caused by poor hygiene complience. This study aimed to determine the level of contamination with S. aureus/MRSA and Enterococcus/VRE on pre-cleaned blood pressure cuffs in the Danish medical service. This study is conducted in cooperation with the "Emergency Medical Services, Capital Region of Denmark", Copenhagen Fire Brigade and Frederiksberg Fire Brigade.

Method

In the Capital Region of Denmark, 50 blood pressure cuffs from 39 different ambulances were tested for S. aureus and Enterococcus in this cross-sectional pilot study. Prints were collected using specific agar plates, no earlier than one minute after cleaning with Ethanol wipes. Furthermore, positive prints were typed and determined of resistance.

Results

Both S. aureus and Enterococcus were present on pre-cleaned blood pressure cuffs however, to a limited extent. The average level of contamination by S. aureus was 0.54 CFU per 25 cm2 (SD 1.98). Minimum and maximum values were ranging from 0 to 11 CFU per 25 cm2 and the prevalence of 50 prints were 10%.  The average level of contamination by Enterococcus was 0.06 CFU per 25 cm2 (SD 0.42). Minimum and maximum values were ranging from 0 to 3 CFU per 25 cm2 and the prevalence of 50 prints were 2%. The positive Enterococcus isolate belonged to Enterococcus faecalis, and showed no resistant genes. All S. aureus isolates were methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA).

Conclusion

Potentially pathogenic bacteria are detectable on equipment thought to be clean. However, none of the detected bacteria showed resistant properties, which could indicate a low rate in the prehospital setting. The findings of pathogens after cleaning may be due to cross-contamination, improper cleaning or limited effect of the cleaning procedure. Therefore, a thorough examination of the contamination level, effect of different cleaning procedures as well as increased focus on hygiene challenges in the prehospital setting is recommended. 

Heidi Storm VIKKE (Kolding, Denmark), Matthias GIEBNER
11:10 - 12:40 #1202 - #1202 - Using of LUCAS II device for CPR by regional no-urban Medical Emergency Service.
#1202 - Using of LUCAS II device for CPR by regional no-urban Medical Emergency Service.

Background: LUCAS II was developed for automatic chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Current evidence on the use of this device in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is still insufficient.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of CPR for OHCA with and without LUCAS by Regional non-urban Emergency Medical Service (EMS) in physician-present pre-hospital medical system (randes-vous system).

Methods: We analyzed a prospective registry of all consecutive OHCA patients in four EMS stations, two of them used LUCAS device in all CPR, the EMS crews in other two stations used manual CPR. Individuals with contraindication to LUCAS or with EMS-witnessed arrest were excluded.


Results: From May 2010 to June 2014 337 patients were included in the OHCA registry. Fifty-nine patients were excluded from the analysis because of contraindications to LUCAS or EMS-witnessed arrest. Data from 278 patients were included in the analysis, 144 with LUCAS and 134 with manual CPR.
We observed more witnessed arrests in LUCAS group (64,18% vs. 79,17%,p=0,0074) and more asystoly as initial rhythm in LUCAS group (48,51% vs. 69,44%,p=0,0004). We did not find significant differences in return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) between the groups (30,6% in nonLUCAS vs. 25% in LUCAS, p=0,35), in ROSC in arrests of cardiac etiology (31,25% vs. in non LUCAS vs. 24,18% in LUCAS, p=0,31) and in ROCS if initial rhythm was ventricular fibrillation (51,43% in nonLUCAS vs. 46,43% in LUCAS, p=0,80). In LUCAS group we observed significant more conversions from non-shockable to shockable rhythm (10,10% vs. 20,7%, p=0,0396). 180 days follow up was provided by in patients (85% of patients with ROSC in both groups). We observed significant more survivors in nonLUCAS group (p=0,0198). We did not find any survival difference in arrests of presumed cardiac etiology (p=0,3175).
 
Conclusions: The use of automated chest compressions with LUCAS system in our study did not improve survival rate in OHCA. We observed significantly higher 180-days mortality in LUCAS treated patients by regional non-urban EMS.

Jiri KARASEK (Prague, Czech Republic), Rostislav POLASEK, Alena RECHOVA, František KLEIN, Petr OSTADAL
11:10 - 12:40 #1242 - #1242 - Telemedicine consultation with physician at the emergency medical center from ambulances enables emergency medical technicians to treat-and-leave more patients – a before and after pilot study.
#1242 - Telemedicine consultation with physician at the emergency medical center from ambulances enables emergency medical technicians to treat-and-leave more patients – a before and after pilot study.

 

Background / introduction

Ambulance dispatch is the first step on the path of treatment of acutely ill patients. Changing the course of this path affects all parts of the health care system involved in emergency patient care.

In this pilot-study we manned the Emergency Medical Dispatch Center (EMDC), Aarhus, 24/7 with physicians experienced in emergency care.  All non-critically ill patients (category B&C) in the Central Denmark Region who called 1-1-2 and received an ambulance were given telemedicine assessment by the EMDC physician. The purpose of the assessment was to treat-and-leave if judged safe.

 

Participants and methods

Trial design: Controlled before and after study

Intervention:  Systematic prehospital teleconsultation from ambulances to EMDC physician 24/365 15-28 September 2014.

Control:         Fraction of patients treated and left 16-29 September 2013 without telemedicine assessment.

Participants:  All non-critically ill patients in the Central Denmark Region who called 1-1-2 and received an ambulance.

Outcome measures:

  1. Fraction of non-critically iLl patients treated and left.

          Statistics: chi2

  1. Safety of telemedicine based treat-and-leave.
  • Rate of treated-and-left patients admitted to hospital within three days
  • 30 day mortality

      Statistics: chi2

 

Results

  1. Patients treated and left.

          In 2013 641 non-critically ill 1-1-2 patients received an ambulance compared to 774 in 2014. The fraction of patients being treated and left was 0.3320 in 2014 (257 patients) and 0.2605 in 2013               (167 patients) giving an OR=1.410, 95%CI [1.112, 1.791], P=0.0035. In total 125 patients were treated-and-left after telemedicine assessment by EMDC physician.

  1. Safety. Data analysis is ongoing.

 

Discussion/conclusion

The fraction of non-critically ill 1-1-2 patients treated and left after telemedicine assessment is surprisingly high.

This could indicate an unused potential for the EMDC physician in the prehospital patient care and that the EMDC physician may play a more active part in the care of emergency patients in the future.

Safety evaluation awaits.

 

Acknowledgements

The study war partly funded by the Prehospital Emergency Medical Services, Aarhus, Central Denmark Region.

 

Nikolaj RAABER (Aarhus, Denmark), Ingunn RIDDERVOLD, Morten BOETKER, Niels-Christian EMMERTSEN, Hans KIRKEGAARD
11:10 - 12:40 #1276 - #1276 - Pulmonary oedema: is morphine still indicated?
#1276 - Pulmonary oedema: is morphine still indicated?

Pulmonary oedema:  is morphine still indicated?

 

Paul Slavu(1), Sorina Podariu(1), Corina Sintea(1), Vlad Fisca(2), Daniela Taran(2), Mirela Badescu(2), Iris Muresan (3)

1. Emergency department, SMURD Sibiu, Sibiu, Romania

2. Emergency department, UPU-SMURD Sibiu, Sibiu, Romania

3. Lecturer, "Lucian Blaga" University of Sibiu, Romania

 

Speaker: Sorina Podariu

 

Keywords: acute pulmonary oedema, morphine, protocols

 

BACKGROUND

 

During the last three years, SMURD (Mobile Emergency Service for Resuscitation and Extrication) Sibiu MICU was sent to an important number of cardiac related cases reported as shortness of breath, mostly during night time.

 

Although shortness of breath can be associated with several illnesses, one life threatening condition is acute pulmonary oedema.  Without proper and prompt medical care, survival chances are greatly decreased. Although it may have other underlying causes, in the majority of cases it originates from heart conditions, especially left ventricle insufficiency. The commonly used distinction between cardiogenic, non-cardiogenic and of unknown causes is used to describe the affection as accurately as possible.

 

 

The aim of this study is to asses a proper path of treatment by relying on internationally accepted protocols while drawing from the knowledge of extensive practical experience. The study focuses on presenting our observation that by including morphine in the treatment of pulmonary oedema, SMURD Sibiu frequently sees a faster and easier recovery of patients. Using only diuretics and nitrates does not have the same rate of success.

 

This practice is regulated by current protocols that limit the use of morphine. Concerns are expressed by some physicians about the possible risk that it might present to the patient, including an increase in the risk of death after discharge from hospital. As a result, alternative medication is sometimes considered.

 

METHODS

 

This study is retrospective and it is based on the SMURD (Mobile Emergency Service for Resuscitation and Extrication) Sibiu database accumulated over a period of 3 years, from 2012 to 2014. It includes 101 cases of acute pulmonary oedema.

 

RESULTS

 

From a total number of 101 patients with acute pulmonary oedema, 51 were treated with morphine, 78 cases happened during the night, 33 between 8 am in 8 pm.

While following the results of the administrated treatment, when including morphine 38 patients have improved and 12 patients had persisting symptoms.  When using only diuretics and nitrates, 27 patients have improved and 23 patients persisted with symptoms.

 

Out of these, 9 patients suffered cardiac arrest on the way to the hospital, and 2 of them deceased, although CPR and ALS were performed.

 

 

 

CONCLUSIONS

 

Assessment of our data suggested that morphine administration enhances even more chanches of our patients, proving they recover easier, comparing the use of diuretics and nitroglycerin only. Even more, morphine can be administrated when the use of nitrates and diuretics must be postponed due to haemodynamic instability.

Paul SLAVU, Daniela TARAN, Sorina PODARIU (, Romania), Corina SINTEA, Vlad FISCA, Mirela BADESCU, Iris MURESAN
11:10 - 12:40 #1369 - #1369 - Dispatcher-Assisted Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Program and Outcomes after Pediatric Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest.
#1369 - Dispatcher-Assisted Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Program and Outcomes after Pediatric Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest.

Background : The dispatcher-assisted bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DA-BCPR) is expected to influence the outcomes of pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA).

Objective: We investigated and compared the association and the effect size of DA-CPR on survival outcomes according to location of the event.

Methods: All EMS-treated OHCAs less than 19 years of age in Korea were analyzed from January, 2012 through December, 2013, excluding patients witnessed by EMS providers or missing outcome information. Exposure group were No-BCPR group for patients who did not receive BCPR, BCPR-NDA group for patients who received BCPR without DA, and BCPR-DA for patients who received DA-BCPR. The endpoint was survival to discharge. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes by exposure group (reference=No-BCPR group) with and without an interaction term between exposure and location of arrest.

Results: A total of 1,013 eligible patients were finally analyzed. Among these patients, 39.8% had received BCPR (16.6% BCPR-NDA and 23.2% BCPR-DA). The survival to discharge rate was significantly higher in BCBP-NDA (10.7%) and BCPR-DA (9.0%) compared with No-BCPR group (4.3%) (p=0.002). AORs (95% CI) for survival to discharge compared with No-BCPR group were 1.73 (1.03-3.12) in BCPR group, 1.71 (0.85-3.46) in BCPR-NDA, and 1.39 (0.72-2.69) in BCPR-DA group, respectively. The AORs (95% CI) of BCPR-NDA and BCPR-DA in public location were 3.30 (1.12-9.72) and 2.95 (1.00-8.67) while BCPR-NDA and BCPR-DA in private location were 1.62 (0.68-3.88) and 1.15 (0.53-2.51), respectively.

Conclusion: The DA-CPR was associated with better outcomes in pediatric OHCA patients whose arrest occurred in public location, but not in private location. 

Yu Jin LEE (SEOUL, Korea, Republic of), Sang Do SHIN, Seung Chul LEE, Kyoung Jun SONG, Eui Jung LEE, Young Sun RO, Ki Ok AHN
11:10 - 12:40 #1508 - #1508 - Adverse events during inter-hospital transportation of critically ill patients: A prospective analysis.
#1508 - Adverse events during inter-hospital transportation of critically ill patients: A prospective analysis.

Objective. To assess the quality and quantity of adverse events during physician- and nurse-led inter-hospital transfers and to define transport characteristics that could be linked to an increased rate of adverse events.

Methods. Prospective observational study with case-control design in 2 hospitals in Belgium, one tertiary and one secondary referral centre with registration of patient and transport characteristics during inter-hospital transfers. Overall adverse events (OAE) were categorized as technical, operational and communication problems. Retrospectively labelled medical adverse events (MAE) and prospectively registered harmful adverse events (HAE) were documented for every transfer. All reported OAE were retrospectively appraised by the investigators for being a high-risk transport (HRT).

Patients: 688 adult patients who were transferred to or from both hospitals by physician or nurse led transport with complete registration forms.

Results. The mean age was 64,4 (SD 16,8) with a 4:3 male/female ratio. Mean M-SOFA score was 3,0/20, resp. 4,6/20 and 2,4/20 for hospital 1 and 2. Average transfer time was 45 min (SD 32 min).

OAE were present in 16,9% of transfers, with 3,9% MAE and 1,3% bringing patient harm. 3,7 % was judged to be a HRT. 1 patient died during pre-transport stabilisation.

In multivariate analysis, two factors remain significantly associated with an increased risk of HAE: operational problems (odds ratio, 16.889; P=0.001) and communication problems (odds ratio, 7.165; P=0.01). Technical problems, nurse lead transportations, duration of the transportation, and the M-SOFA score were not significantly associated with the risk of HAE.

Conclusion. The rate of adverse events is comparable or lower to what was found in the scarce literature on incidence of adverse events during inter-hospital transfers, depending on definition.  Operational problems and communication problems are the two categories that are significantly associated with an increase of harmful adverse events. These findings call for stricter preparation of transfers, both for training of personnel and communication. Extensive and repeated training is paramount to reduce the number of MAE and harm. Clear and standardized communication is important to reduce harm, and will also increase efficiency. 

Dr Cathelijne LYPHOUT (Ghent, Belgium), Duchatelet CHRISTOPHE, Jochen BERGS, Koen DESCHILDER, Willem STOCKMAN, Koen BRONSELAER
11:10 - 12:40 #1535 - #1535 - Prehospital or in-hospital administration of ticagrelor to open coronary artery in acute myocardial infarct with st-segment elevation (stemi). Atlantic study.
#1535 - Prehospital or in-hospital administration of ticagrelor to open coronary artery in acute myocardial infarct with st-segment elevation (stemi). Atlantic study.

Background: The direct-acting platelet P2Y12 receptor antagonist ticagrelor can reduce the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with STEMI.

Goal: Evaluate if prehospital administration of ticagrelor improves coronary reperfusion and clinical outcome.

Methods: International, multicenter, randomized, double-blind study involving patients with ongoing STEMI of less than 6 hours duration, comparing prehospital (in the ambulance) versus in-hospital (in the catheterization laboratory) treatment strategy. In the prehospital group, patient received a 180 mg loading dose of ticagrelor before transfer and a matching placebo in the catheterization laboratory. All patients subsequently received ticagrelor at a dose of 90 mg twice daily for 30 days.

Coprimary end points: proportion of patients who did not have a 70% or greater resolution of ST-segment elevation before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and proportion of patients who did not meet the criteria for TIMI flow grade 3 in the infarct-related artery at initial angiography.  

Secondary end points: included the composite of death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, stroke, or urgent revascularization at 30 days.

Safety end points: included major or minor bleeding but excluding bleeding related to coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG), within the first 48 hours and over the 30-days treatment period.

Results: During two years (Sept. 2011- Oct. 2013), 1862 patients were enrolled and randomized by 102 ambulances of 13 countries over 4 continents. 909 patients received ticagrelor in the ambulance and 953 patients in one of the 112 PCI centers. The medium times from symptom onset to STEMI diagnosis, from randomization to angiography, and between the two loading doses (i.e., prehospital vs. in-hospital) were 73, 48, and 31 minutes, respectively. More than 95% of the patients received one of the two loading doses of the medication study and more than 99% received at least one dose of aspirin. The majority of patients with STEMI received maintenance treatment of ticagrelor (86%) and aspirin (92%).

For all the patients included, the median time between onset of symptoms and PCI was 159 minutes.

There was no significant difference between the prehospital and in-hospital groups in terms of the proportion of patients who did not have a 70% or greater resolution of ST-elevation before PCI, nor those who did not have a TIMI flow of grade 3 in the infarct-related artery at initial angiography.

There was no significant difference between the two groups for the composite end point of death, bleeding events, major cardiovascular events or stent thrombosis. However, definite stent thrombosis was reduced in the prehospital group both at 24 hours (p=0.008) than at 30 days (p=0.02), vs in-hospital group.

Rates of composite major and minor bleeding events that were not related to CABG, were low at each stage of the study and did not differ significantly between the two groups.

Conclusion: The present study shows that the administration of the potent P2Y12 receptor antagonist ticagrelor shortly before PCI does not improve reperfusion of the culprit artery before the procedure but is safe and may prevent post-procedural acute stent thrombosis.

Olivier STIBBE (Paris), Pascal DANG-MINH, Hugues LEFORT, Olga MAURIN, Catherine RIVET, Jennifer CULOMA, Gilles MONTALESCOT, Jean-Pierre TOURTIER, Frédéric LAPOSTOLLE
11:10 - 12:40 #1634 - #1634 - Non-Invasive ventilation in acute pulmonary edema. Does it have immediate clinical effects in prehospital setting?.
#1634 - Non-Invasive ventilation in acute pulmonary edema. Does it have immediate clinical effects in prehospital setting?.

Introduction: Non-Invasive ventilation (NIV) is an adjuvant treatment for Acute Pulmonary Edema (APE). Early treatment with NIV could be applied in the prehospital setting if it demonstrated symptoms improvement in a shorter time.

Aim: To analyze if time to get to an optimal oxygen saturation and respiratory rate, shortens when NIV is added to standard medical treatment, instead of using high concentration oxygen mask.

Methods: A cohort’s prospective non-matched observational study was performed. Patients with suspected APE (confirmed at hospital arrival), treated either with NIV or with high concentration oxygen mask, plus standard medical treatment by Advanced Life Support Units from the Pre-hospital Emergency Medical System of the city of Barcelona between 1st October 2013 and 31th January 2014 were included. Time to get to oxygen saturation over 95% and a respiratory rate under 30 respirations per minute was analyzed with a survival analysis (Kaplan Meier and multivariate Cox regression), adjusting by possible confounders.

Results: 103 patients with APE were included. 56,3% were females and the mean age was 79,7 (SD:9,6) years old. NIV was applied in 44,7% of the patients during a mean of 51 (SD:13,4) minutes. Oxygen saturation improved over 95% in a median of 12 minutes (CI95%: 9,5-14,5) when NIV was applied, opposite to a median of 37 minutes (CI95%:30-44) when oxygen mask was applied (Log Rank p<0,001). Time to get to respiratory rate under 30 respirations per minute shortened from 57 minutes (CI95%:41,6-78,3) when oxygen mask was applied to 36 minutes (CI95%:31,1-40,9) when NIV was applied (Log. Rank p=0,002).

After adjusting results by Systolic blood pressure, first measured oxygen saturation and initial respiratory rate, oxygen saturation over 95% enhancement ratio significantly improves when NIV is applied; HR=5,32 (CI95%:2,8-10; p<0,001).  Respiratory rate enhancement ratio after adjusting by previous ischemic heart disease, initial respiratory rate and complete medical administration also improves significantly; HR=2,54 (CI95%:1,4-4,7; p=0,014).

Conclusions: NIV shortens time to improve oxygen saturation and respiratory rate when applied in patients suffering an APE. Further studies are needed to confirm this results and to know if NIV has effect over other parameters such as respiratory effort or the subjective feeling of dyspnea. 

Silvia SOLÀ-MUÑOZ, Francesc CARMONA-JIMÉNEZ (Barcelona, Spain), Àngels LÓPEZ-CANELA, Jorge MORALES-ÁLVAREZ, Xavier ESCALADA-ROIG, Quim RIOS-SAMBERNARDO
11:10 - 12:40 #1712 - #1712 - Five years of experience providing prehospital emergency medical service in centralized organizational model.
#1712 - Five years of experience providing prehospital emergency medical service in centralized organizational model.

The World Health Organization regards emergency medical service (EMS) system as an integral part of any effective and functional health care system. In order to improve EMS provision in Latvia a major change in organization of prehospital EMS was made in 2009. Before 2009 prehospital emergency medical care (EMC) in Latvia was provided through decentralized organization model. Latvia had overall 43 institutions owned by municipalities which provided EMS within municipality’s service area only. Lack of accessibility, quality and equity in EMC provision was evident and large discrepancies throughout the country in terms of training, staffing and coverage of the ground ambulance system existed. In 2009 gradual merging of EMC providers and reorganization of two public institutions (incl. Center of Disaster Medicine) was initiated. Although the merge was complex and complicated process on 1st of July, 2010 unified State Emergency Medical Service (SEMS) started to provide prehospital EMC in all the territory of Latvia.  The aim of the reform was to improve quality and equal accessibility of prehospital EMC by introducing unified management system of resources, centralization of incoming calls and dispatching, provision of unified standards for equipment and medicines, development of unified guidelines and unified training system. Centralization resulted in development of common regulations what lead to unified EMC delivery. Differences in EMC availability due to patient location were diminished and EMC provision was more equal than ever. In 2010 Operational Management center was established and direct number ‘113’ for medical emergencies was introduced. Outcomes of centralized EMC provision includes cost effectiveness, transparent expenditures of State budget, unified information and quality management system, electronic database of medical records and unified administration. The average response time interval for highest priority cases in rural and urban areas was diminished from 19,8 / 10,4 min in 2009 to 18,3 / 10,1 min in 2014. Many experts, including World Bank, have recognized prehospital EMS reform in Latvia as one of the most successful examples in health care organization.

Ilze BECA (Riga, Latvia), Renate PUPELE, Liega ZALCMANE
11:10 - 12:40 #1743 - #1743 - Evacuation of severely burned patients by HEMS.
#1743 - Evacuation of severely burned patients by HEMS.

Objectives: The aim of this work is to analyse the procedures of dealing with patients with burns applied by the HEMS teams both in terms of rescue operations and transporting patients from hospitals to Burn Centres.

Materials: Between 2011 and 2014 the Polish Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (Lotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe) executed 1347 interventions involving victims of burns. Direct flights to the location of an incident accounted for 59.8% and the remaining 40.2% were transports of patients from hospitals to Burn Centres. In the period subject to analysis those flights constituted 4.2% of all missions of the Polish Helicopter Emergency Medical Service.

Results: In the analysed group of patients, based on the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, the largest group (48.6%) consisted of persons with thermal burns of multiple body regions, 14% of patients had burns on 60-80% of Total Body Surface, and 2.9% were diagnosed with respiratory tract burn injuries.

The median duration of the mission from notification to delivery of the injured was 77 minutes in case of flights to accident location (which indicates that the HEMS teams apply the sty and play strategy) and 165 minutes in case of transporting patients from hospitals to Burn Centres.

Among the transported patients 347 (25.7%) were subjected to endotracheal intubation and 85.6% of all intubations applied to patients prepared for transportation from hospitals to Burn Centres. Crystalloid intravenous infusions and pain therapy were applied as treatment of 99.1% of all patients. During the missions 0.4% patients had cardiac arrest and were resuscitated.

Conclusions: The use of HEMS in case of dealing with patients with burns is of material importance in providing quick transport to Burn Centres, specifically in case of childrens with burns. 

A significant part of interventions involved the “stay and play” strategy.

 

The procedures of preparing patients for helicopter transportation involved protecting the airways with substitute ventilation which related to over one fourth of all patients.

 

Przemyslaw Wiktor GUŁA (Krakow, Poland), Robert GAŁĄZKOWSKI, Arkadiusz WEJNARSKI
11:10 - 12:40 #1791 - #1791 - Optimization of EMS design. Advanced vs Basic.
#1791 - Optimization of EMS design. Advanced vs Basic.

Objective: Polish EMS model is based on Advanced Life Support Ambulances (partially with physicians partially with ALS trained paramedics). However only less then 5% of total  number of interventions require advanced life saving procedures.  The current model does not allow for optimal use o emergency physicians in prehospital settings. 

It requires guidelines for building new double tier (advanced/basic) response system.

Material and methods: Retrospective analysis of  43437 EMS interventions during one year period in mixed city-country terrain.  17 EMS teams (5 with physician) located in 13 ambulance sattions with single (999) dispatch centre covered the population of over 576 000 people. The number of calls was 10,9  per 100 inhabitants.

Results: Almost 60,7% calls to the local dispatch (999)  centre lead to the dispatching of EMS team.  72,5% of  interventions were the ALS-paramedic teams  and 27,5 % were responded by emergency - physician ambulances. The median response time  was 6,5 min in the city and 10,5 min in country.  In more then 30% of the EMS interventions there were no medical emergencies. 66,7% of patients were transported to the ED. Advanced life saving procedures allowed to physicians only amounted to 1,5% of cases. In the phyician ambulances group 32,7% of patients had iv line ,32,7% followed by intarvenous drug administration. 3,8% of patients were intubated.  Paramedics requested support of physician or HEMS amounted to less then 1% of missions.

Conclusions: The Polish EMS system is highly abused by unfounded requests. It must be optimised in terms of function of double tier response as well as flexible use of emergency physicians in prehospital area. 

 

 

Przemyslaw Wiktor GUŁA (Krakow, Poland), Robert GAŁĄZKOWSKI, Remigiusz MORYTO
11:10 - 12:40 #1802 - #1802 - NonSTEMI Prehospital RisK Score.
#1802 - NonSTEMI Prehospital RisK Score.

INTRODUCTION:

Ischaemic heart disease is the first cause of death in developed countries. For several years it has been demonstrated that patients suffering from Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) with persistent ST elevation (STEMI), benefit of primary angioplasty (PCI), directly making the transfer from the point of first medical contact to the cardiac catheterization laboratory. For patients with Non-ST-Segment Acute Coronary Syndrome  (Non-STEMI) several risk SCOREs have being developed. The gold Standart is GRACE SCORE. However, these Scores are designed for the hospital environment, which represents a delay in shipments of a subgroup of patients to centers of high specialization.

The aim of this study is to create a predictive ability model of prehospital risk SCORE for patients suffering NSTEMI in order to transfer them to the appropriate hospital.

Objective:

Define and create a prehospital emergency care Scale for predicting high risk cardiovascular events comparable to GRACE SCORE in NSTEMI, that allows the transfer of the patient to the appropriate Center.

Methods:

Prospective cohort study, of patients admitted to the Coronary Care Unit of a Tertiary Hospital during the period from January 2009 to December 2013 in Barcelona.

Inclusion criteria: patients over 18 years old with a diagnosis of NSTEMI for whom GRACE has been calculated.

The recruitment was carried out consecutively.

Study variables: GRACE at admission, sex, age, cardiovascular risk factors, history of ischemic heart disease, vital signs, ECG abnormalities, presence of complications.

Descriptive and comparative analysis. Patients were stratified into high risk and not high risk (low and medium risk), according to GRACE Score and were compared to the new Scale. A predictive model was obtained using logistic regression and the selected variables were compared with high risk of GRACE using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient and Kappa statistic. The efficiency of the model was  assessed with a ROC curve.

 

Results:

420 patients were included, 72.6% of them were men with a median age of 67,4 years. 149 (35,5%) patients had a high-risk Grace, 271 (64.5%) had low or moderate risk Grace.

The new Scale is composed of 6 items, scored from 0 to 11 points, and  high risk is defined over 5 points. These items are: age, Killip-Kimball, Systolic blood pressure, Heart Rate, ST desviation ≥ 0.5mm  and previous angina. The new Scale compared with binary Grace (high risk/not high risk)  showed a Spearman correlation= 0.78 and a Kappa=0.79. Sensitivity was 90.8% and specificity 89.9%, Likehood ratio (LR+)=7.5, positive predictive value (PPV)=93,2%, negative predictive value (NPV) =84% and a global efficiency of 89.8%. The area under the curve (AUC) of the estimated model was 0,893, 95% interval confidence (0, 86-0, 93).

Conclusions:

1 - The new Score predicts patients comparable with high risk GRACE Score that should be transferred to a hospital with PCI available 24 hours 365 days.

2 – The Score can be a pre-hospital tool to determine the target center for patients with High-Risk Non-STEMI.

Jorge Arnulfo MORALES ALVAREZ (Barcelona, Spain)
11:10 - 12:40 #1829 - #1829 - Early Exclusion of Major Adverse Cardiac Events in Emergency Department Patients with Chest Pain: a prospective observational study.
#1829 - Early Exclusion of Major Adverse Cardiac Events in Emergency Department Patients with Chest Pain: a prospective observational study.

BackgroundIn the management of adult chest pain patients presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) with suspected acute coronary  syndrome (ACS), we aimed firstly to validate diagnostic accuracy of a modified Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) score with high-sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) to rule out major adverse cardiac events (MACE), and secondly to compare modified TIMI score with combinations of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) and a modified HEART score.

 

Methods  This prospective observational study was conducted in the ED of a university hospital in Hong Kong, recruiting patients aged 18 years or older with chest pain and suspected ACS.  Patients underwent triage assessment, electrocardiography, blood sampling for laboratory hs-cTnT, H-FABP point of care test, and TIMI and HEART scoring.

 

Results  602 consecutive patients were recruited and MACE occurred in 42 (7.0%) patients within 30 days. A modified TIMI score of zero alone identified 65 (11%) patients, and a HEART score ≤2 identified 96 (16%) patients, as having low risk for 30-day MACE.  No MACE occurred in these groups giving both scores a sensitivity and negative predictive value of 100%, and respectively a specificity of 11.6% and 17.1%.  Use of both TIMI and HEART scores improved specificity further to 22.0%. Early H-FABP had a sensitivity of 42% and a specificity of 91%.

 

Conclusions  A modified TIMI score of zero or a HEART score of ≤2, incorporating a single hs-cTnT level, will identify patients with low risk of 30-day MACE for early discharge within 2 hours of ED arrival.

 

Colin GRAHAM (Hong Kong, Hong Kong), Cw LAM, Kh CHEUNG, Yk LEUNG, Nm CHENG, Py CHAN, Timothy RAINER
11:10 - 12:40 #1936 - #1936 - Patient characteristics in pre-hospital medical care. Is there a difference in between physician and non-physician dispatched patients?
#1936 - Patient characteristics in pre-hospital medical care. Is there a difference in between physician and non-physician dispatched patients?

Background

In Germany an increasing number of patients in emergency departments (ED) are presented by ambulance services. National studies investigating the pre-hospital emergency services are rare. A particularity in the emergency care in Germany is the distinction between paramedic-staffed ambulances and physician-staffed ambulances. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference between physician and non-physician dispatched patients.

Methods

This explorative study includes patients who were dispatched by ambulance services in the internal or surgical ED at Charité Virchow-Klinikum in Berlin, providing maximum medical care. Routinely available data were retrieved from ambulance protocols for every patient admitted via ambulance between Mai 1st until June 30th 2014. The ambulance protocols provide information on date and time of ambulance service, demographic details, vital parameters, injuries, intensity of pain as well as diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. They were matched with data from the hospital information system (e.g. Manchester-Triage-System category (MTS), in-hospital mortality). Patients were excluded, if the distinction between paramedic-staffed ambulances and physician-staffed ambulances was not raised in the data. All analyses were stratified for ambulance services with and without physician.

Results

In total 1070 datasets were analyzed (median age 53 years, IQR 35-71; female 46%). 62% were medical ED-patients, 36% surgical and 2% neurological. Physicians were included in 30% (n=322) of all ambulance transports with the highest proportion in patients between 70 and 79 years (18%).

The majority of emergency missions for the study population were registered on Mondays (18%) and the minority on Wednesdays (12%). The majority of physician-staffed ambulance transports was on Mondays (21%) and the minority on Fridays (11%). Within a day emergency services were most frequently called between 12am and 6pm (29%). Nearly two third of all emergency missions took place at private apartments (59%). 18% of all missions were conducted in public areas. Ambulance transport from general practitioners and nursing homes to the ED were observed in a proportion of 3% and 4% respectively.

The urgency of treatment was documented in five categories for 789 patients by pre-hospital emergency staff. 7% of the cases were classified as non-urgent and 45% as normal. A higher proportion of physician-assisted ambulances vs. paramedic-staffed ambulances was associated with cases which were classified as urgent (48%vs32%), as very urgent (21%vs5%) and as life-threatening (9%vs1%). Similar results could be seen in the ED´s with a higher proportion of physician dispatched patients in the orange (45%vs22%) and the red (19%vs2%) MTS-level. In contrast, the proportion was lower in the yellow MTS-level (30%vs52%) as well as in the green and blue MTS-levels. No difference could be found in the length of stay (median 4 days). The in-hospital mortality was higher in patients which were dispatched by physician-assisted ambulances (6%vs3%).

Conclusion

The majority of ambulance transports was conducted on Mondays. Physician-staffed ambulances were more involved in older patients and cases with urgent conditions. This finding was underlined by the higher in-hospital mortality of patients in this group. Further analyses will address clinical course and pre-hospital procedures.

Johann FRICK (Berlin, Germany), Anna SLAGMAN, Julia SEARLE, Clara THOMAS, Judith MAHLIG, Tobias LINDNER, Pr Martin MÖCKEL
11:10 - 12:40 #1985 - #1985 - Out-of-hospital use of laryngeal tube - a large observentional study.
#1985 - Out-of-hospital use of laryngeal tube - a large observentional study.

Introduction

Because of concerns of low success rate and unidentified oesophageal intubation of orotracheal intubation in the prehospital settings, supraglottic devices have received widespread acceptance in emergency medical systems. There are more devices on the market and there is still need for a larger evaluation of these devices in relation to their reliability and safety. In this large observational study we prospectively evaluated the effectiveness and safety of use of the laryngeal tube (LT-D) by trained physicians and paramedics in prehospital airway management in two periods.

Methods

In 2009 we started to train all paramedics and physicians in the largest Slovak EMS provider Falck Zachranna in insertion and management of LT-D. In the company there is no strict protocol for securing the airways and some physicians do not intubate regularly. The participants who demonstrated the ability to ventilate a manikin effectively with a bag through correctly inserted LT-D were given competence to use it clinically. The quality and safety of the process was monitored by mandatory filling of the protocol after every placement of LT-D. We have recorded demographic data, indications, paramedics vs physicians insertions, difficulties in placement, complications and rate of successful ventilation. We have compared the safety and effectiveness data of LT-D from two periods - 2009-2011 and 2012-2014.

Results

In the years 2009-2014 a total of 152, 228, 424, 504, 512 and 614 LT-Ds have been used. In the first period we evaluated 804 and in the second period 1630 protocols. In both periods 82% of tubes have been inserted by paramedics and 18% by physicians. The rate of male has been stable at around 65%. The main reason for insertion was in 74% and 77%, resp. cardiovascular failure (mostly cardiac arrest). LT-D has been replaced by endotracheal intubation in 28% and 23%, resp. (physician based ambulance has been called). The ventilation was not possible in 6.8% and 5.1% resp.; that means success rate of 93.2% and 95.1%, resp. Aspiration before or after insertion has been observed in 2.7% and 4.0%, resp. Insertion has been considered easy in 75% and 78%, resp.

Discussion

This is to our knowledge by far the largest study with LT-D in pre-hospital settings evaluating 2,436 LT-D insertions. Most participants reported that handing of the LT-D was easy and they only required three insertion practice sessions with a manikin to feel confident. The tube was mostly used by paramedics who are not allowed to intubate in Slovakia. We encouraged physician not to replace well placed LT-D by paramedics by intubation and have observed decreasing rate of it. We have also recorded small increase in success rate and stable rate of aspiration during the observation period.

Conclusions

In this large study we confirmed previous evidence that LT-D is easy to handle with a high success rate of the placement. The LT-D replacing bag and mask ventilation frees the hand of paramedics, helps to safely secure airways for non-emergency physicians and helps to secure difficult/failed airways for anaesthesiologists and emergency physicians in prehospital care.

 

 

 

Stefan TRENKLER (Košice, Slovakia), Monika PAULIKOVA, Miroslav HUMAJ
11:10 - 12:40 #2041 - #2041 - Are there alternatives to acute hospitalization for elderly medical patients? - a randomised clinical trial.
#2041 - Are there alternatives to acute hospitalization for elderly medical patients? - a randomised clinical trial.

Introduction: The Danish public healthcare service to elderly patients with acute medical conditions is uncoordinated. The General Practitioner (GP) is responsible for the patient but is challenged by difficult communications with other healthcare sectors and has a busy workday often without the ability to see the patient immediately. Short admissions, as well as the risk of loss of information at the transfer from secondary to primary sector, may result in sub-optimal diagnosis and treatment pathways, especially for elderly patients with complex medical issues. The municipalities have implemented initiatives to ensure an alternative to hospitalization, but this acute municipal care did not focus specifically on cross-sectorial collaboration and has not been evaluated. The aim of the project was to evaluate various cross-sectorial collaborations with focus on elderly medical patients: I) How many medically ill elderly will use an acute municipal care as an alternative to hospitalization, and what are their characteristics? II) Is there a difference if a medical specialist at the hospital is responsible for the examination and treatment instead of the GP? III) Is there a difference between treatment at a municipal acute care centre and home treatment from an acute care team?

Method: The project design was a randomized clinical trial in which the primary outcome was the number of admissions within 7 days, depending on whether a medical specialist or the GP was responsible for the treatment. Simultaneously, mortality, mental and physical changes as well as the satisfaction of the patient and relatives were registered as secondary outcomes. The collected data were also used to assess the impact of treatment from municipal acute care centre or acute care team on the same outcomes.

Results: 131 patients were included. The patients were predominantly women of high age with daily need of help at home. By triage assessment, the included patients were rated as ill as the average hospitalised patients. Half of the patients was able to take care of themselves after 48 hours of treatment, and about a quarter needed extra help at home or an extended stay at the care centre. Men were hospitalised twice as often as women.

Half of the patients examined by the hospital’s medical specialists were admitted immediately, while only a quarter of the patients examined by the GP were admitted. There were no significant difference in mortality, physical or mental restoration between the patients treated by the medical specialist and the GP, but the low number of participants may have hidden real differences. There was no significant difference in the numbers of admissions in the two municipal acute care, and there was no difference in how quickly patients recovered mentally and physically or in mortality and satisfaction.

Conclusion: The acute care team and acute care centre offers an equally good treatment. A hospital based outpatient clinic appears to increase the number of acute admissions of elderly medical patients. It can therefore be concluded, that the cooperation between GP and municipal acute care can reduce the number of admission of elderly medical patients.

Helene SKJOET-ARKIL (Aabenraa, Denmark), Christian Backer MOGENSEN
11:10 - 12:40 #2075 - #2075 - Croatian Index of Emergency call Admission in Recognizing Out of Hospital cardiac arrest(OHCA).
#2075 - Croatian Index of Emergency call Admission in Recognizing Out of Hospital cardiac arrest(OHCA).

Croatian Index of Emergency Call Admission in Recognizing Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest

Radmila Majhen Ujevic, MD, Leo Luetic, MD

Key words: Index, Medical Dispatch Unit, OHCA, recognize, red response, agonal, training, education

Introduction: Medical Dispatch Unit (MDU) is essential part of the chain of survival and enables rapid and accurate medical response in case of OHCA. Recognition of OHCA is achieved on criteria based dispatch in the form of Croatian Index of emergency call admission, which has bee used in Croatia for three years. We made a survey to see how accuurate Index was in predicting OHCA in Split-Dalmatian County which has cca 455000 inhabitants.

Methods: quantitative analysis of data collected in one-year period. We compared cases of OHCA noted in our registry of deaths ( EMS confirmed arrest in the field), as dioagnosis R96-R99 ( Ill-defined and unnown causes of mortality according to International Classification of Disease ICD) and I46 ( cardiac arrest) to the criteria in Index during call receipt. Citeria considering possible OHCA were A01.01 ( Adult unconscious, not breathing) and all other criteria fulfilling the condition " does not respond to shaking and calling". deaths caused by trauma, other external factors, terminal disease with expecting death as well as children were excluded from the survey.

Results: there were 945 cases where EMS confirmed cardiac arrest caused by medical problems in the field. In the group of 618 calls ( 65,40%) admitted as red response, 276 calls (44,66%) were orrectly presumed to be OHCA. In the group of 321 calls (34,34%) admitted as yellow response, 112 calls (34,89%) were correctly presumed to be OHCA ( H criteria concerning definitive, irreversible expected death). In 6 calls (0,97%) dispatched as green response there were 3 calls (50%) accureately presumed to be OHCA. In the group of red response there were 82 calls (13,27%) admitted and dispatched as criteria A01.03 ( person unconscious, but breathing) that EMS pronounced as cardiac arrest in the field.

Conclusion: More training in MDU through re-listening of incoing calls and reassessmentof criteria ( finding out which criteria are mostly used instead of A.01.01) is needed in intention to improve OHCA recognition. This is particularly important in recognizing agonal breathing, not to be misjudged as normal breathing that might delay quick beginning of CPR. However, the benefit of patients was not jeopardised since they have received red response. More research might be needed in comparing response times in presumed OHCA and cases assessed like other red response, but not OHCA ( core item in Utstein Style Report). Recent possibility of recording procedures like CPR phone instructions by dispatcher enables further research in improvent of chain of survival ( early recognition and early CPR). Important factor contributing this aim are public programmes of education in basic life support/AED in community.

Radmila MAJHEN UJEVIC, Radmila MAJHEN UJEVIC (Split, Croatia), Leo LUETIC

14:10
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A23
Management
Education

Management
Education

Moderators: Pier Luigi INGRASSIA (Novara, Italy), Rob ROGERS (USA)
14:10 - 14:40 The future of medical education. Chris NICKSON (South Yarra, Australia)
14:40 - 15:10 Medutainment: Is this the way to teach Emergency Medicine? Simon CARLEY (Consultant in Emergency Medicine) (Manchester, United Kingdom)
15:10 - 15:40 Connecting education and patient care. Victoria BRAZIL (Australia)

14:10-15:40
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B23
Italy invites
Anticoagulanti ed emergenze mediche

Italy invites
Anticoagulanti ed emergenze mediche

Moderators: Francesco BORGOGNONI (Italy), Giuseppe PEPE (Italy)
14:10 - 14:30 Stroke ischemico: vena, arteria o tutte due? Paolo CERRATO (Italy)
14:30 - 14:50 Stroke emorragico: che succede con i NAO. Giancarlo AGNELLI (Perugia, Italy)
14:50 - 15:10 Embolia polmonare: trattarle tutte? Simone VANNI (Florence, Italy)
15:10 - 15:30 Fibrillazione atriale: cosa è cambiato? Alberto CONTI (Toscana, Italy)

14:10-15:40
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C23
Clinical Questions: Controversies
Infectious Disease & Sepsis

Clinical Questions: Controversies
Infectious Disease & Sepsis

Moderator: Christoph DODT (Head of the Department) (München, Germany)
14:10 - 14:40 Timing of antibiotics – Myth or fact? Eric BATARD (PU-PH) (Nantes, France)
14:40 - 15:10 Controversies in the identification and treatment of sepsis. Colin GRAHAM (Director and Professor of Emergency Medicine) (Hong Kong, Hong Kong)
15:10 - 15:40 Which goal to aim for in the ED during early-goal directed therapy in treatment of sepsis? Kurt ANSEEUW (Medical doctor) (Antwerp, Belgium)

14:10-15:40
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D23
State of the Art
Obstetric Emergencies

State of the Art
Obstetric Emergencies

Moderators: Inger SONDERGAARD (PHYSICIAN) (ALLEROED, Denmark), Anna SPITERI (Consultant) (Malta, Malta)
14:10 - 14:40 The killers in obstetrics that you shouldn’t miss in your ED. Cornelia HÄRTEL (Medical Director of the ED, Consultant in EM, Director of Medical Education in EM) (STOCKHOLM, Sweden)
14:40 - 15:10 Pelvic inflammatory disease. Maria Grazia FRIGO (Italy)
15:10 - 15:40 Management of obstetric emergencies. Judith TINTINALLI (Professor) (Chapel Hill NC, USA)

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E23
Research
Trauma

Research
Trauma

Moderators: Basar CANDER (Turkey), Pr Francesco DELLA CORTE (Speaker) (Novara, Italy)
14:10 - 14:40 Decompressive craniectomy in traumatic brain injury. Hadie ADAMS (United Kingdom)
14:40 - 15:10 Direct transportation to neurosurgical units for patients with isolated head injury. Fiona LECKY (Professor of Emergency Medicine) (Sheffield, United Kingdom)
15:10 - 15:40 Predicting outcome in traumatic brain injury. Karim TAZAROURTE (Chef de service) (Lyon, France)

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F23
YEDM
Sim Wars

YEDM
Sim Wars

Moderators: Pier Luigi INGRASSIA (Novara, Italy), François LECOMTE (PH) (Paris, France)
Coordinators: Dr Abdo KHOURY (Senior attending Physician) (Besançon, France), Youri YORDANOV (Médecin) (Paris, France)
Facultys: Elaine ERASMUS (Cape Town, South Africa), Sian GERATY (South Africa), Natalie MAY (Oxford, United Kingdom), Patrick PLAISANCE (Head of Department) (Paris, France), Thomas PLAPPERT (Fulda, Germany), Dr Pieter Jan VAN ASBROECK (Consultant in Emergency Medicine) (Genk, Belgium), Sabina ZADEL (Slovenia)

14:10-15:40
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G23
Paediatric Track
Status of PEM in Italy

Paediatric Track
Status of PEM in Italy

Moderators: Ian MACONOCHIE (United Kingdom), Santiago MINTEGI (Section Head. Pediatric Emergency Department) (Bilbao, Spain)
14:10 - 14:40 Paediatric Emergency Medicine in Italy. Niccolò PARRI (Attending Physician) (Florence, Italy)
14:40 - 15:10 Italian National Guidelines on Head Injury management in children in the ED. Liviana DADALT (Italy), Silvia BRESSAN (Moderator) (Padova, Italy)
15:10 - 15:40 Barriers and opportunities to the implementation of PEM. Simone RUGOLOTTO (Italy)

14:10-15:40
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OP1-23
Oral Paper 1
Imaging and Ultrasound II

Oral Paper 1
Imaging and Ultrasound II

Moderators: Ammar ALANI (United Kingdom), Gregor PROSEN (EM Consultant) (MARIBOR, Slovenia)
14:10 - 15:40 #1180 - #1180 - Determining the clinical significance of errors in pediatric radiograph interpretation between emergency physicians and radiologists.
#1180 - Determining the clinical significance of errors in pediatric radiograph interpretation between emergency physicians and radiologists.

Study Objective

Emergency physicians (EPs) are expected to review and interpret plain radiographs in order to make treatment and disposition decisions. These radiographs are subsequently reported by a radiologist whose interpretation may differ. The clinical consequence of these discrepancies is uncertain. The objectives of this study were to a) review the rate and nature of radiograph discrepancies interpreted by emergency physicians versus radiologists in the pediatric emergency department, and b) determine the clinical significance of these discrepancies.

 

Methods

We conducted a retrospective review of discrepant radiology reports from a single site pediatric emergency department from October 2012 to December 2014.  All radiographs were initially interpreted by the staff emergency physician; where the final radiology impression differed, the report was identified as a ‘discrepancy’ per department protocol.  Radiographs were categorized as chest, abdomen, axial skeleton, upper extremity, lower extremity, soft tissue neck, or other.  Based on the final report, the discrepancy was classified as false positive, false negative or not a discrepancy.  Clinically significant errors that required a change in the management of the patient were tracked.

 

Results

There were 25,304 plain radiographs completed during the study period. Of these, 293 (1.16% of total radiographs) were identified by radiology as discrepant from the EP interpretation.  The most common were chest radiographs (41.6%) due to missed pneumonia, followed by upper and lower extremities (26.3% and 15.7% respectively) due to missed fractures.  Of 293 discrepancies, 208 (71.0%%) were false positives, 45 (15.4%) false negatives, and 40 (13.7%) were not true discrepancies upon further review.  One hundred and five (0.4% of all radiographs completed) were clinically significant, requiring subsequent change in patient management.

 

Conclusions

There is a low rate of discrepancy between emergency physician and radiologist interpretation of pediatric emergency radiographs.  The majority of errors are with radiographs of the chest and extremities. Educational efforts to improve emergency physician accuracy in interpretation of these types of radiographs may be beneficial. 

Jonathan TAVES (Hamilton, Canada), Steven SKITCH, Celine KIM, Rahim VALANI
14:10 - 15:40 #1882 - #1182 - The use of bedside ultrasound to assess fluid responsiveness in septic patients: increasing use in an Emergency Department High-Dependency Unit.
#1182 - The use of bedside ultrasound to assess fluid responsiveness in septic patients: increasing use in an Emergency Department High-Dependency Unit.

Introduction: The use of non-invasive strategies to assess fluid responsiveness of septic patients is spreading worldwide. Aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of bedside ultrasound evaluation of fluid responsiveness in a population of septic patients admitted in an Emergency Department High Dependency Unit (ED-HDU).

Methods: We identified two study periods: April, 2010-March, 2011 and February–December 2013 and we retrospectively analyzed all medical records of patients admitted in the ED-HDU in those periods with a diagnosis of sepsis/severe sepsis/septic shock. The evaluation of fluid responsiveness was performed considering the inferior vena cava collapsibility index, the left and right ventricular global systolic function and the presence of interstitial syndrome at the chest ultrasound.

Results: We retrospectively identified 126 septic patients in 2010 and 79 during 2013, mean age 73±14 years, 51% male gender, mean Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score 5.4±3.5.

The ultrasound evaluation of fluid responsiveness was carried out in a significantly greater proportion of patients in 2013 compared to 2010 (72/79, 91% vs 75/126, 60 %, p <0.0001). The proportion of patients in whom an ultrasound exam did not allow a definition of fluid responsiveness because of a bad acoustic window or lack of information in the medical record, remained comparable from 2010 to 2013 (29/75, 39% vs 27/72, 38%, p = NS).

The number of fluid challenges was similar between the patients evaluated and those not evaluated by ultrasound (82/126, 65% vs 33/56, 59%, p = NS).

Patients who were not assessed with ultrasound or in whom an evaluation was not possible were more frequently hemodinamically stable than patients assessed by ultrasonography (32/56, 57% vs 36/126, 29%, p=0.004).

Compared with patients treated empirically, patients evaluated by ultrasonography showed a SOFA score significantly higher both at the admission in ED-HDU (6.3 ± 3.6 vs 5.2 ± 3.4, p = 0.030) and after 24 hours ( 5.93 ± 3.6 vs 4.5 ± 3.0, p = 0.045), included a higher proportion of septic shock (32 vs 17%, p = 0.018) and a central venous catheter was placed more frequently (35 vs 19%, p = 0.015).

In the hemodynamically instable patients, stabilization was achieved more frequently in patients evaluated by ultrasound compared with patients treated empirically (32/126, 25% vs 11/114, 10%, p=0.0078).

The percentage of patients who never reached a hemodynamic stabilization was similar for patients with and without ultrasound evaluation (30/126 and 27/114 p = NS).

Conclusions: The bedside ultrasound evaluation of the fluid responsiveness in septic patients has significantly increased after a three year period. It was performed more frequently in hemodynamically instable patients than stable ones and it allowed to achieve a stabilization in a higher proportion of patients compared with empiric fluid administration. 

Margherita LUZZI (Firence, Italy), Lucia TAURINO, Irene TASSINARI, Beatrice DEL TAGLIA, Camilla TOZZI, Francesca INNOCENTI, Riccardo PINI
14:10 - 15:40 #1184 - #1184 - Impact of lung ultrasound findings in the assessment of acute heart failure in the emergency department.
#1184 - Impact of lung ultrasound findings in the assessment of acute heart failure in the emergency department.

Introduction:

 Lung ultrasonography (LUS) has recently emerged as a non-invasive tool for the differential diagnosis of pulmonary diseases. However, its use for the diagnosis of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) still raises some concerns. In patients with heart failure, many indexes are available for noninvasive identification of pulmonary congestion: plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP) (pg/ml); number of B-lines at lung ultrasound.

Objectives:

The primary goal of this study was to determine accuracy for diagnosing acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF) with the use of B3 and B7 line patrons and the relation with proBNP.

 Methods:

 We conducted a prospective cohort study with 62 patients whom presenting with acute dyspnea, the emergency physician was asked to categorize the diagnosis as ADHF. Lung ultrasound was performed in all patients and B-lines were counted and compared before and after treatment. Finally, data were compared and quantitative and categorical variables were worked out along with other statistical analysis through estimated indicators.

Results:

The LUS was satisfied in 100 percent of patients. The LUS-implemented approach had a significantly higher accuracy, in the 63.9 % of studied patients we detected pulmonary edema with elevation of natriuretic peptides (sensitivity 88%; 95% CI, 85.3-91%; specificity 72.3%; 95% CI, 65-69%) and more number of B lines  (sensitivity 97.6%; 95% CI, 97-99.1%; specificity 93.5%; 95% CI 91.7-99.2%). The area under de ROC curve was of 0.91 (CI 95%: 0.83-0.93 p: 0.0001) with the higher point of sensibility in relation with B7 lines patron (sensitivity 96.2% and specificity 74.9%). In 45.5% of patients detected B3 lines patron after treatment with depletive diuretics.

Conclusions:

 The implementation of LUS with the clinical evaluation may improve accuracy of ADHF diagnosis in patients presenting to the emergency department. The B7 lines patron in LUS had been a good correlation with pulmonary edema.

Julio ARMAS CASTRO, Julio ARMAS CASTRO (Elche. Alicante, Spain), Blas GIMÉNEZ FERNÁNDEZ, Juan Carlos REAL LÓPEZ
14:10 - 15:40 #1317 - #1317 - Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of a lung ultrasound-implemented protocol for of acute dyspnea in the emergency department - a randomized controlled trial.
#1317 - Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of a lung ultrasound-implemented protocol for of acute dyspnea in the emergency department - a randomized controlled trial.

Background

Acute dyspnea is a diagnostic challenge for emergency physicians (EPs). The discrimination between cardiac and non-cardiac causes is essential for improving patients’ management. Lung ultrasound (LUS) has emerged as a non-invasive valuable tool for this diagnosis. We have recently shown in a multicenter study that the use of a LUS-implemented diagnostic  approach may improve the diagnostic accuracy in ED patients with acute dyspnea (Chest, 2015)..

 

Objectives

Aim of this study was to compare, in ED patients with acute dyspnea,  the diagnostic accuracy of a LUS-implemented approach with a standard diagnostic approach, that includes chest radiography (CXR) and natriuretic peptide measurement.

 

Patients and Methods

This was a randomized controlled multicentric trial involving two Italian EDs (AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, and Careggi University Hospital, Florence). The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Commitees of the involved centers.

Patients presenting to the ED with acute shortness of breath as main complaint were eligible. After the initial clinical assessment (i.e. history, physical examination, ABG analysis and EKG), the EP was asked to discriminate the presuntive etiology of acute dyspnea (cardiac or non-cardiac). To complete the diagnostic evaluation, patients were subsequently randomized to either LUS (performed by the same EP – iLUS arm), or CXR and Nt-proBNP (iCXR arm).

A new presumptive diagnosis was recorded (iLUS or iCXR, respectively) using results of the diagnostic tests. At discharge from ED, a final ED dyspnea diagnosis, based on all diagnostic information available, was finally recorded. After hospital discharge, the entire medical records were independently reviewed by two expert EPs,  blinded to LUS results, in order to assign the etiology of patient’s dyspnea (in case of disagreement, a third operator, a certified cardiologist, reviewed the same clinical information  and assigned the final diagnosis). Sample size was calcolated as about 500 patients.


Results

Patients were enrolled from January, 2014 to March, 2015. Data are available for the first 205 cases (103 in iLUS arm; 41% of patients had cardiac  dyspnea; 12 cases needed to be assigned by cardiologist, 7 randomized to the iCXR arm). The median age was 79 years (range 28-100 years) (p-value >.05), M/F ratio was 0.95 (p-value >.05).

iLUS protocol had a sensitivity of 93.8% (95% CI 82.8-98.7) and a specificity of 94.5% (CI 84.9-98.9) for the diagnosis of cardiac dyspnea, with a ROC area of 0.94. iCXR diagnostic approach had a sensitivity of 86.1% (CI 70.5-95.3) and a specificity of 87.9% (CI 77.5-94-6), with a ROC area of 0.87.

Median evaluation time for implemented diagnoses was 3 minutes (range 2.5-15 minutes) for iLUS, and 92 minutes (range 64-265 minutes) for iCXR.

 

Conclusions

Preliminary results (based on less than half of the patients enrolled in this RCT) suggest that the iLUS protocol has a higher diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of cardiac dyspnea in patients admitted to ED than the iCXR approach, nowadays considered the standard of care.

Emanuele PIVETTA (Torino, Italy), Pietro TIZZANI, Federica BOVARO, Maria TIZZANI, Camilla TOZZETTI, Monica MASOERO, Luca PIGOZZI, Maria Grazia VEGLIO, Francesca GIACHINO, Paolo BARON, Fulvio MORELLO, Valeria BUSSO, Paolo FASCIO PECETTO, Davide CASTAGNO, Giulio PORRINO, Milena M MAULE, Andrea EVANGELISTA, Paolo QUAGLIA, Ottavio DAVINI, Stefano GRIFONI, Corrado MOIRAGHI, Peiman NAZERIAN, Alberto GOFFI, Enrico LUPIA
14:10 - 15:40 #1402 - #1402 - Specificity of Bedside Ultrasound to diagnose Renal stones/hydronephrosis in the Emergency Department.
#1402 - Specificity of Bedside Ultrasound to diagnose Renal stones/hydronephrosis in the Emergency Department.

Specificity of Bedside Ultrasound to diagnose Renal stones/hydronephrosis in the Emergency Department

 

Introduction :

Flank pain is considered one of the very common presentations of patients in Emergency Departments on a daily basis. Due to the high sensitivity and specificity of CT scan, it has become the standard imaging modality for evaluating acute flank pain with the potential of renal claculi. The introduction of emergency department US however has made it one of the most preferred initial modalities for detecting renal stones considering the fact that it is commonly available, inexpensive and risk free when it comes to radiation exposure. 

Several studies have looked into the sensitivity and specificity of US compared to CT in diagnosing renal stone disease. Moreover, the advantages of US being radiation free, more time and cost effective might make it a better option in the management of an ED patient. 

 

2. Objectives :

To compare bedside US with CT in detecting renal calculi and hydronephrosis in adult patients presenting to ED with  acute flank pain. 

 

3. Study design :

Prospective diagnostic cohort study of adult patients presenting to ED with acute flank pain. Patients had a bedside US by an emergency physician in ED prior to CT (gold standard) to assess for signs suggestive of renal calculi/ hydronephrosis. The findings of the bedside imaging were documented in the patients' chart with an indication of whether or not any signs of renal calculus or hydronephrosis are detected. CT scans were reported by the radiologist who does not get an access routinely to the chart during the patient's active ED visit. 

 

4. Inclusion criteria :

All adult patients (18 years and older) who present with acute flank pain and not previously diagnosed to have renal calculi.

 

5. Exclusion criteria:

Patients who have been already diagnosed with renal stones. 

 

6. Setting:

The study was carried out in the Emergency department of University hospital Birmingham.

 

 

8. Consent :

A verbal consent was taken from all the patients and documented in the notes.

Results:

The results were very reassuring. We had total 24 patients in our pilot study.  8 were females and 16 were male. The mean age was 54years (28-90). All the patients had departmental US followed by the CT KUB. The bedside ultrasound showed sensitivity of 83.3% (95% CI= 36-97%), specificity 100% (95% CI= 82-100%), negative predictive value 95% (95% CI= 75-99%) and positive predictive value 100% (95% CI= 48-100%).

 

Conclusion:

Our results clearly show the effectiveness of bedside ultrasound in the hands of ED physicians. Patients without evidence of stones and hydronephrosis on ED bedside US could be safely assumed to have no stones or less than 6 mm if detected on CT. The smaller stones typically do not require surgical intervention. Hence based of the clinical judgement patients with negative US can be discharged home or further imaging can be requested.

 

 

M Azam MAJEED, Noora ALSUKAITY (Birmingham, United Kingdom), Ahmed AL HUBASHI

14:10-15:40
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OP2-23
Oral Paper 2
Neurological Emergencies

Oral Paper 2
Neurological Emergencies

Moderator: Gautam BODIWALA (Leicester, United Kingdom)
14:10 - 15:40 #1088 - #1088 - Can patients at high risk of non-convulsive seizure be identified in the emergency department?
#1088 - Can patients at high risk of non-convulsive seizure be identified in the emergency department?

Background: Non-convulsive seizure and non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCS/NCSE) might present with altered mental status (AMS) without any sign or symptom of seizure. Our previous work has revealed that 5% of ED patients with AMS have NCS/NCSE. Since EEG is not routinely available in the ED, most cases of NCS are not diagnosed in the ED. More than 50% of NCS cases are diagnosed more than 24 hours after ED presentation, and usually in the intensive care unit. Objective: To identify the clinical findings that could predict high risk of NCS/NCSE in ED patients with AMS.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. Inclusion criteria: Adult ED patients with AMS. Exclusion: Patients with immediately correctable cause of AMS (e.g. hypoglycemia, narcotic overdose). EEGs were recorded upon presentation and were interpreted by on-call epileptologists within one hour of recording. EEGs were recorded either by standard EEG and microEEG (Bio-Signal Group Inc.) or by microEEG alone. Proportions are presented as percentages with 95% CI. Continuous variables are presented as medians and quartiles (25%,75%). Group comparisons are performed with Mann-Whitney U or Fisher’s exact tests, when appropriate (alpha 0.05, two-tailed).

Results: We enrolled 332 patients with AMS (median age: 66 [quartiles: 50,78), 50% male). In total, 16 patients were diagnosed with NCS (5%, 95%CI, 3 - 8%). Only age was significantly different between the NCS vs. Non-NCS groups (p = 0.032). Previous history of seizure was reported only in 63% (95%CI, 39 - 82%) of NCS patients. Only 31% (95%CI, 14 - 56%) of NCS patients had abnormal neurological exam (other than AMS). Among patients who had head CT, only 20% (95%CI, 6 - 46%) had abnormal findings. Because of the small number of NCS cases, performing a multivariate analysis was not possible.

Conclusion: Increase in age is associated with higher risk of NCS/NCSE in AMS patients. There are no other clinically useful variables that could predict or increase the pre-test probability of NCS/NCSE in such patients. ED physicians ought to have a high index of suspicion for NCS/NCSE in ED patients with AMS. EEG should be the standard of care in all patients with undifferentiated altered mental status.

Shahriar ZEHTABCHI (Brooklyn, USA), Samah ABDEL BAKI, Ahmet OMURTAG, Andre FENTON, Richard SINERT
14:10 - 15:40 #1187 - #1187 - sumatriptan and propofol VS Sumatriptan and placebo in acute migraine.
#1187 - sumatriptan and propofol VS Sumatriptan and placebo in acute migraine.

Introduction: Headache are responsible for 2.2% of emergency department visits .Triptans are used as a migraine specific medication to terminate migraine headach attacks . Although triptans have been introduced as asafe and effective treatment for migraine attacks this class of drugs has well known side effects and contraindications.Several studies have shown that subanesthetic doses of propofol areefficacious as rescue therapy for acute migraine headache in adult andchildren.In this study we are comparing the effect of infusion propofol with subcutaneus sumatriptan in treatment of acute migraine headache.

Method: This study is the randomized double blind prospective clinical trial.Ever 35 known migraine paitent meeting the international headache society (IHS) criteria are enrolled in this study and randomly allocated into two groups.In first group 30 microgaram per kilogaram propofol infused in 100cc normal salin in 1 hour with 6 mg sumatriptan subcutaneus injected.In the second group 6 mg sumatriptan subcutaneous injected with placebo.

Result:There are significant differences between the two groups in respons to treatment.The primary outcome (pain intensity) is significant lower 30 minutesafter treatment in group one (pvalue< 0.05). In group one 75% of the paitent had vertigo and sleepy that improved10 minutes  after completion of drug.In second group 66.7% of the paitent had chest tightness. No paitent had hemodynamic instability in both group.

Conclusion: This study has shown that sumatriptan and propofolis  more effective with faster respons and better pain control 30minutes after treatment than sumatriptan and placebo.

Reza FARAHMAND RAD, Akram ZOLFAGHARI SADRABAD (TEHRAN, Islamic Republic of Iran), Marziyeh GHILIAN, Mohammad Davood SHARIFI
14:10 - 15:40 #1357 - #1357 - Relationship between full outline of unresponsiveness score coma scale and glasgow coma scale of stroke patients in emergency room, Siriraj hospital.
#1357 - Relationship between full outline of unresponsiveness score coma scale and glasgow coma scale of stroke patients in emergency room, Siriraj hospital.

Relationship between full outline of unresponsiveness score coma scale and glasgow coma scale of stroke patients in emergency room, siriraj hospital

Surabenjawong U, M.D.*, Sonmeethong W, M.D.*, Prayoonwiwat N, M.D.**, Nakornchai T, M.D.*,

*Department of Emergency Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700.

Background: The Full Outline of Unresponsiveness Score Coma Scale (FOUR score), a recent coma score, was developed to solve some limitations of the well-known Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). From previous studies, FOUR score can predict the neurological outcome in an intensive care and traumatic patients better than GCS. However, there is no report in stroke patients.

Methods: The prospective cohort study was conducted in adult patients, diagnosed with acute stroke in emergency department of Siriraj hospital. Patients with history of previous head injury were excluded. Every patient was evaluated with both FOUR score and GCS by trained emergency physicians. The primary outcome was the correlation between both scores. The Modified Rankin Scale (MRS), Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) and 3-month mortality rate predicted by FOUR score and GCS were defined as the secondary outcomes.

Results: After analyzing data of 60 stroke patients in emergency department, mean FOUR score of the population was 14.05 (SD 4.02) and mean GCS was 12.45 (SD 3.74). FOUR score and GCS had an excellent correlation with r = 0.821 (p value <0.001). With cut-off point for mortality prediction of 10 and 9 for FOUR score and GCS respectively, FOUR score predicted 3-month mortality rate better than GCS with area under the curve (AUC) of 1.00 (p value <0.001, 95% CI 0.94-1.00) while AUC for GCS was 0.99 (p value <0.001, 95% CI 0.92-0.99). FOUR score was also outstanding in predicting the poor neurological outcome (MRS 4-6 and CPC 3-5) with cut-off point of 10 (AUC of 1.00, p value <0.001, 95% CI 1.00-1.00). Meanwhile, the GCS with cut-off point of 9 had AUC for predicting neurological outcome of 0.94 (p value <0.001, 95% CI 0.91-1.02).

Conclusion: FOUR score and GCS had an excellent correlation for evaluating the consciousness in acute stroke patients. FOUR score is not inferior to GCS for predicting 3-month mortality and poor neurological outcome.

Keywords: acute stroke, Full outline of unresponsiveness score coma scale, Glasgow Coma Scale

Usapan SURABENJAWONG (Bangkok, Thailand), Thanyaporn NAKORNCHAI, Weeraphon SONMEETHONG
14:10 - 15:40 #1496 - #1496 - Delays to diagnostic brain imaging in childhood arterial ischemic stroke.
#1496 - Delays to diagnostic brain imaging in childhood arterial ischemic stroke.

Background: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in children is an uncommon but potentially devastating condition. Prompt recognition is crucial to guide appropriate management in the acute care setting. The gold standard for the diagnosis of stroke is brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Long delays to diagnosis are the most important barrier to thrombolysis in children. This may be a consequence of both delayed presentation to medical attention and in-hospital factors including limited access to diagnostic brain imaging.

Objective: primary outcome was to determine the time to first neuroimaging in children diagnosed with ischemic stroke. Our secondary aim was to identify patient and process factors that contributed to delayed neuroimaging.

Design/Methods: Retrospective study of children with a radiologically confirmed stroke in a tertiary care center, RCH Melbourne, between January 2003 and December 2012. Data on presentations to a referring hospital prior to transfer to our center were also collected.

Results: 71 episodes of AIS and 19 of TIA were recorded. The time from symptom onset to hospital arrival was 2.5h (IQR 1-19) for patients who first presented to another hospital and 3.6h (IQR 1.3-18.5) for first presentations to our center. Overall time from hospital arrival to first neuroimaging was 3.3h (IQR 1.2-8.3). 66% of children received CT as the first imaging modality in a median time of 1.5h (IQR 1.0-3.7), but the scan was only diagnostic in 25% of cases, whilst MRI was the first imaging performed in 34% of cases, in a median time of 3.9h (IQR 1.4-13.7) and it was diagnostic in 100% of AIS. Time to final diagnosis (on either CT or MRI) was 11.3h (IQR 4.1-22.5). Sedation was used in 28% of children (12% of CT scans and 41% of MRI scans). Children who underwent their first scan more than 3h after hospital presentation were more likely to receive an MRI as first neuroimaging modality (OR 10.75, 95% CI 3.56-33.72) and to have a final diagnosis of TIA (OR 7.34, 95% CI 2-33). Use of sedation was not significantly associated with a delay in neuroimaging (OR 1.83, 95% CI 0.67-4.97).

Conclusions: Despite the poor diagnostic accuracy, CT was still the first neuroimaging modality performed in the majority of patients with AIS, often within 3 hours from arrival. MRI had superior sensitivity to CT, but was more likely to be performed beyond this time window. Use of sedation did not seem to be associated with delayed neuroimaging. Development of acute stroke imaging protocol to maximise diagnostic yield in minimum time are urgently needed.

Marco DAVERIO (Padova, Italy), Mark MACKAY, Silvia BRESSAN, Franz BABL
14:10 - 15:40 #1497 - #1497 - Recurrent childhood arterial ischemic stroke management in the emergency department.
#1497 - Recurrent childhood arterial ischemic stroke management in the emergency department.

Background: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is uncommon in childhood, but recurrent strokes occur relatively frequently (up to 1/3 of the patients), particularly in cases with atherosclerotic arteriopathies and cardiac disease. The gold standard for the diagnosis is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Whilst significant delays in the diagnosis have been previously reported in children with a first episode of AIS, recurrences should be recognized earlier and time to final diagnosis reduced.

Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics, time to diagnostic neuroimaging and differences in the acute management of recurrent AIS episodes compared with first presentations.

Design/Methods: Retrospective study in a Pediatric tertiary referral hospial of children diagnosed with AIS between January 2003 and March 2014. Data on presentations to referring hospitals prior to transfer were also collected.

Results: 70 patients were included with a mean follow up of 5.6 years (SD 2.3). Of these, 11 subjects had a total of 23 episodes of recurrent stroke, occurring at a median of 208 days (IQR 37-395) after the index stroke. Patients with a recurrence were older (median age 8.04 vs 6.23 years) and more often females (82.6% vs 55.7%, p=0.021). Recurrent episodes tended to arrive more often by private car and presented with signs and symptoms different to first presentations (less non-focal/diffuse features, like altered mental status and vomit, less focal motor features, like focal limb weakness and dysarthria and more nuanced symptoms, like focal numbness). All the 70 patients with a first AIS underwent neuroimaging, whereas neuroimaging was not performed in 3 recurrent episodes, where a clinical diagnosis of TIA was made after neurology consultation. Computed Tomography (CT) was the first scan modality in 2/3 if first strokes but still the first in 50% of the recurrences, being diagnostic in 17% of cases overall. Time from symptom onset to hospital arrival was not significantly shorter for patients with a recurrence (p>0.05). Time to first and diagnostic scan was significantly longer for patients with a recurrent episode compared with first presentations (respectively p=0.015 and p=0.021).

Conclusions: Knowledge of prior stroke does not seem to have a positive effect on decreasing time delays to arrival at hospital or time to brain imaging. Most recurrent strokes were associated with self-limited symptoms. Despite the low diagnostic accuracy CT scan was still the first neuroimaging performed in half of the recurrent episodes. Development of acute stroke imaging protocol to maximise diagnostic yield in minimum time are urgently needed in children.

Marco DAVERIO (Padova, Italy), Silvia BRESSAN, Franz BABL, Mark MACKAY
14:10 - 15:40 #1596 - #1596 - When life runs out in seconds - high-speed thrombectomy protocol in ischemic stroke.
#1596 - When life runs out in seconds - high-speed thrombectomy protocol in ischemic stroke.

Background: In ischemic stroke caused by a thrombosis of a large brain artery, two million neurons, 12 kilometers of axons and 14 billion synapses are lost every minute. IV-thrombolysis (IV-tPA) in such cases appears ineffective, while mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is reported to be a powerful tool to open the occlusion (1). However, the favorable effect of recanalization is highly time-dependent (2). American Stroke Association recommends a door-to-punction time shorter than 120 minutes. At Tampere University Hospital approximately 70 patients per year are presently treated with MT. Since 2013, we have used a validated MT protocol that includes key personnel from paramedics to interventional neuroradiologist. Hence, we wanted to evaluate the current efficacy of our protocol. Previously, consecutive series of patients with door-to-recanalization time of less than 90 minutes on average have not been reported.

Materials and Methods:  From 1.1.-12.4.2015, all consecutive MT patients were identified from our hospital records. We collected the following data: symptom onset time, door-to-punction time, door-to-recanalization time, NIHSS (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) at arrival and at 24h post recanalization, and TICI (Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction) score 0-3 (0=no flow- 3=complete tissue reperfusion).  A total of 18 consecutive patients (mean NIHSS 17 at arrival, range 6-22) treated with MT were identified, of whom 14 were also treated with IV-tPA.

Results: Our preliminary results show that the median door-to-punction time was 25 minutes (range 14 min – 1h 33min) and the median door-to-recanalization time was 66 minutes (range 30 min – 128min). The median symptom-onset-to-recanalization time was 4 h 40 minutes (excluding 3 wake-up-strokes). Recanalization was not achieved in two patients. The remaining 16 had a minimum TICI score 2b and displayed a favorable outcome at 24 hours (mean NIHSS 6, range 0-19).

Discussion:  Early reperfusion is the main factor predicting good outcome in stroke recanalization therapy. Our current protocol enables systematic high-speed recanalization in patients with proximal brain artery thrombosis. We achieved at least TICI 2b recanalization in 90% of the cases.

 

References:

  1. Berkhemer OA, Fransen PS, Beumer D et al. A randomized trial of intraarterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jan 1;372(1):11-20.
  2. Mazighi M, Meseguer E, Labreuche J et al:  Dramatic recovery in acute ischemic stroke is associated with arterial recanalization grade and speed. Stroke. 2012 Nov;43(11):2998-3002.
Tessa TILLGREN (Tampere, Finland), Satu-Liisa PAUNIAHO, Pasi JOLMA, Jutta KERÄNEN, Juha-Pekka PIENIMÄKI, Henna SIIPPAINEN, Hannu PÄIVÄ, Jyrki OLLIKAINEN
14:10 - 15:40 #1707 - #1707 - The Relationship Between Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter Measured on Computerized Tomography and Mortality in Patients with Cerebrovascular Infarction.
#1707 - The Relationship Between Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter Measured on Computerized Tomography and Mortality in Patients with Cerebrovascular Infarction.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the possible correlation between optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measurements on initial brain computerized tomography (CT) images and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and the relationship with mortality in ischemic stroke patients admitted to Emergency Department.
FINDINGS: Total of 143 patients were included to this study. Case group was constituted from 70 patients and the control group from 73. Mean age of the case group (n=70) was 72.1±12.9(32-95), and 51.2% of the patients were female and 48.8% were male. Control group mean age (n=73) was 68.9±10(35-88), 53.7% of the patients were female and 46.3% of the patients were male.There was no statistically significant difference among groups in terms of gender distribution and mean age (p=0.437).The case and control groups were observed having similar comorbidities, however, statistically significant differences were only detected in terms of HT, previous cerebrovascular event and DM risk factors between the case and control groups. Mean ONSD values measured on CT were 5.52±0.76 mm for the right eye and 5.79±0.85 mm for the left eye in the case group and 5.04±0.52 mm for the right eye and 4.95±0.58 mm for the left eye in control group. According to these results, a significant difference was determined between right and left eye mean ONSD measurement values in the case and control group patients (for right ONSD, p=0.01; for left ONSD, p=0.01). Mean hospitalization time of the case group patients were 16.1 days and mean duration of stay in intensive care unit was 13.7 days. Mean NIHSS points of the case group was 9 and mean GCS score was 14. There was no significant difference between survivors and non-survivors in the case group in terms of each eye ONSD values (for right ONSD, p=0.84; for left ONSD, p=0.73).
RESULTS: There is a linear relationship between intracranial pressure and optic nerve sheath diameter meaurement values on unenhanced brain computerized tomography images in ischemic stroke patient population. Final data of our study indicate that ONSD measurement values could be used for prediction of intracranial pressure in ischemic stroke patient population but for the prediction of mortality, ONSD measurement values alone stand insufficient. Optic nerve measurement on brain tomography images can be used as an non-invasive method for detection of increased intracranial pressure in cases where invasive intracranial monitorization is contraindicated or alternative non-invasive monitorization devices such as USG are not availible.

Mehmet Akif ONAL, Sedat KOCAK (KONYA, Turkey), Gulay SAHINER ONAL, Necdet POYRAZ, Muhammet Rasit OZER, Mustafa GULPEMBE, Basar CANDER
14:10 - 15:40 #1932 - #1932 - Causes of emergency vertigo stratified by age and gender.
#1932 - Causes of emergency vertigo stratified by age and gender.

Introduction:

Vertigo is a common complaint of patients who seek care in the emergency department (ED). In terms of signs and symptoms, overlap exists among the many potential causes. The report of symptoms can be vague, inconsistent, or unreliable. Life-threatening disorders can masquerade as benign disorders. What are the main causes of emergency vertigo?

 

Objective:

 

To explore the causes of emergency vertigo stratified by age and gender to improve the diagnostic efficiency

 

Methods:

 

A prospective observational study was conducted over seven months. All the patients presented to the ED with vertigo were included. The demographics, co-morbidities, clinical and biological data and in-hospital procedures were collected. The etiologies were identified and stratified by age and sex.

 

Results:

Inclusion of 122 patients. Mean age 53  +/- 16 years. Sex ratio = 0.87.  Comorbidities n (%): hypertension 39 (32%), Diabetes 23 (19%), history of vertigo 52 (43%), coronary artery disease 7 (6%), stroke 9 (8%). Mortality was 1%. The top three diagnoses were benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV in 91 cases, 75%), central vertigo in 13 patients (PCI, 11%) and hypertensive peak in 9 cases (7,4%).

 

Stratified by age, the main cause of vertigo for the patients < 30 years (N=12) is BPPV (100%). For the patients aged between 30-45 years (N= 30), BPPV was found in 25 patients (83%), central vertigo (n = 2, 7%), iatrogenic cause, hypertensive peak and CO poisoning in one patient each. BPPV (n=26, 75%), psychological factors (n=3, 8%), central vertigo (n=2, 6%), iatrogenic cause (n=2,6%), one patient had cardiac cause and another patient  CO poisoning, for 45-60 years group (N=35). For the group of patients aged between 60-75 years old (N=35), central vertigo was found in 8 cases (23%), BPPV was found in 20 cases (57%), hypertensive peak (n=7, 20%), cardiac cause (n=2, 6%) and psychological factors in one case. For the elderly group > 75 years (N=10), BPPV was found in 8 (80%) of patients, and central vertigo in 1 (10%), hypertension was found in one patient (10%).

 

Stratified by gender, there was no difference for the main three etiologies: BPPV, central vertigo or hypertensive peak. But psychological factors were more common in women, and cardiac causes more found in men.

 

Conclusion:

 The main causes of emergency vertigo were: BPPV, central vertigo and hypertensive peak. BPPV should be considered initially when vertigo was triggered repeatedly by positional change, especially for young patients. In elders with vertigo, central vertigo and hypertension were common. In women psychological factors should be considered and diagnosis and treatment should be offered timely.

 

Rania JEBRI (Lyon), Anware YAHMADI, Soumaya MAHDHAOUI, Sami SOUISSI, Mouna GAMMOUDI, Wided BOUSSLIMI, Sawsen CHIBOUB, Mahbouba CHKIR
14:10 - 15:40 #893 - #893 - Ischemic Preconditioning Maintains Immunoreactivities of Glucokinase and Glucokinase Regulatory Protein in Neurons of the Gerbil Hippocampal CA1 Region Following Transient Cerebral Ischemia.
#893 - Ischemic Preconditioning Maintains Immunoreactivities of Glucokinase and Glucokinase Regulatory Protein in Neurons of the Gerbil Hippocampal CA1 Region Following Transient Cerebral Ischemia.

Glucokinase (GK) plays a key role in the control of blood glucose homeostasis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on immunoreactivities of GK and its regulatory protein (GKRP) following 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. The gerbils were randomly assigned to 4 groups (sham-operated-group, ischemia-operated-group, IPC plus (+) sham-operated-group and IPC+ischemia-operated-group). IPC was induced by subjecting the gerbils to 2 min of ischemia followed by 1 day of recovery. In the ischemia-operated-group, a significant loss of neurons was observed in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) at 5 days post-ischemia; however, in the IPC+ischemia-operated-group, neurons in the SP were well protected. In the immunohistochemical study, immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in neurons of the SP were distinctively decreased in the CA1, not CA2/3, from 2 days post-ischemia, and hardly detected in the SP at 5 days post-ischemia. In the IPC+ischemia-operated-group, immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the SP of the CA1 were similar to those in the sham-group. In brief, our findings show that IPC dramatically maintains immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in neurons of the SP of the CA1 after ischemia-reperfusion and indicate that GK and GKRP may be necessary for neurons to survive against transient cerebral ischemia.

Jun Hwi CHO, Chan Woo PARK, Taek Geun OHK, Yoon Sung KIM (Chuncheonsi, Korea, Republic of), Myoung Chul SHIN, Moo Ho WON
14:10 - 15:40 #901 - #901 - The impact of thrombolytic treatment or endovascular thrombectomy on oxidant-antioxidant status and lymphocyte DNA damage in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
#901 - The impact of thrombolytic treatment or endovascular thrombectomy on oxidant-antioxidant status and lymphocyte DNA damage in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the impacts of thrombolysis and thrombectomy on lymphocyte DNA damage and oxidative stress parameters for the treatment of adult patients with ischemic stroke in early post-stroke period (within the first 4-6 hour of stroke) based on clinical and radiological findings.

Materials and methods: Over a 7-month period (May 2014 through November 2014), 62 consecutive adult patients who presented to the Emergency Department of Bezmialem Vakif University and diagnosed as an acute ischemic stroke were included in this prospective clinical study. Thirty-two patients who met the inclusion criteria and 30 eligible healthy volunteers as control subjects were enrolled. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their National Institute of Health Stroke Scales (NIHSS) on admission. Additionally, patients were stratified into three different groups based on modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 24 h after thrombolytic treatment or endovascular thrombectomy. Plasma lymphocyte DNA damage and Total Oxidant Status (TOS), Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) and Oxidative Stress Index (OSI) were assessed in all groups classified with respect to NIHSS and mRS, both on admission and at 24 h after the treatment. The results were compared between the groups.

Results: Plasma TOS and OSI levels and lymphocyte DNA damage were found to be significantly higher, whereas plasma TAS levels were significantly lower in patients with stroke compared with those in the controls (all comparisons, p<0.001). According to the comparison of NIHSS groups with respect to the stroke severity; increased lymphocyte DNA damage levels and decreased TAS levels were observed (p< 0.001 and p=0.034, respectively). When the patients were classified into subgroups with respect to mRS, plasma TOS and OSI levels and lymphocyte DNA damage tended to be higher in group 3 which comprised patients with the most neuronal dysfunction compared to those in groups 1 and 2 (p=0.003, p=0.001 and p=0.006, respectively).

Conclusion: Lymphocyte DNA damage and TAS, as biomarkers of early oxidative changes can be regarded as an objective alternative criterion to the stroke assessment scales for determining severity of brain damage in patients with ischemic stroke. Additionally, lymphocyte DNA damage, TOS and OSI levels as an early biological indicators can help to identify neurologic health and well being and to evaluate the effectiveness of thrombolytic treatment or endovascular thrombectomy in such patients.

Eda YIGIT, Ozgur SOGUT (Istanbul, Turkey), Mehmet YIGIT, Ali DUR, Kenan TURKDOGAN, Taha Okkes KÜCUKDAGLI

16:10
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A24
State of the Art
Disaster & Biohazards

State of the Art
Disaster & Biohazards

Moderators: Massimo AZZARETTO (Associate Researcher) (Novara, Italy), Pr Ives HUBLOUE (Chair) (Brussels, Belgium)
16:10 - 16:40 Mass civilian shootings: Are we ready to face this new threat? Alain PUIDUPIN (Médecin anesthésiste réanimateur) (Paris, France)
16:40 - 17:10 Quarantine and isolation: Understanding public health measures to manage an outbreak. Kristi KOENIG (USA)
17:10 - 17:40 Training in disaster medicine: technology available for new challenges. Pier Luigi INGRASSIA (Novara, Italy)

16:10-17:40
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B24
Italy invites
Il Micro e il Macro nel paziente critico

Italy invites
Il Micro e il Macro nel paziente critico

Moderators: Mauro CHIESA (Italy), Andrea MAGNACAVALLO (Italy)
16:10 - 16:30 Non si vede ma c'è. Fernando SCHIRALDI (Napoli, Italy)
16:30 - 16:50 Meglio sapere che c'è. Rodolfo SBROJAVACCA (Udine, Italy)
16:50 - 17:10 Se c'è si deve vedere. Roberto COPETTI (Latisana, Italy)
17:10 - 17:30 Mettiamo insieme i pezzi del puzzle. Gian CIBINEL (Torino, Italy)

16:10-17:40
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C24
Clinical Questions: Controversies
Trauma

Clinical Questions: Controversies
Trauma

Moderators: Simon CARLEY (Consultant in Emergency Medicine) (Manchester, United Kingdom), Fiona LECKY (Professor of Emergency Medicine) (Sheffield, United Kingdom)
16:10 - 16:40 How should we teach trauma care in 2015? Mary Rose CASSAR (Zebbug, Malta)
16:40 - 17:10 Trauma systems: Local care or major trauma centre? Raed ARAFAT (Romania)
17:10 - 17:40 Is it all about the golden hour? Francesca INNOCENTI (PHYSICIAN) (Florence, Italy)

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D24
EuSEM meets
ACCA / ESC

EuSEM meets
ACCA / ESC

Moderators: Pr Abdelouahab BELLOU (Research) (Boston, USA), Madalenna LETTINO (ACCA President Elect) (Italy)
16:10 - 16:40 Acute Cardiac Care Association of the European Society of Cardiology: Past, present, future and collaboration with EuSEM. Madalenna LETTINO (ACCA President Elect) (Italy)
16:40 - 17:10 Pragmatic Use of cardiac biomarkers in the emergency department. Mario PLEBANI (Italy)
17:10 - 17:40 Pragmatic Management of Atrial Fibrillation in the Emergency Department. Pr Abdelouahab BELLOU (Research) (Boston, USA)

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E24
Research
Infectious Disease & Sepsis

Research
Infectious Disease & Sepsis

Moderators: Christoph DODT (Head of the Department) (München, Germany), Jean Louis VINCENT (BRUXELLES, Belgium)
16:10 - 16:40 Early sepsis detection. Christian HOHENSTEIN (PHYSICIAN) (Madgeburg, Germany)
16:40 - 17:10 Blood sugar in septic ED patients? Important or useless to consider? Christoph DODT (Head of the Department) (München, Germany)
17:10 - 17:40 Reducing late sepsis complications in the Emergency Department. Jean Louis VINCENT (BRUXELLES, Belgium)

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F24
YEDM
Sim Wars

YEDM
Sim Wars

Moderators: Pier Luigi INGRASSIA (Novara, Italy), François LECOMTE (PH) (Paris, France)
Coordinators: Dr Abdo KHOURY (Senior attending Physician) (Besançon, France), Youri YORDANOV (Médecin) (Paris, France)
Facultys: Elaine ERASMUS (Cape Town, South Africa), Sian GERATY (South Africa), Natalie MAY (Oxford, United Kingdom), Patrick PLAISANCE (Head of Department) (Paris, France), Thomas PLAPPERT (Fulda, Germany), Dr Pieter Jan VAN ASBROECK (Consultant in Emergency Medicine) (Genk, Belgium), Sabina ZADEL (Slovenia)

16:10-17:40
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G24
Paediatric Track
Scenario-based Guidelines in PEM

Paediatric Track
Scenario-based Guidelines in PEM

Moderators: Dr Thomas BEATTIE (Senior lecturer) (Edinburgh), Ian MACONOCHIE (United Kingdom)
16:10 - 16:35 Simulation of Head Injuries. Silvia BRESSAN (Moderator) (Padova, Italy)
16:35 - 17:00 Simulation of Anaphylaxis. Dr Cathelijne LYPHOUT (Consultant in EM) (Ghent, Belgium)
17:00 - 17:25 Simulation of Breathlessness. Youri YORDANOV (Médecin) (Paris, France)
17:25 - 17:40 Speakers' Forum. Ian MACONOCHIE (United Kingdom)

16:10-17:40
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OP1-24
Oral Paper 1
Administration & Healthcare Policy

Oral Paper 1
Administration & Healthcare Policy

Moderators: Gautam BODIWALA (Leicester, United Kingdom), Pr Lisa KURLAND (speaker) (Örebro, Sweden)
16:10 - 17:40 #967 - #967 - ER throughput: staff perceptions of delays.
#967 - ER throughput: staff perceptions of delays.

Background: There are many potential delays in throughput in a busy academic emergency department. Identifying these delays can help the organization serve patients better and more efficiently. Perceptions vary regarding which factors contribute most to delays in throughput.

Objectives: This study aims to identify some of these factors and analyze the perceptions of delays among staff members.

Methodology: All full-time clinical staff of the University of Chicago emergency department were asked to select the top 5 delays (among 19 options) that detract from overall throughput. Staff was also asked to choose the top 5 improvable delays in throughput. Responses were sorted by group: attending, resident, nurse and technician. The percent of total participants within one group that selected a particular option was compared to the other groups.

Results: Response rate among physicians was 56% while response rates among other staff was 34%. 50% of all responses were physicians while 50% were other staff members. The top selections among physicians were: waiting for consultants, image acquisition, inpatient bed assignments, distractions and lab results. The top selections among ancillary staff were: physician decision time, inpatient bed assignments, waiting for consultants, radiologist read of images, image acquisition.

Discussion: All groups indicated that the largest perceived delays are outside of the ER’s control. Staff within one group typically characterized the largest delays as ones that fall within the responsibility of another group, minimizing delays their own group is accountable for. The largest perceived delays tend to be operations that a group is least involved with or disrupts a group’s own workflow.

Conclusion: Better communication between staff groups is needed to understand delays contributing to overall workflow.  Since perceptions of delays are so varied among staff groups, data-driven methodologies to improve workflow are important to avoid fallacies related to perceptions in overall ER throughput delays. 

Spiegel TOM, Archit GULATI (Chicago, USA)
16:10 - 17:40 #1473 - #1473 - Factors associated with lenght of stay in a Spanish Emergency Department.
#1473 - Factors associated with lenght of stay in a Spanish Emergency Department.

Introduction: Length of stay (LOS) is a key measure of emergency department (ED) throughput and a marker of overcrowding. Excess LOS in the ED has been identified as a relevant indicator for measuring quality of care in the ED and has been linked to an increase in risk for patients. Time studies that assess key ED processes could help clarify the causes of patient care delays and prolonged LOS and contribute to develop innovative and cooperative strategies that should lead to improving patient flow within the ED and improve quality of care and patient satisfaction.

Objective: This abstract aims to identify factors associates with LOS in the ED in a University Hospital in Madrid, Spain.

Methods: This study was conducted at the General ED of Hospital La Paz, a University urban tertiary care centre located in Madrid, Spain. Hospital La Paz catchment area covers 850.000 people. The ED saw over 104.000 patients a year and is staffed by 24 attending emergency physicians. Hospital La Paz ED consists of three levels of care: I. Walk-in clinic (WIC); II. Emergency Care Unit (ECU); III. Acute Medical Care Ward (AMCW), with 24 beds. The source of information for this work was a statistical representative sample obtained from all patients attending the General ED of Hospital La Paz from 3 years: 2008 (33,7%), 2010 (28,1%) and 2013 (38,2%). The sample selected patients from 3 months (August, February, May, November), and 3 days of the week (Sunday, Monday, Wednesday). Information was retrospectively extracted from medical records as well as from clinical administrative data bases. Analysis was conducted through multivariable linear regression considering LOS in the ED as dependent variable.

Results: Overall, data was obtained from 956 patients, being 54.2% female, and 3.3% functionally dependent. 59.3% were allocated to the WIC, 7.1% to the ECU, and 33.4% to the AMCW. Mean age was 55.7 and Charlson index was 1.5. Mean LOS was 552.5 minutes and median was 315.0 minutes. A hospital admission was indicated for 19.8% of all patients. The most relevant use of clinical resources was: consultation with specialists (32.5%), urinalysis (10.0%), diagnostic imaging (46.9%), and blood test (60.5%).

No significant differences in LOS were obtained by number of patients attending the ED, year, month, day of the week, hour of admission to the ED, age, sex or Charlson index. Variables showing a significant effect on LOS in a multivariable regression analysis were: dependency status, level of care, blood tests, diagnostic imaging, urinalysis, consultation with a specialist, and type of discharge from the ED. An interaction was found between hospital admission and level of care, as patients admitted to the AMCW who were eventually hospitalized have lower LOS than patients who were discharged from the ED.

Conclusions: These data shows that both internal (requesting of both consulting and diagnostic services, and the process of care in the AMCW) and external factors (delivery of consulting services and diagnostic tests) should be investigated in a comprehensive research-based strategy aimed at optimizing LOS in the ED.

Antonio SARRÍA SANTAMERA (Madrid, Spain), Ana MARTÍNEZ VIRTO, Manuel QUINTANA DIAZ
16:10 - 17:40 #1848 - #1848 - Fever in the under five's: Impact of an integrated electronic health record on compliance with national standards on documentation and management.
#1848 - Fever in the under five's: Impact of an integrated electronic health record on compliance with national standards on documentation and management.

Background: The National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the UK mandates standards for the assessment, documentation and management of children under 5 years presenting with fever (Clinical Guideline 130). Auditing compliance with these standards has always been hampered by poor documentation. Fully integrated health care records offer an opportunity to not only improve documentation but also to implement clinical decision tools and links to patient information resources.

Methods: We compared documentation and management of 50 consecutive febrile (temperature > 37.5 degrees C) paediatric patients aged under 5 years presenting to our emergency department before (2012) and four months (December 2014) after the introduction of a fully integrated electronic health record system (EPIC). This type of electronic health care record is widely used in the US (69% of children's hospitals) but our Hospital is one of the first in the UK to adopt such a system. Five standards were assessed:

1) Use of the NICE traffic light system (clinical decision tool) when assessing febrile children in the ED

2) Recording of observations (temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, capillary refill time and blood pressure)

3) Safety netting information provided to families

4) Appropriate use of antibiotic treatment

5) Investigations performed in children of the highest risk category

Results:

Standard 1: The children's risk category could be determined from the documentation in 84% of cases (90% in 2012), no reference to the use of the NICE tool was made by any of the clinicians. The tool is available for reference in the ED but not integrated as a decision tool in EPIC. This was no different to the previous audit in 2012.

Standard 2: Althought the recording of baseline observations was similar, the documentation of capillary refill time and blood pressure had dropped (see table 1).

Observation

Standard achieved in 2015

Standard achieved in 2012

Temperature

98%

100%

Heart rate

98%

95%

Respiratory rate

98%

95%

CRT/BP

38%

64%

Standard 3: The proportion of patients in the intermediate category that had appropriate safety netting advice given and documented in the record was 66% in 2014 compared to 36% in 2012, although the numbers were small.

Standard 4: Antibiotic prescribing was appropriate in 100% of cases (no different to 2012).

Standard 5: Documentation of appropriate investigations performed in the highest clinical risk group had dropped from 100% in 2012 to 80% since introduction of EPIC.

Conclusion: EPIC does not appear to have resolved the problem of poor documentation. Severity was not determinable in a greater percentage of cases compared with 2012. Documentation of safety netting is still lacking, albeit improved since 2012. Improvements have been seen in the measurement and recording of the observations temperature, heart rate and respiratory rate. However, recording and documentation of capillary refill time and blood pressure still remains much lower than in 2012. The prescription of antibiotics appears to be in accordance with NICE guidelines. Implementation and integration of clinical decision tools may be required at system design stage to improve compliance with national standards.

T.f.a. MARSHALL-ANDON (Cambridge, United Kingdom), Peter HEINZ
16:10 - 17:40 #1026 - #1026 - Patients’ knowledge about drugs prescribed and the transmission of medical information in the healthcare circuit : A prospective study.
#1026 - Patients’ knowledge about drugs prescribed and the transmission of medical information in the healthcare circuit : A prospective study.

Background: Quality medical care means that physicians have the appropriate medical information. The objective of this study is to evaluate the medical information in thehealthcare circuit (i.e knowledge about prescription medications and quality of referral letters).

Methods: We present here a prospective multicentric study of 892 patients, from December 2013 to July 2014 within 3 Emergency Departments (ED) including 648 patients. In outpatient care, 133 patients were interviewed by 3 specialists and 111 patients in 2 general practices.

Results: In our study, 30.6% of patients getting to the ED are more than 75 years old (versus 15.4% in outpatient care). 65.5% of primary care patients have optimal treatment knowledge versus 43.4% in the ED (12.3% for ≥ 75 years old). A statistically significant relationship was established between age or polypharmacy and knowledge of treatment. 11.3% of patients have full knowledge of their treatment (when more than 5 items were prescribed). Patients referred by general practitioners (GP) in the ED were 3.6 times more likely to not know their treatment. We also studied the relationship between high risk medication (such as: vitamin K antagonist, antiplatelet, psychotropic drugs, antibiotics) and treatment knowledge. Patients consuming these drugs have 7 times less likely to have an optimal knowledge and were 3.6 times more addressed to the ED. Only 18% of patients consulting at the ED have structured referral letters (anamnesis, clinical examination, argued hypothesis). The quality of GP's letters was unsatisfactory, only 36.2% were well structured. Those of the Emergency medical service were of even lower quality: 9.0% were structured. When the patient is admitted in the ED, he is most likely to ignore its treatment: more than 50% of patients are unable to quote it. Using an individualized treatment card could be a reliable way to transfer medical information.

Conclusion: Our study based on the transmission of medical information reveals that the population most at risk of treatment ignorance is the one older than 75 years, with a treatment consisting of more than 5 items and with prescription medication having a high risk of iatrogenic complications. The proportion of elderly patients is increasing in all ED. The assessment phase on arrival is fundamental and determines the future orientation of the patient. Our key objective in the ED is to identify fragile patients. Quality medical care begins with appropriate communication between physicians.

Céline RENFER (STRASBOURG), Carmen HAMMANN, Hakim SLIMANI, Fanny SCHWEITZER, Charles-Eric LAVOIGNET, Mihaela MIHALCEA-DANCIU, Pierrick LE BORGNE, Pascal BILBAULT
16:10 - 17:40 #1614 - #1614 - How emergency medicine senior doctors spend their time at the emergency department; systematic review of time and motion studies.
#1614 - How emergency medicine senior doctors spend their time at the emergency department; systematic review of time and motion studies.

Review question How senior emergency doctors spend their time at the emergency department (ED).

Background Given the demands placed on senior doctors in terms of time and expertise, it is valuable to summarise the literature that describes and quantifies how senior emergency doctors utilize their time. A better understanding of this will, in turn, assist policy makers to maximise the potential benefits that senior doctors confer. The secondary objective for the review was to create a standardized classification of activities that are performed in the ED by senior doctors in order to assist researchers in this field who may use this list of activities for collaborative research.

Design Systematic review.        

Data sources Databases searched included: Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Reference lists and citations of the retrieved studies were scrutinized for additional studies.

Review methods Databases were searched for Time motion studies (TMS) examining the role how senior doctor spend their time in the ED published from 1998 to 2014. Studies were included if they were observational TMS or work-sampling studies , undertaken in Type I adult or mixed population EDs and described the activities of senior doctors.  The systematic literature search was followed by assessment of risk of bias of each individual study fulfilling the inclusion criteria using an evidence-based quality appraisal developed by the authors. Data extraction was based on a form designed and piloted by the authors.

Data synthesis Narrative synthesis was performed.

Results Ten TMS were included in the review. The majority were small single-site studies conducted in academic EDs in developed countries. Generally, studies were liable to several biases including observer and Hawthorn bias. Time spent on direct patient care was the most commonly reported outcome. Direct patient care occupied around 28.1 to 40% of the senior doctors’ time with a mean, median of 33 and 32.7 respectively. In comparison, indirect patient care was reported by five studies where it referred to all activities apart from direct care. This ranged from 51.3% - 69% for academic senior emergency doctors and 45% for community ED senior emergency doctors. Time spent on communication was reported in seven studies. It ranged from 8.3%-42%. Eight studies reported data on documentation. It ranged from 8.5% in the most recent study by Kee et al., to 28% as reported by Chisholm. Teaching and supervision was included in the categorisation of all studies except three but no particular trend was detected. Personal time or social time was reported in six studies. This accounted for 3% to around 17% of the senior doctors’ time.

Conclusion: Senior doctors spend a significant amount of time on activities related to indirect patient care. Senior emergency doctors can manage several tasks concurrently in an interrupt-driven and busy environment. It is also proposed to use the suggested category classification presented in this review (table format) in future studies looking at time analysis of doctors in an ED setting.



 

Maysam ABDULWAHID (Sheffield, United Kingdom), Janette TURNER, Suzanne MASON
16:10 - 17:40 #1615 - #1615 - The impact of senior doctor assessment at triage on emergency department performance measures: Systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies.
#1615 - The impact of senior doctor assessment at triage on emergency department performance measures: Systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies.

ABSTRACT

Study question To determine if placing senior doctor at triage versus standard single nurse in a hospital emergency department (ED) improves ED performance by reviewing evidence from comparative design studies using several quality indicators.

Design Systematic review.        

Data sources Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC), Web of Science, Clinical trials registry website. In addition, screening studies references, citation search were used to identify relevant studies.

Review methods Databases were searched for comparative studies examining the role of senior doctor triage, published from 1994 to 2014. Senior doctor was defined as a qualified medical doctor who completed high specialty training in emergency medicine. Articles with a primary aim to investigate the effect of senior doctor triage on ED quality indicators such as waiting time (WT), length of stay (LOS), left without being seen (LWBS) and left without treatment complete (LWTC) were included. Articles examining the adverse events and cost associated with senior doctor triage were also included. Only studies with a control group, either in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) or in an observational study with historical controls, were included. The systematic literature search was followed by assessment of relevance and risk of bias of each individual study fulfilling the inclusion criteria using Effective Public Health Practice Project EPHPP bias tool. Data extraction was based on a form designed and piloted by the authors for dichotomous and continuous data.

Data synthesis Narrative synthesis and meta-analysis of homogenous data was performed.

Results Of 4506 articles identified, 25 relevant studies were retrieved; 12 were of the weak pre-post study design, 9 were of moderate quality and 4 were of strong quality. The majority of the studies revealed improvements in ED performance measures favoring senior doctor triage. Pooled results from 2 homogeneous Canadian RCTs showed a significant reduction in LOS of medium acuity patients (WMD -26.26 min 95%CI -38.50 to -14.01). Another 2 RCTs revealed a significant reduction in WT (WMD -26 min, 95%CI -31.68 to -20.65). LWBS was reduced in 2 Canadian RCTs [RR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.94]. This was echoed by the majority of pre-post study designs. Senior doctor triage did not change the occurrence of adverse events. No clear benefit of senior doctor triage in terms of patient satisfaction or cost effectiveness could be identified.

Conclusion This review demonstrates that senior doctor triage (SDT) can be an effective measure to enhance ED performance, although cost versus benefit analysis is needed. The high risk of bias in the nature of evidence identified, however, mandates more robust multi-centered studies to confirm these findings.

Maysam ABDULWAHID (Sheffield, United Kingdom), Andrew BOOTH, Maxine KUCZAWSKI, Suzanne MASON

16:10-17:40
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OP2-24
Oral Paper 2
Education and Simulation Training / Point of Care Research

Oral Paper 2
Education and Simulation Training / Point of Care Research

Moderators: Lars Petter BJORNSEN (Emergency Physician) (Trondheim, Norway), Gregor PROSEN (EM Consultant) (MARIBOR, Slovenia)
16:10 - 17:40 #1183 - #1183 - The RESPECT EM! (NL) Project: Research Education and Stimulation Program Creating Tomorrow’s Emergency Medicine in the Netherlands.
#1183 - The RESPECT EM! (NL) Project: Research Education and Stimulation Program Creating Tomorrow’s Emergency Medicine in the Netherlands.

The RESPECT EM! (NL) Project

Research Education and Stimulation Program Creating Tomorrow’s Emergency Medicine in the Netherlands

A collaborative effort by the Departments of Emergency Medicine of UCSF/Fresno and Westfriesgasthuis

 

Introduction

Published scholarly activity by Dutch emergency physicians has markedly trailed the overall development of the specialty of EM in the Netherlands.  In a 2013 Dutch study by Koning et al (1), EM trainees revealed that “scientific research should be facilitated more.”  The same study concluded that, “Even though research and publications are essential to positioning EM as a fully qualified specialty, residents lag behind in a research role.  While they were stimulated to undertake research, they received very little support.”  The same is true for EM trainers, supervisors and faculty members.  Another 2013 study by Ahmed et al found that structured residency research programs are associated with higher resident research productivity and publication rates (2).

 

Objectives

With this perspective in mind, Westfriesgasthuis EM Residency Directors approached a US-based consultant with research and medical writing expertise.  The thought being that a consultant could quickly and easily “import” research and medical writing capability into an ED primed to receive that knowledge.  A team of resident and faculty physicians was assembled at the Westfriesgasthuis to participate in the project, the endpoint of which is publication of at least one scholarly project by each team member.

 

Methods

The program’s timeline is 36 months.  It starts with an intensive series of facilitated face-to-face educational sessions.  Early topics to be covered include: research and medical writing – why do it?; problems and blocks to research initiation, progress and completion; research resources; performing a medical literature search; article/publication types; funding one’s project; publication/presentation venues; collaborating with others; framing a publishable project; and statistics.  All participants will have at least one defined publishable project ready to start at the end of this intensive seminar series.  Thereafter, the research consultant will be available electronically to mentor and advise program participants.  Three months after the start, the research consultant will return for face-to-face sessions to further participant’s progress.  Interim progress assessments and project assistance will be provided by the Residency Directors.  As participant’s projects near completion, editing and article submission will be assisted by return on-site visits. 

 

Conclusion

We see RESPECT EM! as a valuable model for others in EM wishing to spur the development of their own research and medical writing programs.

A descriptive article detailing the RESPECT EM! project will be readied for submission to a scientific journal.

 

References

(1) Koning SWGaakeer MIVeugelers R. Three-year emergency medicine training program in The Netherlands: first evaluation from the residents' perspective. Int J Emerg Med. 2013;6(1):30.

(2) Ahmad SDe Oliveira GS JrMcCarthy RJ. Status of anesthesiology resident research education in the United States: structured education programs increase resident research productivity. Anesth Analg. 2013;116(1):205-10.

Michael D BURG, Matthijs R DOUMA (Hoorn, The Netherlands), Eva P BAERENDS, Tom BOEIJE, Nieke MULLAART-JANSEN
16:10 - 17:40 #1348 - #1348 - Point of Care Emergency department Acute Rapid Laboratory (PEARL): win win for the lab and for ED?
#1348 - Point of Care Emergency department Acute Rapid Laboratory (PEARL): win win for the lab and for ED?

Background: We evaluate the impact on the throughput process for patients’ with the implementation of a dedicated laboratory POCT Acute Rapid Laboratory protocol (PEARL) in the Emergency Department.

Methods :Comparative study of Turnaround time (TAT) delays for Troponin, Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP), D Dimers before and after the implementation of a POCT in ED (41,000 visits/year) during 2 months (Feb-March 2014-2015). We used the Lean process to analyze time to send blood samples from the ED to the Central laboratory : Turnaround Time (TAT), delay for results, impact on Length of Stay (LOS). Patients’ characteristics: sex ratio, age, medical chief complaints, level Triage (Australian Triage Scale), TAT for urgent (routine process) and very urgent for critical ill patients, delay for results and LOS. 

Results: during the same period (01/02 to 31/03) the number of ED visits was similar (+5%) 6748 patients (2014) vs 7354 (2015). We analyzed 1354 vs 1812 blood samples for Tn, BNP and D Dimers. We use lab tests for rapid diagnosis for patients’ chief complaints like chest pain , coma dyspnea with/without an acute respiratory distress, Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)or for patients in the resuscitate room with life threatening conditions (4% of total ED visits).Turnaround Time with POCT was significant (p<0,05) shorter with an average earlier (- 55 to 74,8 mn) for results for Troponin, D Dimers and BNP with the PEARL Protocol (Fig.1) . The average Length of Stay (LOS) was significant shorter (- 55 mn) for patients with Triage Scale Level 1 of severity.

Discussion: Patient’s flow in the ED and the Lean process focus on the throughput model have a significant impact on the timeliness and quality of care in the ED. In literature, Point of Care Testing (POCT) has been found to increase the number of patients discharged in a timely manner, expedite triage of urgent but non-emergency patients, and decrease delays to treatment initiation. Using POCT, caregivers can perform, analyze, obtain, and act on test results at the bedside significantly faster than if samples were sent out to a central laboratory. If used effectively, POCT has the potential to decrease delays to treatment initiation, increase ED efficiency, optimize transport for blood samples to the Central lab, influence patient care positively and alleviate the negative effects of long waiting times. Close collaboration with the central laboratory Department is necessary to evaluate PEARL protocol’s impact for quality care and on financial cost for patients.

Conclusions: Prolonged waiting times and treatment delays can have substantial effects on patient outcomes . Rapid TATs from POCT represent clinical decision making and a good quality care patient management . When used in the appropriate context, our POCT PEARL protocol reduce delays to treatment initiation in the critically ill, improve outcomes, increase timely patient rates for frequent complaints like chest pain, rapid diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction, Thrombosis or Congestive Heart Failure. Costs of POCT per analysis seem to be outweighed by the total gain of expedited patient flow in the appropriate setting.

Eric REVUE (Paris), Laurence BURC, Martine VEILLARD, Antoine LAUDAT, Dominique PELIE, Alexandre HENNIART, Stephanie LEGROS
16:10 - 17:40 #1380 - #1380 - POCT in the Emergency Department: Impact of POCT-Technology on Efficiency and Effectiveness of the Treatment Process in Emergency Departments.
#1380 - POCT in the Emergency Department: Impact of POCT-Technology on Efficiency and Effectiveness of the Treatment Process in Emergency Departments.

Background

In many German hospitals, emergency departments (ED) suffer from crowding effects caused by an extended average length of stay (ALOS single troponin test: 2h 54 min; ALOS serial troponin tests: 7h 12 min). Due to the fact that between 30 % and 70